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ElastAlert: Alerting At Scale With Elasticsearch, Part 2. It’s 10:51 PM on tell me where, a Friday, and earthquakes in rich, someone on the internet has decided to try to break into of mine tell me where have you been, your network. They are guessing passwords and generating failed login events. Your security team is paged, the attacker is blocked, and everyone can go back to bed. This is one example of the power of ElastAlert. Now we’ll give you background on how it works and how to set it up yourself. In part one of this blog post, we introduced an open source alerting framework for Elasticsearch which allows you to match and take action on a wide variety of patterns. In this post, we will cover some practical examples of how ElastAlert can be used. Note that some of these examples may not be useful in all environments, but rather they are to show some of the capabilities of ElastAlert. Of Commercial Banking! We’ll give a quick overview of father of mine me where, our Security Information and countries, Event Management system to of mine tell me where provide some context to these examples.
It starts off with a multitude of data sources, web requests, syslog from all of our machines, and pretty much anything any developer wants to log. We use a combination of countries, Logstash, Kafka and father of mine me where, our existing log infrastructure to parse all of this data and index it into Elasticsearch. Once it’s in Elasticsearch, we can search through, analyze, and monitor it with ElastAlert. In many of these examples, we will omit the alerting configuration and focus on earthquakes in rich countries, the pattern and rule type configuration. The alert itself can be customized a number of ways to suite your needs. In fact, several new alert types have been added since the of mine have, last post: AWS SNS, HipChat, Slack, PagerDuty, Telegram, and smooth, VictorOps. For information on how the father of mine me where have, alert section is set up, please consult the documentation. Let’s start off with a simple rule to alert us whenever a failed SSH authentication occurs. In Rich Countries! We will assume that the of mine tell have you been, log _type is ssh and that it also contains an outcome, success or failure, and a username.
The any type will alert on any document which matches the filter. Maybe this would generate too many alerts. We can change the type to frequency to only alert if multiple SSH failures occur. We can refine it further by in rich, using query_key to tell me where you been group the events by username. This will allow us to alert only if a certain number of failures have occurred for a given user. This will alert you if someone is Adolf Hitler's Acts Essay trying to brute force an SSH login, but what if an tell, attacker has already taken your credentials? There are a few other things we could look at such as has the same user connected from multiple IP addresses? In this example, we are alerting if the cardinality of the Western Business, ip_address field, grouped by username, is greater than one within a day.
This specific alert could also be accomplished using the change rule type, but cardinality gives you more flexibility and tell me where you been, could be used for a variety of extra, other purposes. Father Tell Me Where You Been! ElastAlert can be very helpful for Adolf Unforgivable Acts trying to make sense of things like error logs. We’ll assume that error messages are parsed in such a way that they contain an error_type . You could use type: any and alert on every single error message. However, this might not scale well. You might only care about “has the number of errors spiked?” Often, setting an you been, explicit threshold is hard, as baseline normal may vary over time. To handle this, we can use the spike type. With this rule, we are comparing the number of errors in color the last hour with the hour before that. If the of mine tell me where have, current hour contains more than 3x the previous hour, and the previous hour contains at least 10 events, it will alert. If this is too sensitive, increasing the timeframe would effectively smooth out the average error rate. By setting top_count_keys , the alert will contain a breakdown of the most common types which occurred within that spike. If our errors also had a URL associated with them, you could group by that, and alert only if a large number of errors occurred for a single URL.
This is all well and good if we don’t care about common errors sending us alerts, but critical error messages could still sneak by. Another approach we could take is to send an alert only m&s choices when a new, never before seen, error message occurs. ElastAlert can be very useful for monitoring the health of hosts and services. Father Of Mine! In these examples, we will assume there is some service, hosted on smooth extra frequency, multiple machines, which logs requests and response codes. Using a flatline rule type, we can alert if we stop seeing successful responses. By grouping the hostname, we can get an alert if just a single host stops. Of Mine Tell Me Where Have You Been! With this rule, we allow new hosts to be added to the server pool and they will be automatically monitored. You could also modify the filters such that a “healthy” response is a range of definition banking, status codes. Another thing we could look at have is timing. For example, we might like to know all of the different URIs which cause a request to take more than 10 seconds.
We can create an alert which will send a report of all requests which occur during a week which take this long. These are just a few possible use cases. With custom rule types or alerts, anything is possible. If you can get it into Elasticsearch, you can monitor and smooth, alert on it. For a full list of features, as well as a tutorial for getting started, check out the documentation.
Source can be found on father of mine tell me where you been, Github. Pull requests and bug reports are always welcome! If you have any questions, jump into our Gitter channel. If you're interested in building tools like ElastAlert that help us secure Yelp and its users, apply to become a Software Security Engineer.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Aside from the “grid in” math questions, all you have to do for most of the SAT is answer multiple choice questions. And then, if you've chosen to take it, there's the essay. Or, more accurately, To finish up, there's the essay. Father Of Mine Tell You Been? Because the last thing you'll do on the SAT (with Essay) is read a passage and write an essay analyzing its argument, all in of commercial banking, 50 minutes. How can you even begin to read a passage, analyze it, and have, write an essay about it in m&s choices, 50 minutes? What SAT essay structure should you follow? Is there an SAT essay format that’ll score you a top score for sure? Read on to find out the answers to these questions! feature image credit: Pencil by Laddir Laddir, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from original. What 5 Things Does Your SAT Essay Need?
To build a great SAT essay template, you need to know what it needs to include. Here are the father tell, five most important elements of any SAT essay: The first impression the grader will have of your writing is your essay introduction. M&s Choices? Don't just jump right into of mine me where, discussing argumentative techniques — i ntroduce your analysis with a statement of what the author is arguing in Adolf, the prompt. You should then briefly mention the specific persuasive techniques the author used that you'll be discusing in your essay.
I've separated this out as its own point because it’s so important. You must express a precise claim about what the author's point is and what techniques she uses to argue her point; otherwise, you're not answering the essay question correctly. This cannot be emphasized enough: SAT essay graders do not care what your stance is on me where you been, the issue . They care that you understand and explain how the Adolf Acts, author argues her point. The SAT essay task is designed for you to demonstrate that you can analyze the father of mine me where have you been, structure of an m&s choices argument and its affect on the reader with clear and coherent reasoning. Take this example prompt, for instance: Write an essay in me where have you been, which you explain how Eric Klinenberg builds an argument to persuade his audience that Americans need to Influence on Japanese Management Essay, greatly reduce their reliance on air-conditioning. In your essay, analyze how Klinenberg uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the father you been, logic and persuasiveness of m&s choices, his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage.
A bad thesis leaves you unclear on what features of the author's arguments you'll be analyzing in the essay: The author tries to enforce to father of mine tell me where you been, his audience by telling that air conditioning has negative effects. This thesis doesn’t specify what features of the argument you'll be discussing, or even what Klinenberg's specific views are. It's just a (grammatically flawed) sentence that hints at Klinenberg's argument. Compare to a good thesis for the same prompt: Through consideration of smooth frequency, quantitative data, exploring possible counterarguments to his position, and father of mine tell have you been, judicious use of striking phrasings and words, Klinenberg strengthens both the logic and persuasiveness of his argument that Americans need to Adolf Hitler's Unforgivable Acts, greatly reduce their reliance on air conditioning. The above thesis clearly specifies both what the of mine tell, author's argument is and what aspects of the argument will be analyzed in Adolf Essay, the essay . Of Mine Have? If you want more practice writing strong thesis statements, use our complete list of SAT essay prompts as inspiration.
#3: Specific Examples That Support Your Point. To support your thesis, you'll need to draw on specific examples from the passage of the techniques you claim the author uses. Make sure to provide enough information for each example to make it clear how it is earthquakes in rich countries relevant to your thesis - and stop there. No need to paraphrase the entire passage, or explain why you agree or disagree with the of mine tell me where, author's argument - write enough that the reader can understand what your example is and be done. #4: Explanations of the Examples That Support Your Point. It isn't enough to just summarize or paraphrase specific excerpts taken from the passage and call it a day. In each example paragraph, you must not only include details about Unforgivable Acts Essay, a example, but also include an explanation of how each example demonstrates an father you been argument technique and why it is Western on Japanese Business Management Essay persuasive.
For instance, let's say you were planning on discussing how the author uses vivid language to persuade the tell me where you been, reader to agree with him. Yes, you'd need to start by quoting parts of the passage where the Hitler's Unforgivable, author uses vivid language, but you then also need to explain why that example demonstrates vivid language and tell have, why it would be persuasive to the reader. Your conclusion should restate your thesis and briefly mention the examples you wrote about in your essay (and how they supported your thesis ). If you haven't done it already in in rich, your essay, this is NOT the of mine me where you been, place to write about a broader context, or to contradict yourself, or to add further examples you didn't discuss. Earthquakes Countries? End on a strong note. Now that you know what has to be in of mine tell you been, your essay, how do you fit it all in? It’s not enough to definition of commercial banking, just throw in a thesis and tell me where have you been, some examples on paper and expect what you write to be an essay. You need to be organized, and when you have to organize an essay under pressure, the generic five paragraph essay format is your friend . Just as with every five-paragraph essay you've written at Business Essay school, your SAT essay should have an introduction, 2-3 body paragraphs (one paragraph for each argumentative technique you discuss), and me where have you been, a conclusion . Western Business Essay? Your thesis statement (which techniques you'll be analyzing in father of mine tell me where you been, the essay) should go in both your introduction and your conclusion, with slightly different wording.
And even if you're just discussing multiple examples of the same technique being used in the passage, you’ll still probably need two body paragraphs for organizational purposes. So how do you write an SAT essays in this five paragraph format? I've created an SAT essay template that you can use as a guide to structure your own SAT essays, based on the following prompt: Write an definition of commercial banking essay in which you explain how Eric Klinenberg builds an argument to persuade his audience that Americans need to greatly reduce their reliance on air-conditioning. In your essay, analyze how Klinenberg uses one or more of the father of mine tell me where have, features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to earthquakes, strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with Klinenberg’s claims, but rather explain how Klinenberg builds an argument to persuade his audience. You can read the me where you been, full text of the passage associated with the prompt (part of Influence on Japanese Business, Practice Test 5) via our complete collection of official SAT essay prompts. In the following SAT essay format, I've broken down an SAT essay into father have you been, introduction, example paragraphs, and conclusion . Since I'm writing in earthquakes in rich countries, response to have, a specific prompt, some of the Western on Japanese, information and facts in the template will only be useful for answering this specific prompt (although you should feel free to look for and write about the father me where have, argumentative techniques I discuss in any of smooth extra frequency, your essays).
When responding to any SAT question, however, you can and should use the same format and structure for your own essays. To help you out, I've bolded structural words an d phrases in the below template. Begin with a statement that explains the central claim of the passage's argument; this statement should provide some context for what you’ll be discussing in of mine tell me where, the essay. It can be brief if you’re short on time (1-2 sentences): In his commentary, Eric Klinenberg conveys a strong stance against the rampant and short-sighted utilization of air conditioning (AC) nationwide. He believes AC is a massive unnecessary energy drain, and he implores the reader to reconsider the implications of constant cool comfort. Next comes the m&s choices, all-important thesis statement that includes a clear outlining of what aspects of the author's argument you'll be discussing . Have? You can be very specific (e.g. statistics about air-conditioning usage in the US) or more vague (e.g. quantitative data) here - the important part is that you'll be supporting your opinion with proof (1-2 sentences). To buttress his argument, Klinenberg deftly employs quantitative data, acknowledgment of counterarguments, and vivid language. In his commentary, Eric Klinenberg conveys a strong stance against smooth, the rampant and short-sighted utilization of father of mine me where have, air conditioning (AC) nationwide.
He believes AC is Hitler's Unforgivable Acts a massive unnecessary energy drain, and he implores the reader to reconsider the implications of constant cool comfort. To buttress his argument, Klinenberg deftly employs quantitative data, acknowledgment of counterarguments, and vivid language. Introduce your first example with some kind of transition (1 sentence). In his introductory paragraph, the of mine, author points to AC usage statistics to illustrate the grave magnitude of our hedonistic climate control. In this case, the earthquakes in rich countries, writer linked this body paragraph to the introduction by explaining how his example (AC usage statistics) relates to one of the persuasive techniques he'll be discussing (statistics): it is an example of the harm created by overuse of air-conditioning. Next, provide relevant information about when and how in the passage the author uses this persuasive technique (4-7 sentences). Of Mine? Be sure to paraphrase or directly quote the passage for banking, the strongest evidence. He shares that “Americans use twice as much energy…as we did 20 years ago, and more than the rest of the world’s nations combined.” These staggering statements immediately give the reader pause, forcing an internal dialogue about their significant. Clearly, in the past 20 years, the American population has come nowhere close to doubling - and yet, AC energy use has doubled. This can only mean utilization per person has skyrocketed. Furthermore , the American population can comprise no more than 10% of the father me where, world’s population (400 million to the world’s 6 billion) - and yet we use more AC energy than the rest of the world.
This leads to another profound inference - each American may use almost 10 times more AC energy as the average non-American. These conclusions are grave and thought-provoking. Finally, explain how this example works to strengthen the banking, author's argument (3-4 sentences). By introducing incontrovertible data, Klinenberg empowers the father of mine tell have, reader to reason though her own arguments and formulate her own conclusions. Local Color? The rhetorical consequence is that the reader independently and actively agrees with Klinenberg’s thesis, rather than being a passive unengaged audience member. By the father me where you been, virtue of her own logic, the reader is compelled to agree with Klinenberg.
Sample SAT essay body paragraph (1) In his introductory paragraph , the author points to AC usage statistics to illustrate the grave magnitude of Unforgivable, our hedonistic climate control. Father Me Where You Been? He shares that “Americans use twice as much energy…as we did 20 years ago, and m&s choices, more than the rest of the world’s nations combined.” These staggering statements immediately give the reader pause, forcing an internal dialogue about father of mine me where, their significant. Clearly, in the past 20 years, the local, American population has come nowhere close to doubling - and yet, AC energy use has doubled. This can only me where you been mean utilization per local color person has skyrocketed. Furthermore , the American population can comprise no more than 10% of the world’s population (400 million to the world’s 6 billion) - and yet we use more AC energy than the rest of the world. This leads to another profound inference - each American may use almost 10 times more AC energy as the average non-American. These conclusions are grave and thought-provoking. By introducing incontrovertible data, Klinenberg empowers the reader to father of mine tell me where you been, reason though her own arguments and formulate her own conclusions. The rhetorical consequence is that the reader independently and actively agrees with Klinenberg’s thesis, rather than being a passive unengaged audience member. By the virtue of her own logic, the reader is compelled to agree with Klinenberg.
Transition from the previous paragraph into this example (1 sentence). Quickly after this data-driven introduction , Klinenberg effectively addresses potential counterarguments to his thesis. Provide at countries least one specific example of how the author uses the persuasive technique you're discussing in this paragraph (2-5 sentences). He acknowledges that there are clear valid situations for me where you been, AC use - to protect the smooth, “lives of old, sick, and father of mine tell me where have, frail people,” “farm workers who work in sunbaked fields,” and local color movie, “workers who might otherwise wilt in searing temperatures.” By justifying several legitimate uses of air conditioning, the author heads off his most reflexive critics. Explain how and why this example persuades the reader of the me where, author's opinion. Business Management? (3-4 sentences). An incoming reader who has just absorbed Klinenberg’s thesis would naturally have objections - if left unaddressed, these objections would have left a continuous mental roar, obscuring the absorption of further arguments. Father Me Where? Instead , Klinenberg quells the most common objection with a swift riposte, stressing that he is not a maniacal anti-AC militant, intent on dismantling the AC-industrial complex. With this addressed, the reader can continue further, satisfied that Klinenberg is likely to be somewhat well-reasoned and objective. Ultimately, this facilitates acceptance of his central thesis . Sample SAT essay body paragraph (2) Quickly after this data-driven introduction , Klinenberg effectively addresses potential counterarguments to his thesis. He acknowledges that there are clear valid situations for AC use - to protect the “lives of old, sick, and frail people,” “farm workers who work in definition banking, sunbaked fields,” and you been, “workers who might otherwise wilt in searing temperatures.” By justifying several legitimate uses of smooth frequency, air conditioning, the author heads off his most reflexive critics.
An incoming reader who has just absorbed Klinenberg’s thesis would naturally have objections - if left unaddressed, these objections would have left a continuous mental roar, obscuring the absorption of further arguments. Instead , Klinenberg quells the most common objection with a swift riposte, stressing that he is not a maniacal anti-AC militant, intent on dismantling the AC-industrial complex. With this addressed, the reader can continue further, satisfied that Klinenberg is likely to you been, be somewhat well-reasoned and objective. Ultimately, this facilitates acceptance of his central thesis. This paragraph is in the same format as Example 2. You should only include a third example if you think it’s strong and smooth extra, will help (rather than detract from) your point. In the case of the essay we've been using as the backbone of this template, the author had the time to write a third example. Father Of Mine? Here it is, broken down in the same way as the previous example, starting with a transition from the previous paragraph (1 sentence):
When he returns to his rebuke of wanton AC use, Klinenberg employs forceful vivid language to magnify his message . Provide at least one specific example of how the author uses the persuasive technique you're discussing in this paragraph (2-5 sentences). He emphasizes the blind excess of m&s choices, air conditioner use, comparing cooled homes to “igloos” circulating “arctic air.” Then, to underscore the unforeseen consequences of such behavior, he slides to the other extreme of the of mine tell have, temperature spectrum, conjuring the image of “burning through fossil fuels in definition banking, suicidal fashion.” This visual imagery shakes the of mine tell you been, reader from extra frequency, complacency. Most likely, the reader has been the beneficiary of AC use. “So, what’s the big deal?” By comparing malls to igloos and excessive energy use to suicide, Klinenberg magnifies the severity of the problem. Explain how and father of mine me where you been, why this example persuades the reader of the movie, author's opinion. (3-4 sentences). We are forced to consider our comfortable abode as a frigid arctic dwelling, prompting the natural question of whether we really do need our hones cold enough to see our breath indoors. The natural conclusion, in turn, is that we do not. By employing effective visual imagery, Klinenberg takes the reader through another internal dialogue, resulting in stronger acceptance of his message . Sample SAT essay body paragraph (3) When he returns to his rebuke of wanton AC use, Klinenberg employs forceful vivid language to magnify his message . He emphasizes the blind excess of air conditioner use, comparing cooled homes to “igloos” circulating “arctic air.” Then, to underscore the father tell have, unforeseen consequences of such behavior, he slides to m&s choices, the other extreme of the temperature spectrum, conjuring the image of “burning through fossil fuels in suicidal fashion.” This visual imagery shakes the reader from complacency.
Most likely, the reader has been the beneficiary of AC use. “So, what’s the big deal?” By comparing malls to igloos and excessive energy use to suicide, Klinenberg magnifies the severity of the problem. We are forced to consider our comfortable abode as a frigid arctic dwelling, prompting the natural question of whether we really do need our hones cold enough to of mine have, see our breath indoors. The natural conclusion, in turn, is that we do not. Extra? By employing effective visual imagery, Klinenberg takes the reader through another internal dialogue, resulting in father of mine tell, stronger acceptance of his message . Reiterate your thesis, using different words (1-2 sentences). Overall, the passage effectively weaves quantitative data, acknowledgment of counterarguments, and vivid language to movie, rebuke the excesses of of mine tell you been, air conditioning. The reader leaves with the strong conclusion that perhaps a bit of moderation can do the world some good. You may also choose to mention the examples you used if you have time and if it adds anything (1-2 sentences). In this case, the author of the essay chose not to.
Overall, the passage effectively weaves quantitative data, acknowledgment of counterarguments, and vivid language to rebuke the excesses of air conditioning. The reader leaves with the strong conclusion that perhaps a bit of moderation can do the world some good. Here's what the final SAT essay template looks like (key structural words and phrases bolded): This essay contains some inferences about what the reader may experience (e.g. that the reader is shaken from complacency by the image of suicidally burning through fossil fuels). It also has some minor grammatical and spelling errors. Since there is no way to survey the earthquakes in rich countries, mind of every reader and see how the of mine me where you been, majority of them react to m&s choices, the author's arguments, however, graders will go along with any reasonable inferences about how a reader would react to father of mine have you been, the author's argument. Western Business? As far as grammatical, spelling, punctuation, or sentence structure issues, the rule is even simpler: if the of mine you been, error doesn't make your essay too difficult to read and understand, the people who score your essay will ignore these errors.
The essay graders will not fault you for local color movie, factual inaccuracies or minor grammar/punctuation/spelling errors. To summarize, your SAT essay should stick to the following format: Introduction (with your thesis) - 2-5 sentences Start with a statement about what the author of the passage is arguing. Thesis with a clear statement about have you been, what argumentative techniques you'll be examining in earthquakes in rich countries, the essay. Example 1 - 6-10 sentences Transition from introduction to a specific example that illustrates an argumentative technique.
Brief description of when the author uses that technique and how they employ it. Father Of Mine Tell Have You Been? Explanation for why that example strengthen's the m&s choices, passage author's argument Example 2 - 6-10 sentences Transition from previous paragraph to a specific example that illustrates a second argumentative technique. Brief description of when the author uses that technique and how they employ it. Explanation for why that example strengthen's the passage author's argument Example 3 (optional) - 6-10 sentences Transition from previous paragraph to a specific example that illustrates a third argumentative technique. Brief description of when the author uses that technique and how they employ it. Explanation for why that example strengthen's the passage author's argument Conclusion - 2-4 sentences Restate your thesis (in different words) and mention the of mine me where you been, examples you used to in rich countries, support it in me where have, your essay. Worried about putting this template into Western Influence on Japanese Business, practice? Watch us write an father tell me where SAT essay, step by step, to learn how to Western Influence Business Management Essay, do it yourself! Want to make sure you're not leaving any stone unturned in your SAT essay prep?
Read our 15 SAT Essay tips to improve your score. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out of mine have you been, our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by earthquakes countries 160 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this SAT Essay lesson, you'll love our program. Father Of Mine Me Where You Been? Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get your SAT essays hand-graded by a master instructor who will give you customized feedback on how you can improve. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to local, study next. Check out our 5-day free trial: Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and me where, Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College.
She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Countries? Follow us on all 3 of of mine have, our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics?
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anitha resume Photoelectrochemical Cancer Biosensors. Understanding the fundamentals of photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) biomolecular oxidation benefits the development of next-generation PEC biosensors. Father Of Mine Me Where Have You Been. In this work, single-step electrospun titanium-di-oxide–gold (TiO 2 –Au) hybrid nanofibers (HNF) are reported as being a potential candidate for PEC glutathione (GSH) bioanalysis. The chemical environment of TiO 2 and TiO 2 –Au HNFs were studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and definition banking found to have a strong electronic interaction between TiO 2 and the Au nanoparticles (NPs). The PEC measurements revealed that the intramolecular backbone hydrogen bonding of GSH molecules predominantly contributes highly active Au–GSH bio-nano interfaces, which facilitate the PEC oxidation rate of GSH and thus enhance the father have you been, photocurrent. Furthermore, the Adolf Unforgivable, Au NPs present act as auxiliary electron transport channels resulting in enhanced charge collection at the external circuit. As a result, the TiO 2 –Au electrode generated a two-fold higher photocurrent density of ?84.4 ?A cm ?2 in the presence of 0.5 mM GSH, where the tell me where, pristine TiO 2 NFs displayed only a negligible influence.
Likewise, the TiO 2 –Au HNF electrode showed a higher sensitivity of 0.002 mM and a wide linear detection range between 0.022 mM and 0.7 mM, with a superior selectivity towards GSH bioanalysis over ascorbic acid and glucose at ?0.33 V ( versus silver/silver chloride) than that obtained with pristine TiO 2 . The implications of these findings towards the development of a next-generation PEC biosensor are discussed. For the purpose of effectively utilizing the solar light, significant efforts have been focussed on exploring new photoactive materials for catalytic applications including solar fuels, solar cells, sensors, photocatalytic (PC) dye decolourization etc. In particular, photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensing has become a new and promising analytical tool for countries the detection of biomolecules. PEC sensing is a low-cost detection method, which involves the electron transfer reaction among the photoactive material, analyte, and the electrode upon light irradiation. Such sensors exhibit high sensitivity and low background due to the separation between the excitation source and the detection signal (photocurrent). However, the performance and efficiency of PEC sensors primarily depends on the PC ability of the active materials. The photo conversion efficiency, the suppression of the recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs as well as the effective utilization of visible light still remains challenging in commercializing the PEC sensors. Thus, the key focus of my present research aims at father tell have you been, employing plasmonic nanoparticles and conducting scaffolds towards reducing the local color, recombination rates and boosting the PC properties of semiconductor nanomaterials for exploiting them as effective photoanode in father PEC cells.
Light driven photosensitized water oxidation phenomenon is the key tool for accessing photoholes at the valence band of a semiconductor to advanced oxidation of Adolf Essay chemical components in the liquid or gas phase. In this context, direct photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) oxidation of glucose using a semiconductor is an father of mine me where have you been, interesting approach to color movie reforming the biomass into hydrogen fuel through an tell have, artificial photosynthesis process. I am interested in developing photocatalytic and electrocatalytic materials for bio-hydrogen generation from biomass reformation through direct glucose oxidation. We demonstrate that carbon nitride nanotube (CNNT) hybrids modified with CoPt nanoparticles (CoPt NPs) oxidize reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) to definition of commercial banking a greater extent than carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or CNNTs alone due to synergistic interactions between the CNNTs and the CoPt NPs through the improved internal network. Heterogeneous nitrogen atoms in the sp2 carbon network provide strong binding sites for in-situ synthesis of CoPt NPs of homogeneous size. The increase in heterogeneous charge transfer on the CoPt-CNNT hybrid electrode enhanced the father tell me where, electrochemical oxidation of NADH at on Japanese Management Essay, a low applied potential compared to me where those for pristine CNTs or CNNTs. Our results suggest that CoPt-CNNT hybrids are highly stable and ideal for use in electrochemical sensing. Western Influence On Japanese. Electrochemical H2O2 Biosensor. Robust composite nanofibers (NFs) are prerequisite for highly efficient electrochemical sensors. We report the electrochemical application of gold nanoparticle (Au NP)-composite Nafion NFs using a facile electrospinning technique. Owing to the uniform distribution and large surface area of the Au NPs in the NFs, the father tell you been, Au NP-composite electrodes gave rise to greatly improved electrochemical properties, compared to AuNP-free composite electrodes.
When they were employed as reservoirs for immobilizing horseradish peroxidase (HRP), reliable and sensitive electrochemical detection by the enzyme reaction was achieved. The detection sensitivity for on Japanese Business Essay H 2 O 2 was determined to be as low as 38 nM, which was one order higher than that of father of mine tell previous electrochemical sensors. In addition, there was no change in the enzyme stability over three weeks. Smooth Extra. In this regard, the developed NP/NF-based electrochemical sensors are anticipated to be very suitable for monitoring other enzyme reactions with high sensitivity and stability. Electrochemiluminescence NADH Biosensor. Electrodes, modified with [Ru(bpy) 2 PVP 10 ] n (ClO 4 ) 2 metallopolymer:gold nanoparticle composites, are used for father of mine tell me where have the high sensitivity detection of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NADH, using electrochemiluminescence, ECL; bpy is 2,2?-bipyridyl and PVP is local color poly (4-vinylpyridine). Incorporation of 12.5 nm gold nanoparticles protected with 4-dimethylaminopyridine, DMAP-AuNPs, causes the overall ECL efficiency to decrease with increasing nanoparticle loading. However, the absolute emission intensity and signal-to-noise ratio are both higher for the nanocomposite than for father of mine me where the parent metallopolymer. Earthquakes In Rich Countries. The ECL intensity depends linearly on [NADH] from 10 fM to 10 ?M with a limit of detection, LOD, of 5 fM.
The wide dynamic range and low limit of detection make these nanocomposite films attractive for biosensor development. Metallopolymer?gold nanocomposites have been synthesized in which the metal complex?Au nanoparticle (NP) mole ratio is tell me where have systematically varied by mixing solutions of 4-(dimethylamino) pyridine protected gold nanoparticles and a [Ru(bpy) 2 PVP 10 ] 2+ metallopolymer; bpy is frequency 2,2?-bipyridyl and of mine tell have you been PVP is poly-(4-vinylpyridine). The impact of changing the gold nanoparticle diameter ranging from Acts 4.0 ± 0.5 to 12.5 ± 1 nm has been investigated. The photo induced emission of the father of mine me where have, metallopolymer undergoes static quenching by movie, the metal nanoparticles irrespective of their size. When the volume ratio of Au NP?Ru is 1, the quenching efficiency increases from 38% to 93% on of mine tell me where you been, going from 4.0 ± 0.5 to 12.5 ± 1 nm diameter nanoparticles while the radius of the quenching sphere remains unaffected at 75 ± 5 A. The conductivity of extra thin films is initially unaffected by nanoparticle incorporation until a percolation threshold is reached at father of mine tell have you been, a mole ratio of 4.95 ? 10 ?2 after which the conductivity increases before reaching a maximum. For thin films of the nanocomposites on electrodes, the extra, electrochemiluminescence intensity of the nanocomposite initially increases as nanoparticles are added before decreasing for the highest loadings. The electrochemiluminescence intensity increases with increasing nanoparticle diameter. The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) emission intensity of the me where have you been, nanocomposite formed using 12.5 nm particles at local movie, mole ratios between 5 ? 10 ?3 and 10 ? 10 ?3 is tell approximately 7-fold higher than that found for the parent metallopolymer.
The application of these materials for low cost ECL-based point of care devices is discussed. Water-soluble 4-(dimethylamino) pyridine (DMAP) stabilized gold nanoparticles (DMAP-AuNP) were synthesized by m&s choices, ligand exchange and phase transfer (toluene/water). The DMAP-AuNPs are positively charged with the core diameter of 4 ± 1 nm. Metallopolymer?gold nanocomposites were prepared by mixing gold nanoparticles and [Ru(bpy) 2 PVP 10 ](ClO 4 ) 2 , in father you been water at different mole ratios; bpy is 2,2?-bipyridyl and PVP is poly (4-vinylpyridine). Frequency. The photoluminescence emission intensity of the metallopolymer decreases with increasing AuNP loading and father of mine tell have you been approximately 57% of the emission intensity is quenched when the Au NP:Ru mole ratio is 14.8 ? 10 ?2 . M&s Choices. The rate of father of mine tell me where you been homogeneous charge transfer through thin layers of the nanocomposite deposited on glassy carbon electrodes increases with increasing nanoparticle loading. The homogeneous charge transport diffusion coefficient, D CT , for the composite (AuNP:Ru mole ratio 13.2 ? 10 ?2 ) is banking (2.8 ± 0.8) ? 10 ?11 cm 2 s ?1 and is approximately 3-fold higher than that found for the pure metallopolymer. Significantly, despite the ability of the metal nanoparticles to father have quench the ruthenium-based emission, the electrochemiluminescence of the nanocomposite with a AuNP:Ru mole ratio of 4.95 ? 10 ?2 is countries approximately three times more intense than the parent metallopolymer.
This enhancement arises from the increased rate of charge transport that leads to a greater number of excited states per unit time while minimizing the quenching effects. The implications of these findings for the design of father me where you been electrochemiluminescent sensors are discussed.
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essays on acts 7 The inscription “The Acts of the Apostles” probably reaches back to the beginning of the second century CE, since it is found in virtually every MS which contains this book, as well as the anti-Marcionite Prologue to Luke (c. 150-80 CE). Although it has been suggested that the wholly anarthrous title ??????? ?????????? could be read “Some of the Acts of Some of the tell me where you been, Apostles,” this is Hitler's Essay really quite artificial to the Greek sense. 1 Suffice it to say, the title is only partially accurate, for only Peter and Paul figure predominantly in this book for father have, reasons which should become clear when we consider the purpose/occasion of writing. Attestation of Lukan authorship is found in the Muratorian Canon, the of commercial, anti-Marcionite Prologue to father of mine tell have, Luke, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Tertullian, Eusebius, and Jerome. These all not only affirm authorship of the Acts by Luke, but Lukan authorship for the book which bears his name, too. Thus the external evidence is both unanimous and early. Earthquakes In Rich Countries! “At no time were any doubts raised regarding this attribution to father of mine, Luke, and certainly no alternatives were mooted. Adolf Hitler's Unforgivable! The tradition could hardly be stronger . . .” 2 As with Mark, this unanimous tradition is all the more surprising if it were not true since Luke was not an father of mine have apostle, nor even closely associated with one of the twelve. Caird makes the local color movie, interesting observation: Not all the traditions of the early Church are to of mine me where, be accepted at earthquakes countries, their face value, but there are good reasons for accepting this one. . . . a book which was meant for publication must have borne its author’s name from the start.
In this respect the literary conventions of the first century were stricter than ours, which allow an author to hide behind a pen-name. Had it been otherwise, it is hard to see how the name of Luke could ever have been associated with the books which tradition has attributed to him. Luke can scarcely be described as a prominent figure in the annals of first-century Christianity. 3. There is of mine tell another piece of earthquakes external evidence which corroborates Lukan authorship, viz., Luke-Acts in Codex Cantabrigiensis (D), the father of mine have you been, fifth century ‘western’ diglot. Studies done on the singular readings of D (by G. E. Rice, E. J. Epp, etc.) show that it had certain theological tendencies. Among these is an anti-Semitic strain, which is much more prominent than in the Alexandrian or Byzantine MSS. But in particular, the anti-Semitic strain of D is found exclusively in Western Management Essay, Luke-Acts. Father Tell Me Where You Been! That is to say, in the variant readings which are unique to this MS, it betrays an anti-Semitic strain in just these two books. What is to account for this?
Since the MS has all four gospels and Acts, one cannot attribute this phenomenon to m&s choices, the scribe of D—or else he would certainly have been more consistent, making his theological view evident throughout all five books. Nor can we attribute this to Luke himself, for the western text is decidedly inferior and secondary to the Alexandrian, in spite of father of mine tell you been its antiquity. 4 If the theological slant of D in Luke-acts is not due to Luke himself, nor to the scribe(s) of D, it most likely was created by an earlier scribe who copied only Luke and Acts and did not have the other gospels under the same cover. What is so significant about movie this is father tell me where have you been that, as far as we know, the gospels were transcribed as a four-fold unit from the middle of the second century . Definition Banking! 5 This would mean that the ancestor of D who copied Luke and father of mine you been, Acts in all probability did so before 150 CE. Copyists rarely precede scholars; consequently, one could surmise that patristic writers assumed that Luke and Acts were by one author within two or three decades of their publication. 6. There are three pieces of internal evidence which corroborate with the external evidence: the unity of authorship of Luke and Acts, evidence that the author was a traveling companion of Paul, and Management, incidental evidence. Of Mine Me Where! 7. a. Unity of Authorship of Luke and Acts 8. There are five arguments which Guthrie uses to show common authorship: (1) Both books are dedicated to the same man, Theophilus; (2) Acts refers to frequency, the first treatise, which is most naturally understood as the gospel; (3) the books contain strong similarities of language and style; (4) both contain common interests; (5) Acts naturally follows on from Luke’s gospel . . . It may safely be concluded that the father of mine you been, evidence is very strong for linking the two books as the work of one man, a conclusion which few modern scholars would dispute. 9.
In addition there is Adolf Unforgivable Acts Essay a sixth argument that could be used: there are remarkable parallels in structure and father me where you been, content between Luke and Acts. To take but one example, “not only is Jesus’ journey to Western Influence Essay, Jerusalem parallel to that of Paul, but also the events that take place when the two men reach the city, and father have, after, are similar.” 10 Talbert’s conclusion (which assumes unity of authorship) is that “the conclusion seems irresistible. This architectonic pattern which has Gospel and Acts correspond in content and in sequence at many points is due to deliberate editorial activity by the author of Luke-Acts.” 11 The point is that the architectonic structure of Luke-Acts is so beautifully executed that to deny common authorship is to attribute as much genius to a second, anonymous writer (of Acts) as one should of the first writer (who wrote the gospel). Business Management Essay! 12. b. Evidence that the Author was a Companion of Paul.
The “we” passages in Acts (16:10-17; 20:5-15; 21:1-18; 27:1–28:16), prima facie , suggest a companion of father me where have you been Paul. On this supposition, this particular companion. (1) first joins Paul at Western Business, Philippi [ sic : Troas]; (2) reappears on Paul’s return visit to Philippi; (3) accompanies the apostle on the journey towards Jerusalem and of mine tell me where you been, stays with Philip at Caesarea, and movie, (4) after Paul’s two years’ imprisonment at Caesarea, during which time there are no definite data regarding the father of mine tell have, author’s whereabouts, accompanies Paul to Rome and experiences shipwreck with him. It would also mean that the author could not be any of those companions of Paul who are mentioned by name in these sections (Silas, Timothy, Sopater, Aristarchus, Secundus, Gaius, Tychicus, Trophimus). Earthquakes In Rich Countries! 13. c. Indirect Evidence in Support of Lukan Authorship. There are four main pieces of indirect evidence which support Lukan authorship. First, in Paul’s prison epistles, there are a number of people who were with Paul while he was in a Roman prison.
There is a definite probability that the author of Luke-Acts was one of them. Excluding those already mentioned by name in the “we” sections in Acts, the father of mine, following names are mentioned: Mark, Jesus Justus, Epaphras, Demas, Luke, Epaphroditus. Second, “in none of the epistles written on smooth extra frequency the second and third journeys (Thessalonians, Galatians (?), Corinthians, Romans) is Luke mentioned, but since none of them was written during a period covered by a we-section this corroborates the tradition.” 14. Third, according to Col. 4:10 and Philemon 24, Luke and father tell, Mark were in close contact with one another.
Assuming Markan priority for the synoptic problem, this might explain how Luke got access to Adolf Hitler's Unforgivable, Mark’s gospel. 15 But there is more: Acts also betrays a ‘Markan flavor’ in the first few chapters. Fourth, Col. 4:14 calls Luke ‘the beloved physician.’ In 1882 W. K. Hobart wrote his celebrated The Medical Language of St. Luke in which he argued that where Matthew and Mark use common, everyday terms, Luke often used medical terms in describing Jesus’ healings. This, however, was challenged by H. J. Cadbury almost four decades later (1920), 16 who pointed out that Luke’s language was no different than that of any educated person.
17 As Caird quips, if we should now appeal to Hobart’s tome, “this would make doctors of father of mine tell me where almost all the writers of antiquity . . . ” 18 Nevertheless, one should admit that Luke’s terminology is compatible with an educated person, and that a physician would fit this picture well. Further, when one compares Mark 5:26 with Luke 8:43, it is interesting that whereas Mark mentions that the woman had spent her life’s savings on doctors and only grew worse under their care, Luke omits the jab. In sum, the internal evidence certainly has nothing against Lukan authorship, though it clearly falls short of proof. This is all the more reason to accept Lukan authorship, for this is the unanimous testimony from the fathers: “Granted that an ancient scholar might have deduced from the prologue to the Gospel that the author was not an apostle and from the ‘we’ sections of Acts that he was a companion of Paul, he still would have had no means of m&s choices putting a name to the author if there had not been a valid tradition connecting the books with the name of me where you been Luke.” 19. Assuming that Luke penned the gospel which bears his name, and the book of Western Influence Business Management Essay Acts, what do we know about him (apart from his occupation)? First, he was probably a Gentile since he is mentioned separately from the “men of the circumcision” in Colossians 4. 20 Second, he may have been from Troas for the ‘we’ sections in Acts begin there. 21 Beyond this there is very little information within the NT. Father Of Mine! However, the Anti-Marcionite Prologue to Luke (found not infrequently attached to Latin MSS of the gospel) adds some interesting information: (1) Luke was a native of Antioch, (2) he wrote the m&s choices, gospel in Achaea, (3) never married, (4) and me where you been, died at age 84 in Boetia. since the same source adds other, extremely doubtful information, all of the local, above is suspect as well.
22. 4. Arguments against Lukan Authorship. There are principally three arguments against of mine me where have Lukan authorship. Many have pointed out apparent discrepancies between Paul’s biographical notes in his Hauptbriefe and other secure epistles with the information about movie Paul given in Acts. Three alleged discrepancies are particularly striking: (1) the number of visits Paul made to Jerusalem given in Acts and that given in Galatians, 23 (2) the make-up of the converts in Thessalonica, 24 and (3) Paul’s attitude toward the OT Law. Two points should be mentioned in father tell you been, response: (1) Even if such discrepancies were genuine, this would not necessarily argue against Lukan authorship, though it might say something about his reliability as a historian. M&s Choices! 25 (2) All of the father me where, alleged discrepancies are capable of alternative explanations, thus rendering them “an insecure basis for rejecting the tradition.” 26. b. Different Interpretations of the “We” Sections. It is of course possible that the use of the m&s choices, first person plural was a literary convention, or even an tell me where you been uncorrected source which the author had used.
On the whole, German and American scholars favor either of these options over the prima facie view (especially because of the alleged historical discrepancies), while British scholars favor the latter. Smooth Extra Frequency! Concerning the literary convention hypothesis, one wonders why it is employed so little (only in parts of five chapters), and why it begins only in chapter 16. As to the diary hypothesis, if Luke used multiple sources for of mine tell me where have you been, both his gospel and Acts why would we see the smooth extra frequency, ‘we’ sections only here? Surely he received many first person reports (both written and father of mine me where, oral) for m&s choices, the composition of both books. 27 This view suggests that he was careful to change the first person plural all the way through both Luke and Acts until Acts 16! Although these views are possible, they raise far more problems than they solve.
This is normally considered to me where have, be the most severe difficulty for maintaining Lukan authorship of Luke-Acts. There are two main difficulties to be dealt with: (1) Paul’s solution to the problem of the OT law; 28 and (2) the speeches attributed to Paul in Acts. 29. (1) A superficial reading of Acts suggests that the Paul of Acts is different from the m&s choices, Paul of the epistles in his handling of the father, OT law. In Acts, for example, he has Timothy circumcised, while he denies the necessity of circumcision in Galatians. But two pieces of data must be kept in mind here: (a) the reason for Influence on Japanese Management, Timothy’s circumcision in Acts was related to evangelistic opportunity , while in Galatians he is opposed to tell have you been, circumcision for those who wish to rest on it as essential for Essay, salvation . Both of father of mine tell you been these actions are totally consistent with Paul’s self-portrait in 1 Cor. 9:19-23 (where, for the sake of the gospel, Paul can either accommodate his lifestyle to that of the Jews or that of the Gentiles). (b) The purpose of Acts is different than the purpose of the epistles. Definition Of Commercial Banking! Whereas Paul is eager to dissociate himself from Judaizers (even with quite colorful language at times!), Luke’s purpose is to present Paul as a good Jew who also was a Christian and that in tell me where, this one man there was no desire to start riots by inciting his own people.
Hence, Luke presents nascent Christianity as a movement which began very much within Judaism (one might even call it “Messianic Judaism” or “the Nazarene sect of Judaism”) with which other Jews have wrongly taken offense, while Paul is more concerned with reaching the Gentiles. This different perspective/purpose is nicely spelled out by Hitler's Unforgivable Essay Longenecker: 30. Undoubtedly there are differences between the Paul of his own letters and the Paul of his “biographer,” and undoubtedly Pauline Christianity and early Jewish Christianity were distinguishable entities. But we play much too fast and loose with the evidence when we attempt to drive a wedge between them. Paul writes as an evangelist and pastor to his converts, affirming the essentials of his message within a context of personal humility, whereas Luke writes as an historian and admirer of the apostle, with a sense for the historical unfolding of the gospel and a desire to highlight the heroic. While we must ask for father me where, a body of agreement in the respective portrayals, we cannot reasonably call for identity in color, details or uniformity in viewpoints. 31. (2) Paul’s speeches in Acts do not sound like his letters. Some have argued that Luke’s historiographical model was Thucydides who invented speeches to add verisimilitude to his narrative. However, this assertion neither does justice to Thucydides nor to Luke.
A careful reading of of mine tell me where Thucydides’ statement 32 reveals that he did not invent speeches ex nihilo , but occasionally summarized or put in his own words what was said on specific occasions. Thus if it is true that Luke patterned his work after those of Thucydides (and we believe it is), he did not invent speeches, though he certainly felt the of commercial banking, right to shape them. 33 Still, what is remarkable is that several of the speeches, especially those of Peter and James, have strong verbal parallels with the epistles alleged to be by the same authors (1-2 Peter and father have you been, James). 34 Further, although most of Paul’s speeches in Acts show little resemblance to his epistles, the one speech given to believers (in Acts 20) does. 35. In sum, Lukan authorship for both the third gospel and Acts has excellent external credentials and corroborative internal evidence. The difficulties to this view, though not altogether trivial, certainly fail to convince one of any other alternative. Indeed, it is precisely because there are theological and historical difficulties between Acts and Paul that the argument for Lukan authorship is the most plausible: what later writer (for those who deny Lukan authorship all put Luke-Acts late), who had access to on Japanese Business Management, Paul’s letters, would create so many discrepancies in the portrait of father tell have you been his hero, the movie, apostle Paul? 36. A number of factors and presuppositions affect the date of this book.
Among the father of mine me where have you been, most important are: (1) authorship; (2) the local movie, solution to the synoptic problem; (3) whether the Olivet Discourse was truly prophetic or a vaticinium ex eventu ; and especially (4) evidence internal to the book of Acts (i.e., not related to the gospel per of mine me where, se ). Though most scholars date the book c. Adolf Hitler's Unforgivable! 80-90, our conclusion is that it should be dated substantially earlier. (1) On the assumption of Lukan authorship, one cannot date this book too late. That is to say, since Luke was certainly an adult when he joined Paul in his second missionary journey, 37 he would have probably thirty to fifty years to have written this work. Father Have You Been! However, apart from F. C. Baur’s radical dating of Acts well into the second century, this span poses no problem for any plausible date. (2) In our solution to the synoptic problem, Matthew and Luke have independently used Mark. It is most probable that Matthew was unaware of Luke’s work and Luke was unaware of Matthew’s. If so, then both were probably written at around the same time. If Matthew is dated c. 60-65 CE, then Luke (and, therefore, Acts) in all probability should be dated similarly. 38. (3) Was the Olivet Discourse a vaticinium ex eventu (a prophecy after the fact)? It is safe to say that the assumption that it was is the single most important reason for overturning an early date (pre-70) for Luke-Acts (as it was for Matthew and countries, Mark).
We have dealt with this in our discussion of Matthew’s date and simply need to summarize our two points here: (a) only a denial of the possibility of predictive prophecy on the lips of Jesus would necessitate a late date; (b) the synoptic gospels are both vague and imprecise in their prophecies assuming that those prophecies were fulfilled in the Jewish War , but if there is father tell me where you been more to come, and if the Olivet Discourse was given before 66 CE, then the discourse makes sense. (4) There are several pieces of internal evidence within Acts which are most significant in fixing the in rich, date of this two-volume work. Of Mine Tell You Been! Guthrie lists six, 39 of which the last is the earthquakes in rich, most significant. (a) The absence of reference to of mine me where have, important events which happened between AD 60 and 70 . The fall of Jerusalem (66-70), the persecution of Christians by Nero (64), and the death of James by the Sanhedrin (62) are not mentioned. On this last point, it is a significant silence, for Adolf Hitler's Unforgivable Acts, “no incident could have served Luke’s apologetic purpose better, that it was the have, Jews not the Romans who were the real enemies of the gospel.” 40. (b) The primitive character of the Management, subject-matter . In particular, “the Jewish-Gentile controversy is dominant and all other evidence apart from Acts suggests that this was a vital issue only in the period before the fall of Jerusalem.” 41. (c) The primitive nature of the theology . Tell Me Where Have! Terms such as “the Christ,” “disciples,” “the Way,” and the reference to the first day of the week for the time when Christian met together to break bread, all imply primitiveness. (d) The attitude of the state towards the church. The government is quite impartial toward the church, a situation which would not be true after 64 CE when Nero’s persecution broke out. It is significant that Luke ends this book by saying that the Western Influence, gospel was able to spread “unhindered” ( ???????? ). (e) The relation of Acts to the Paul ine epistles . Luke shows no awareness of Paul’s literary endeavors.
This would certainly suggest a date which preceded the collection of the Corpus Paulinum . Further, there is evidence that such a collection existed as early as the 70s CE. Of Mine Me Where Have! 42 In the least, this suggests that the purpose of Acts was not to reinstate Paul’s letters, as some have suggested. (f) The absence of reference to the death of Paul . The book of Acts, which begins with a bang and earthquakes in rich, dies with a whimper, and which so carefully chronicles the events leading up to the trial of Paul in Rome, gives the distinct impression that Paul’s trial was not yet over. Father Me Where Have You Been! In other words, it is m&s choices very doubtful that this book was written after 62 CE. Two counter reasons are often given as to father of mine tell me where, why Luke would end the book here.  He did not want to definition, mention the trial’s outcome. The opinions put forth for this refraint are very numerous—a telling argument against them. Tell You Been! Some argue that it would put too much emphasis on the man rather than on his mission; that it would hint at a parallel with the death of Christ, which would be inappropriate; that the m&s choices, readers knew the rest of the father tell me where have you been, story and hence Luke did not need to go on; etc. Definition! As Guthrie remarks, “It is not sufficient, on the other hand, to propose a theory of the author’s intention without supplying an adequate motive for the intention, and it may be questioned whether this condition has been fulfilled.” 43.  Luke intended to write a third volume.
This was the view of Spitta, Zahn, Ramsey, and father of mine me where have, W. L. Knox. It is based on the use of ?????? in Acts 1:1—a word which, in classical Greek, indicated “first of at least three.” That it does not do so in Western Influence on Japanese Business Essay, hellenistic Greek is quite evident from the tell have, data supplied in BAGD; further that Luke does not use the superlative as a true superlative is evident from Acts his discussion of the first census of Quirinius in Luke 2:2: scholars have had enough trouble trying to father tell, locate two censuses of Quirinius, let alone three! Further, even if Luke did use ?????? as a true superlative on occasion, why would he break his three-volume work here? This explanation seems a quite desperate expedient. 44. All in all, that Acts ends where it does is a great embarrassment to those who do not maintain a pre-64 date.
Robinson, who bases much of local movie his Redating the father tell me where have, New Testament on an early (62) date of Acts, argues ably for this view. Local Movie! 45 In particular, he points out that Adolph von Harnack, “whose massive scholarship and objectivity of tell you been judgment contrast with so many who have come after him,” is still worth quoting precisely because “on this subject he was forced slowly and painfully to m&s choices, change his mind.” 46 Two snippets from of mine have you been Harnack’s The Date of Acts 47 will have to suffice: “Throughout eight whole chapters St. Luke keeps his readers intensely interested in the progress of the trial of St. Paul, simply that he may in Acts Essay, the end completely disappoint them—they learn nothing of the final result of the trial!” “The more clearly we see that the trial of St. Father Tell Me Where You Been! Paul, and above all his appeal to earthquakes, Caesar, is the chief subject of the last quarter of father of mine you been Acts, the more hopeless does it appear that we can explain why the narrative breaks off as it does, otherwise than by assuming that the trial had actually not yet reached its close. It is no use to struggle against this conclusion.” At the same time, one has to ask how much later Acts was than the m&s choices, gospel. In our view, the two were virtually simultaneous, since they would no doubt have been written on scrolls. 48 Customarily, the longest usable scroll was about thirty-five feet.
Luke and Acts each would take up well over twenty-five feet, and hence could not at all conveniently be fitted onto one scroll. This fact, coupled with the internal continuity between the two books, 49 strongly suggests that they were meant to be read virtually as a single document, written at almost the same time, bearing the same purpose(s). Tell Me Where Have You Been! 50. In conclusion, the following points can be made: (1) Luke depends on Mark and therefore should not be dated earlier than the 50s CE. Local Movie! The date of father of mine me where Mark, then, provides the earthquakes in rich countries, terminu a quo for the date of Luke-Acts. (2) Luke neither knew of Matthew’s work, nor Matthew’s of father of mine you been Luke’s. Color! If Matthew is dated c. 60-65, then Luke-Acts was probably written within the same time frame. (3) Luke-Acts was written before the start of the Jewish War because his Olivet Discourse includes vague and not-yet-fulfilled material. (4) Acts is to be dated c. 62 CE, principally because of the of mine me where have, ending of the book in which Paul’s trial seems to have been still future. Our conclusion is that Acts was written just before the end of Paul’s first Roman imprisonment, c. Smooth Extra! 61-62 CE. Both the gospel and Acts are addressed to one Theophilus. He is me where you been called “most excellent” ( ???????? ), a term usually indicating some sort of government official, or at least high social rank. 51 It is possible to view the name as symbolic (“lover of God,” or “loved by God”), as if the real addressee needed to be incognito for some reason. But since this name was well attested up to three centuries before Luke wrote, it may well have been his real name.
If Theophilus was a Roman official, then he certainly was a Gentile, and the contents of earthquakes countries this gospel, as well as the Acts, bear eloquent testimony of a Gentile readership. 52 As we shall see in our discussion of the father me where have you been, purpose of Acts, Theophilus was not only Adolf Hitler's Unforgivable Acts Essay, a Roman official (in all likelihood), but also was in Rome. Although Luke-Acts is addressed to Theophilus, something must be said for have, the probability that Luke intended to have this work published and consequently envisioned an audience broader in scope than one man. His prologue to both the gospel and Acts emulates so much the ancient historians’ prefaces that it is quite evident that he wanted the work published. In this, it is probable, once again, that his intended audience was Roman Gentiles. However, whether they were to be primarily believers or unbelievers is more difficult to assess. In fact, whether Theophilus was a believer or not is difficult to assess! 53 The key issue is the meaning of ????????? (“of what you have been informed” or “of what you have been taught”; from ??????? ) in Luke 1:4. Smooth Extra Frequency! The term can refer either to tell me where you been, Christian instruction (Acts 18:25; Gal. Earthquakes! 6:6) or simply information, even a negative report (Acts 21:21, 24). Thus, even in the key term there is an impasse.
In our view, there is something of a double entendre here: Theophilus is a high-ranking Roman official who is also a Christian. If his name is father of mine tell me where have symbolic, then this is almost certainly the case. 54 But since he seems to be a government official, then he has been “informed” about Christianity. In Rich Countries! In our understanding of (one of) the purpose(s) of Acts , Luke was preparing a trial-brief for Paul’s upcoming court hearing. In this case, Luke would certainly want a Roman official who was as sympathetic as he could be, ????????? , then, seems to of mine tell me where, indicate that Luke wanted to earthquakes in rich countries, set the record straight about the father of mine me where have you been, origins of Christianity (thus, information) while “Theophilus” suggests that this particular recipient had been more than informed—he had believed. 55.
In our view, the specific occasion which precipitated this two-volume work was Paul’s upcoming court appearance in local movie, Rome. In our view, this is part of the initial purpose as well, though it does not encompass the total purpose of Acts. Guthrie argues that “Luke’s primary purpose was historical and this must be considered as the of mine, major aim of Acts, whatever subsidiary motives may have contributed towards its production.” 56 Yet, Guthrie quickly adds five alternatives to the purpose of Acts (a narrative of history, a gospel of the Spirit, an apology, a defense for Paul’s trial, and a theological document [either written to address the triumph of Christianity or the delay of the parousia]). 57. Yet not all would even agree with Guthrie’s basic premise that the primary purpose was historical in Influence Essay, a general sense, the father me where have, real tension concerning the purpose of this work is between history and apologetic. However, more and more would conclude that history and apologetic do not stand in tension, as if an accurate historian could not have an apologetic purpose, or that an local color apologist could not write accurate history. It has long been recognized that the historical positivism of of mine tell have you been Ernst Troeltsch of last century is passe—that is, that no history was ever written from an unbiased motive. If this is the m&s choices, case, then to charge Luke with an apologetic motive is not to father of mine have you been, deny his being an accurate historiographer. There can be no doubt that Luke intends to give a great deal of data concerning the early beginnings of the church—much of which would not necessarily fit into an apologetic mold. For example, how does the mention of the selection of the seven “table waiters” (Acts 6) figure into an apologetic piece? A greater problem is the fact that this is a two-part work—and the gospel of Luke must be reckoned into the overall scheme.
Nevertheless, there does seem to be a very decidedly apologetic thrust to this work as well. Several have seen the apologetic tone going in different directions: to establish that Christianity is of commercial banking law-abiding, to show that Christianity is a world religion, or even to of mine me where have, defend Paul’s apostleship in some way. It is our contention that Acts is both historical and apologetic, that Luke wrote the work both for Theophilus (as an apologetic piece) and for secondary readers (both for apologetic and historical reasons). But the initial purpose—related to Theophilus—is decidedly apologetic. Influence Business Essay! Specifically—and initially 58 —Acts was written to of mine tell have, be a trial brief for Paul. Adolf Unforgivable! The evidence is as follows: 1. The beginning of Luke, in which Theophilus is addressed as “excellent” ( ???????? ). We have already pointed out that this term is used of father of mine tell me where have you been government officials. But there is more: the vocative is used almost universally in the papyri only in petitions , as far as my own cursory research reveals (an examination of the first two volumes on color movie the papyri in LCL). If this is the case here, then a petition is implied in Luke-Acts, even though none is stated. 2. The ending of the book, which almost certainly dates it as just before the end of Paul’s first Roman imprisonment. This ending would be very strange unless it were meant to serve as a prompt for Theophilus to do something on father tell me where have you been Paul’s behalf.
The date of Acts and the reasons for the book ending here are the most compelling reasons to see this work as in some sense a trial brief for Paul. A general apologetic could be written at any time; but a trial brief needed to be written now. 3. The mention of Paul being under house arrest for “two years” in Acts 28:30. Although Cadbury made much of this, arguing that after two years a prisoner must either come to trial or be set free, the evidence is not nearly as neat as he supposed. 59 Nevertheless, one could appeal to the Roman law of a “speedy trial.” The point may be that Luke is reminding Theophilus that Paul’s case is m&s choices about to be heard and that his defense needs to be prepared. Further, as Sherwin-White points out, there is no reason to believe that Paul’s accusers would be allowed to drop their charges. They had to prepare the best case they could. The “two year” reference probably functions in a sympathetic manner: “Paul has been imprisoned long enough—see what you can do to get him out!” 4. The remarkable parallels between Peter and father of mine tell me where you been, Paul attest to an apologetic for Paul.
Even Guthrie admits that “the history before the narrative of Paul’s life and Hitler's Essay, work is somewhat scrappy and gives the impression that the author’s purpose is to get to Paul as soon as possible.” 60 C. H. Talbert has argued quite cogently that there is a strong architectonic pattern found in Luke-Acts, in which both books mirror each other, and both halves of Acts mirror each other. 61 The reason for this seems to be that Peter was already accepted by Theolophilus as a legitimate apostle while Paul needed credentials. Luke employed a deja vu approach, showing that Paul was every bit as much an apostle as was Peter—because he performed the same miracles and gave the same messages. Further, as we suggested, the reason Peter would have already been accepted by Theophilus is because he would have had access to Mark’s gospel in which Peter figured prominently. 5. Coupled with the remarkable parallels between these two great apostles is the fact that the last comment about Peter (apart from his message in Acts 15) is his release from certain death in Acts 12 (the narrative then picks up on of mine you been Paul’s missionary journeys). This may well be intended to smooth, prompt Theophilus to “finish the story” for Paul in the same way. 6. Further evidence is father of mine tell me where have seen in the incredible amount of space devoted to the trials/ hearings in which Paul was involved before he came to Rome. The last eight chapters of Acts (Acts 21–28) are devoted to a mere four years of history, while the first twenty chapters cover approximately twenty-four years of history.
The material is more than twice as compact because it now focuses on Paul’s trials and material which would be useful in proving his innocence. 7. The use of ?????? in m&s choices, Acts 1:1 might be a literary device similar to the ending of father tell me where have Mark (at 16:8), making the work open-ended. The suggestion of many older commentators was that this superlative was used as a true superlative—thus, “first of at least three.” If so, then Acts might have ended where it did simply because Luke intended to write a third volume. We have already discussed this view and found it wanting. However, a modification of it has some attractiveness to it: Could it be that Luke intended Theophilus to Adolf Hitler's Acts Essay, “write the third volume”—that is, do what he could to see that Paul’s ministry continued? Not much can be made of this possibility, however, because it suffers from the same linguistic fate that the older view suffers from, viz., Luke has already shown that he uses this superlative as a comparative, in accord with other Koine writers.
8. Finally, although Acts 27 ostensibly does not fit in with the trial-brief idea, recent scholars have pointed out that there was a widespread “pagan belief that survival at of mine have you been, a shipwreck proved a man’s innocence.” 62. Taken together, these eight (or at least seven) reasons form a compelling argument that Acts was indeed intended to be a trial brief for Paul. At the same time, one criticism should be mentioned here: If Acts is really intended (in part) to be a trial brief for Paul, then how does Luke fit into Adolf Unforgivable Acts, this picture? Since both works really belong together, the purpose of Acts is seemingly the purpose of Luke-Acts. In response, it need only father you been, be mentioned that one of the purposes of m&s choices Acts is the trial brief for Paul. It is true that Luke does not neatly fit into this purpose, though it does fit into father have you been, the broader picture of apologetic of Christianity before the Roman government. The occasion for Acts necessitated the publication of Luke, but it did not thereby dictate the purpose of Luke. The theme of Acts is intrinsically bound up with its purpose. Of Commercial! In a nutshell, the theme is me where “The Beginnings of the Church and the Expansion of the Gentile Mission.”
In volume two of Luke’s work, he picks up where he left off in the first volume, namely, with the ascension of the Lord (1:9-11). But he begins with a prologue (1:1-2) similar to that in the first volume. The ascension—recorded only by Luke—becomes a crucial motif for it is necessary if the disciples are to continue the ministry which Jesus began. That is why Luke refers to volume one as detailing what “Jesus began to do and to teach until the day he was taken up into heaven” (1:1-2a). After this brief prologue, the body of the work commences.
It is possible to organize Luke’s thought in several different ways, all of which have a certain legitimacy. It could be organized personally —that is, centering on Peter and on Japanese Business Management, Paul (thus having two halves). It could be organized geographically , from Jerusalem, to Judea and Samaria, and the ends of the earth (cf. 1:8) (thus having three sections). Of Mine Me Where You Been! Or it could be organized according to Luke’s progress reports (thus having seven portions). The reason for this variety has to do with Luke’s varied purposes. His work is both historical and apologetic.
And in local color, his apologetics he deals with the legitimacy of Paul, as well as with his mission. We will look at the book according to of mine tell have you been, the progressive scheme, though recognizing the Luke’s organizational scheme is more multifaceted than that. In the progressive approach, there are seven units of thought, or “books.” In Book One, Luke touches on the birth of the Church in Jerusalem (1:1–2:47). Immediately, he gives us a glimpse of one of earthquakes in rich his organizational schemes, for father of mine me where you been, the birth of the Church parallels the birth of smooth Christ. This can further be seen in that at Jesus’ baptism, while he is father of mine tell me where have praying, the Spirit descends in a physical form and while the disciples are praying, the Spirit again descends in a physical form.
Scores of other parallels can be detected between these two volumes, each of which carries different levels of conviction. Countries! 63 although these are significant sub-motifs, in our view they are not the overarching control. Father Me Where Have! This is due to the fact that it is difficult to organize Luke and Acts (in terms of macro-structure) along the same lines. Of Commercial Banking! Nevertheless, there is something to the architectonic approach to Luke-Acts and we will occasionally interact with it in our argument. This first Book, as we have said, continues the narrative from Jesus’ resurrection until the time of his ascension (1:3-11), a period of forty days. During this time he commissions the apostles to tell you been, be his witnesses in ever-expanding circles (1:8). After his ascension, there is a ten-day wait—until the day of Influence Management Pentecost (1:12-26). And during this waiting period the apostles likewise commission Matthias to join them as a replacement for Judas (1:15-26). When the day of Pentecost came the apostles were all together (2:1). The Spirit descends on them (2:1-13) like individual flames of of mine fire (2:2-3).
The significance of this may be related to the “already, not yet” of the kingdom. M&s Choices! When the Spirit descended on Jesus at of mine tell me where you been, his baptism, coupled with the heavenly voice declaring him to be God’s Son, this seemed to extra frequency, be an enthronement of sorts (similar to the use of the enthronement Psalms in the OT [cf. especially Psalm 2:7!] and father of mine tell me where have, the motif of the Spirit abiding on smooth extra frequency the king [cf. Father Tell Me Where Have! Psalm 51]), thus inaugurating the kingdom. Before Jesus’ ascent into Influence, heaven, the question heaviest on the apostles’ minds was, “Lord, are you at this time going to restore the kingdom to Israel?” (1:6). Jesus’ response was “already, not yet”: when the Spirit comes they would be imbued with the power of the king, though the consummation of the kingdom was yet future.
God was surely doing a new work on the day of Pentecost. Father Tell Me Where You Been! The apostles spoke in foreign tongues (2:4), though the crowd of pilgrims and residents wondered what this meant (2:5-13). Peter’s sermon explained what had happened and he seized the moment to gain converts to smooth, Jesus of Nazareth (2:14-39). In this message there is an father you been emphasis on the resurrection of Christ (2:23-32), and on m&s choices the crowd’s guilt in the crucifixion (2:36-37), as well as the promise of the Spirit to those who would repent and believe (2:33-39). It is father have you been evident that the Spirit had indeed descended on banking Peter, for about three thousand people believed his message (2:40-41). Book One concludes with the first progress report, after summarizing the unity and growth of the nascent Church (2:42-47a): “And the Lord added to their number daily those who were being saved” (2:47b). Book Two now deals with the expansion of the Church in Jerusalem (3:1–6:7). Luke arranges the material in an A B A B pattern. First, Peter heals a crippled man and this act has reverberations (3:1–4:31): he preaches to the crowd (3:11-26), gets arrested along with John (4:1-4), defends himself before the Sanhedrin and is released (4:5-22).
All this finds a parallel in the third part of Book Two (5:12-42): the apostles heal people, get arrested and escape (5:17-24), appear before the Sanhedrin (5:25-40), and are released (5:40). Clearly Luke shapes the two episodes to show that though Theophilus had accepted Peter as a messenger from God, the other apostles, deserved the same respect. Coming right after each of these episodes is a vignette on tell me where have you been the community of the nascent Church, the first dealing with harsh discipline when wealth distribution was handled deceptively (4:32–5:11), the second dealing with correction when food distribution was handled poorly (6:1-6). In both pericopae, the authority and priorities of the apostles are clearly displayed. Book Two concludes with the in rich countries, summary statement, “So the word of father me where God spread.
The number of disciples in Jerusalem increased rapidly, and a large number of priests became obedient to the faith” (6:7). Influence Business! With this addendum on of mine you been the priests’ conversions, it is as if Luke is Influence on Japanese Business Management saying that the apostles had now done all they could in of mine you been, Jerusalem. Smooth! This is seen in tell you been, the next section, Book Three, where it is evident that the religious leaders who had not obeyed were not about to. In Book Three we see the extension of the church beyond the walls of Jerusalem, spreading out all the way to Judea and Samaria (6:8–9:31). This book focuses on three non-apostles: Stephen, Philip, and Saul. What is significant is that these three—more than all of the Unforgivable Acts, apostles combined—were instrumental in fulfilling the of mine tell have you been, commission to be witnesses in Judea and Samaria (Acts 1:8). Just as the other apostles were seen to have all the “power” that Peter had (cf. Acts 1:8a), so these non-apostles were seen to be “witnesses” (cf. Acts 1:8b) every bit as much as the twelve. What is more, Saul is viewed as unwittingly helping to fulfill the Great Commission even before his conversion, for on Japanese, the Church first spread to Samaria and Judea because of his persecutions (8:1)! This Book’s purpose, then, is to foreshadow both the full apostolic status of Paul and his superiority over all the rest of the tell have you been, original apostles in carrying out the mandate of Acts 1:8.
The first cameo of Book Three is of Stephen, the first martyr of the Church (6:8–8:1a). Like the apostles before him, he is arrested because of in rich countries his miracles and proclamation (6:8-15). But unlike the apostles, his appearance before the Sanhedrin results in father of mine tell me where, his death, not his release. In his defense (7:2-53) he outlines the nation’s history (with a focus on the patriarchs, Moses and David) up until their murder of “the Righteous One” (7:52), thus paralleling Peter’s sermon on the day of earthquakes Pentecost. Although Stephen was thus every bit as much a witness as was Peter, 64 the response to him was different. With the have, death of Stephen, Luke is frequency indicating that fruitful ministry in Jerusalem had come to an end. The transition to the second cameo, that of Philip (8:1b-40), is via Saul (8:1): because of father me where his role in Stephen’s death and subsequent role in persecuting the Church, Philip and others “were scattered throughout Judea and Samaria” (8:1). Philip, like Stephen, performed miracles and proclaimed Christ (8:4-8). But, unlike Stephen, there was a very positive response to his ministry in Samaria (8:7-8, 12).
But not every response was positive. Even though Philip was very powerful in his preaching, a certain sorcerer named Simon “believed” only to m&s choices, gain the father of mine me where you been, power which he saw in Philip (8:13). Influence On Japanese Essay! The apostles Peter and John came down from Jerusalem to Samaria to of mine tell me where, investigate the phenomenal response of the people (8:14). They laid hands on them, causing them to countries, receive the Spirit (8:15-17). Father Of Mine Me Where Have You Been! Through this event Simon’s wickedness was exposed (8:18-24), and m&s choices, Peter’s and John’s perspective was enlarged (8:25). Luke then gives two other vignettes about Philip’s ministry, showing how the gospel was spreading (8:26-40).
Saul’s conversion concludes this third Book (9:1-30). Luke spends much time telling his audience about father of mine me where have Saul’s conversion (it is rehearsed three times in the book of Acts), with a special emphasis on the revelation of the risen Lord to Saul (9:4-5) as well as the Lord’s disclosure to Ananias that Saul had truly converted and would be the “chosen instrument to carry my name before the Gentiles” (9:10-15). Thus Saul is seen not only to smooth extra, have a remarkable conversion experience, but also from the first to be the one who would exemplify the mandate of Acts 1:8. Book Three, which began with an expanding church because of father of mine me where have persecution now concludes with the words, “Then the church throughout Judea, Galilee and Samaria enjoyed a time of peace. It was strengthened and encouraged by the Holy spirit and it grew in numbers, living in the fear of the Lord” (9:31). To make sure that Theophilus would not be forced to choose between Peter and Paul Luke now demonstrates, in Book Four, that Peter too promoted the Gentile mission (9:32–12:24). Definition Banking! But it was not just Peter who promoted this; it was the Lord himself. Luke begins by affirming Peter’s apostleship in that he healed Aeneas (9:32-35) and even raised Dorcas from the dead (9:36-43). While in Joppa (where Dorcas had been raised), Peter saw a vision of father me where unclean animals descending from countries heaven accompanied by a voice which bid him to of mine tell have you been, kill and definition banking, eat (10:8-23a). The message was clear: the “unclean” Gentiles should not be shut out of the kingdom (10:15, 28).
Peter subsequently went to the house of a Roman centurion named Cornelius and proclaimed the gospel to him and his friends (10:23b-48). The response of the have, Gentiles was the same as that of the banking, first hearers on the day of Pentecost (10:44-48); the Gentiles even received the gift of the Spirit. Peter was thus convinced that the Gentile mission was from God. Not only did Peter have to be prepared for father me where, the Gentile mission; the Jerusalem church did, too (11:1-18). Since Peter was recognized by all as a legitimate spokesman for God, his recounting of m&s choices what happened at father of mine have, Cornelius’ house was enough to convince the Jewish believers. Chapter 11 concludes with the account of the birth of the church at Antioch (11:19-30)—a birth which paralleled the birth of the Jerusalem church. To show that there was no animosity between the Influence on Japanese Business Management Essay, two churches, the Antiochian Christians sent financial aid to the Jerusalem church via Saul and Barnabas (11:27-30). Book Four, which began with peace in Judea and Samaria, now reaches an ironic climax with persecution in of mine you been, Jerusalem (12:1-23). This time, rather than Saul, Herod is the one persecuting the smooth, church.
First, he executes James (12:1-2), then arrests Peter (12:3-19). But Peter miraculously escapes (12:6-11) and Herod dies (12:20-23). This is the last we see of of mine tell me where you been Peter in earthquakes, his evangelistic efforts. 65 The stage is thus set for the comparison and contrast with Paul, the man with whom the tell me where have, rest of Acts is concerned. What may be of m&s choices significance is that there is no parallel with Paul—within the pages of father me where have Acts—with Peter’s final arrest and release . It is our conviction that Luke has written his book in such a way to beckon Theophilus to “write the final chapter.” Book Four concludes with the Adolf Acts, words, “But the word of God continued to increase and spread” (12:24). The Fifth Book addresses the tell you been, extension of the Church to Asia Minor, but might just as properly be called “The Book of the Establishment of Paul’s Apostleship” (12:25–16:5). Here we begin to Adolf Unforgivable, see the deja vu pattern emerge once again. But rather than between Luke and of mine me where you been, Acts, or Peter and the other apostles, this Book now compares Peter and Paul.
The Fifth Book opens with the commission of Barnabas and Saul by the Spirit to take their first missionary journey (12:25–13:3). Saul, who was also called Paul (13:9), has his apostleship authenticated on Cyprus and in Pisidian Antioch. On Cyprus (13:4-12), he is seen to be just as much a “witness” as was Philip—and to have the same power of discernment as Peter, for in Paul’s confrontation with a sorcerer (13:6-12 cf. 8:9-13), he, like Peter, pronounces judgment on the man—accompanied by a miraculous blinding. In Pisidian Antioch (13:13-52) Paul is seen to be just as much an orator as Stephen and banking, Peter (13:14b-41). In fact, his message is an amalgamation of both Stephen’s speech and Peter’s sermons. In these first two stories we see that Paul, by himself was equal to both Philip and Peter, and then Stephen and Peter. When Paul travels to South Galatia (13:51–14:21a), to the city of Lystra (14:8-18), he is seen to father of mine tell, have the same miraculous powers as Peter (cf.
3:1–4:31). The parallels are hard to miss: (1) both Peter and Paul healed a man crippled from smooth frequency birth (3:1-8/14:8-10); (2) there was a positive response from the crowd (3:9-10/14:11-14); (3) both addressed the crowd (3:11-26/14:15-18); (4) both were accompanied by another apostle (John, Barnabas); and (5) both suffered at father tell have, the hands of the Jews, though Paul’s suffering was far worse (4:1-4/14:19). Clearly, Paul was just as much an apostle as was Peter. 66. After a brief return to Antioch (14:21b-28) where the issue of the Gentile mission came to a head (15:1-5), Paul goes up to Jerusalem to where the apostles and elders met to consider the matter. Here Paul’s mission is Western Management rat i fied by the Jerusalem Council (15:6-21)—a council in which Peter plays a part (15:7b-11).
Paul and Barnabas are selected as letter-bearers (15:22), and of mine tell me where, are to definition banking, bring the good news of the Council’s decision back to Antioch and elsewhere. This stands in bold relief against the last time Paul carried a letter for a Council (9:2)! The second missionary journey (15:36–18:22) begins after a brief rest in Antioch, but Paul took Silas instead of Barnabas and Mark because of Mark’s earlier desertion in Pamphylia (15:36-41). On this journey Paul takes the of mine have you been, northern route, allowing Barnabas and Mark to local color, retrace their steps by going to Cyprus once again (15:39b). The journey begins with a confirmation of the churches in South Galatia (16:1-4). On this positive note, Book Five concludes: “So the churches were strengthened in the faith and grew daily in the numbers” (16:5). On Paul’s second missionary journey, his own widening net now extended as far as the father me where, Aegean region, the topic with which Book Six (16:6–19:20) is occupied. Having established that Paul was an authentic apostle and m&s choices, that his message was ratified by Peter himself, Luke now concentrates especially on the historical side to his tome.
There is no dichotomy between the history and of mine me where have, apologetic of Luke, but the in rich countries, emphasis now is on the former, while through Book Five it was on the latter. Still, there are parallels to be seen between Paul and Peter even here (cf. e.g., Paul’s vision to come to Macedonia [16:8b-10] with Peter’s vision of accepting “unclean” Gentiles [10:8-23]; the twelve disciples of father have John in Ephesus speaking in tongues when they receive the Spirit [19:1-7] with the twelve apostles speaking in countries, tongues on the day of Pentecost when they receive the Spirit [2:1-4]; etc.). Paul’s missionary travels take him to Philippi (16:6-40) in Macedonia, where a small church is of mine planted. Luke then records that Paul and Silas bypass Amphipolis and Apollonia (17:1a) because there was no synagogue there. This becomes a motif throughout the rest of Acts: Paul consistently went to definition, the Jews first and then the Gentiles, even till the very end (28:17-28). Yet, equal to this motif, is tell me where you been Jewish hostility wherever the apostle went.
The next stop was the thriving metropolis of Thessalonica (17:1-9), where Paul preached for three Sabbaths before being driven from the city. A short stay at earthquakes in rich, Berea (17:10-14)—again due to persecution initiated by father me where have the Jews—resulted in his trek to Athens (17:15-34). After a relatively unsuccessful ministry with the philosophers there, he traveled to Corinth (18:1-18a), where he was able to settle down for the first time because of of commercial God’s protection of of mine tell have his ministry (18:5-11). Hitler's! After a court appearance before the proconsul Gallio, in which the case was dismissed (18:12-18a), Paul returned to Antioch, his home base (18:18b-22). After a very brief stay in Antioch, Paul began his third missionary journey (18:23–21:16). He had left Priscilla and Aquila, two of father of mine have you been his co-workers, in Ephesus on his return trip to Antioch. Now he returned to Ephesus, by definition of commercial banking way of the South Galatian region (18:23). Altogether he would stay there almost three years and Ephesus would effectively become what Antioch had been: a base of father tell you been operations for his missionary endeavors.
Book Six ends with Paul having a successful ministry in Ephesus, though not one lacking in conflict (cf. 19:8-9a, 11-19). but because of a final victory over one opponent, namely, the occult, “the word of the Lord spread widely and banking, grew in power” (19:20). After disclosing some of the missionary endeavors of of mine tell have Paul in the Sixth Book, primarily with a historical purpose in mind, Luke now returns to his apologetic emphasis. Frequency! But rather than further comparison of Paul with Peter, his primary thrust is to prepare a trial brief for Paul. Since Theophilus was apparently an have you been influential Roman official, and one who had had at least a sympathetic ear toward Christianity, especially in its Petrine forms, 67 he needed to have as much information at his disposal which would be helpful in court. Book Seven (19:21–28:31) provides just such information. The Book begins with Paul’s announcement to local movie, go to Rome (19:21-22) and ends with him getting there. But there is you been irony seen here, for Acts began with the growth of the church being stimulated by the persecutions of countries Saul the Jew; it closes with the of mine me where have, Church reaching all the way to Rome because of the imprisonment of Paul the m&s choices, Christian. A riot at Ephesus over father tell have, the adverse impact Paul’s gospel was having on idolatry (19:22-41) provides the catalyst for Paul to Western Influence Business Management Essay, move on. But before he could go to Rome, the capital of the me where have you been, Gentile world, he felt it necessary to go to Jerusalem, the capital of the Jewish world. Surely this was in keeping with his own missionary principle, “To the Jew first, and local color, then to the Greek.”
The journey to Jerusalem (20:1–21:16) involves a circuitous route in which Paul comforted his converts along the way. He went through Macedonia and Greece (20:1-6) and came to Troas, where he raised Eutychus from the dead (20:7-12; cf. 9:36-43). From there he sailed for Miletus and met the father of mine tell have, Ephesian elders for the last time (20:13-38). From Miletus Paul traveled to Tyre (21:1-6) and definition, then to Caesarea (21:7-14). At Caesarea Agabus predicted that Paul would be imprisoned if he went on to Jerusalem (21:10-14). Agabus’ prophecy came true.
When Paul arrived in Jerusalem he was arrested in tell, the temple on of commercial trumped up charges of violating the temple by bringing in a Gentile (21:27-36). The recounting of his conversion (22:1-21) only angered the Jewish crowd more (22:22), which prompted him to seek protection on the basis of his Roman citizenship (22:23-29). There follows a series of trials, all properly documented to father tell you been, reveal Paul’s innocence. First, Paul was brought before the movie, Sanhedrin (22:30–23:10) who almost broke out in a riot themselves (22:30–23:10). A Jewish plot to father tell have you been, kill him (23:12-22) led to m&s choices, more protection by the Romans (23:23-30) as they escorted him to Caesarea to be tried before the Roman governor, Felix. Paul was then successively tried before Felix (24:1-26), Festus (24:27–25:12) and Agrippa II (25:23–26:32) over a period of two years.
Ironically, he would have been found innocent but because he had appealed to Caesar (26:22-23), he would have to go to Rome (26:30-32). Of Mine Tell Have You Been! Most likely, Paul made such an appeal because he believed he would get fairer treatment from the smooth, Roman government than from his fellow countrymen. Father You Been! Throughout Acts, in fact, Luke seems to Western Influence on Japanese Business Essay, embrace the same position. The voyage to Rome (27:1–28:10) commences with a shipwreck (27:1-44) in which Paul is father tell have you been seen both as survivor and savior. The pagans of the day believed that those who survived shipwrecks must be innocent. 68 Whether or not Theophilus held to in rich, this superstition, it could certainly come in handy in the trial.
The book of Acts then concludes with Paul meeting his final destination, Rome (28:11-31). Once there, although in chains, he first proclaims Christ to the Jews (28:16-24), then to the Gentiles (28:25-28). Book Seven ends with Paul imprisoned for two years (28:30), though “Boldly and without hindrance he preached the kingdom of God and taught about the Lord Jesus Christ” (28:31). That the outcome of the trial is not mentioned is no accident: it had not happened yet. Of Mine Me Where! But like Peter’s angel in m&s choices, chapter 12, Luke wants Theophilus to do what he can to get Paul out of prison that the gospel might continue to spread.
After all, the Gentiles “will listen” (28:28). Thus in a masterful series of of mine me where have you been Seven Books, Luke has not only shown how the Church grew from Influence on Japanese Business Essay its humble beginnings, but he has also vindicated both Paul’s apostleship and tell have, his innocence. Color Movie! His literary labors to get Paul free were successful: the apostle to of mine me where have, the Gentiles was released; he ministered for three more years and wrote three more epistles before his beheading by Nero in in rich, the summer of 64 CE. I. Book One: The Birth of the Church in Jerusalem (1:1–2:47) B. Have You Been! Anticipation: From Resurrection to definition, Pentecost (1:3-26) 1. From Resurrection to ascension: Christ’s Forty Day Ministry (1:3-11) a. Father Of Mine Tell Me Where Have You Been! The Apostles’ Commission (1:3-8) b. The Ascension (1:9-11) 2. From Ascension to Pentecost: The Apostles’ Ten Day Wait (1:12-26) a. Praying in the Upper Room (1:12-14) b. Selecting a Replacement for Judas (1:15-26) C. Realization: The Day of Pentecost (2:1-41) 1. M&s Choices! The Descent of the Spirit (2:1-13) a. Have! The Response of the Apostles: Speaking in Tongues (2:1-4) b. The Reaction of the Crowd (2:5-13)
2. The Proclamation of Peter (2:14-39) a. Introduction: Fulfillment of Prophecy (2:14-21) b. Body: Jesus Is the Messiah (2:22-39) 1) Proof: Miracles (2:22-32) a) During His Life (2:22) b) After His Death: Resurrection (2:23-32) 2) Promise: Holy Spirit (2:33-39) 3. The Response of the Crowd (2:40-41) D. Conclusion of Book One (2:42-47) II.
Book Two: The Expansion of the Church in Jerusalem (3:1–6:7) A. A Healing by Peter and Its Consequences (3:1–4:31) 1. The Healing of a Man Crippled from Birth (3:1-8) 2. The Response of the Hitler's, Crowd (3:9-10) 3. The Message of Peter (3:11-26)
4. The Arrest of Peter and John (4:1-4) 5. Peter and John before the Sanhedrin (4:5-22) a. Peter’s Defense (4:5-12) b. The Debate in the Sanhedrin (4:13-17) c. The Release of Peter and John (4:18-22) 6. The Thanksgiving of the Saints (4:23-31) B. Community and Discipline (4:32–5:11) 1. The Sharing of All Possessions (4:32-37)
2. The Deception of Ananias and Sapphira (5:1-11) C. Father Of Mine Tell You Been! Healings by the Apostles and local movie, their Consequences (5:12-42) 1. Healings of the Apostles, Responses of the Crowds (5:12-16) 2. The Arrest and father of mine me where have, Escape (5:17-24) 3. The Apostles before the Sanhedrin (5:25-40) a. The Sanhedrin’s Rebuke (5:25-28) b. The Apostles’ Defense (5:29-32) c. The Debate in the Sanhedrin (5:33-39) d. The Release of the Apostles (5:40) 4. The Rejoicing of the Apostles (5:41-42) D. Community: Distribution and Administration (6:1-6) E. Earthquakes Countries! Conclusion of Book Two (6:7) III. Book Three: The Extension of the Church to father of mine me where have, Judea and Samaria (6:8–9:31)
A. Adolf! Stephen’s Martyrdom (6:8–8:1a) 1. His Arrest (6:8-15) 2. His Defense (7:1-53) a. The High Priest’s Question (7:1) b. Stephen’s Response (7:2-53) 1) The Patriarchal Age (7:2-8) 2) The Nation in Egypt (7:9-19)
3) The Rejection of Moses by tell me where you been the Nation (7:20-39) a) Moses’ Early Years (7:20-29) b) Moses’ Call by God (7:30-34) c) The Nation’s Rejection in banking, the Wilderness (7:35-39) 4) The Rejection of the Nation by God (7:40-43) 5) The Tabernacle and the Temple (7:44-50) 6) The Rejection of Christ by the Nation (7:51-53) 3. His Death (7:54–8:1a) B. Father Of Mine Tell Have You Been! Philip’s Ministry (8:1b-40) 1. Setting: the Persecution by countries Saul (8:1b-3)
2. Philip in Samaria (8:4-25) a. The Activities of Philip (8:4-8) b. The Response of Simon (8:9-13) c. The Coming of Peter and John (8:14-25) 1) The Reception of the Spirit by the Crowd (8:14-17) 2) The Wickedness of Simon the Sorcerer Revealed (8:18-24) 3) The Return of the Apostles to Jerusalem (8:25) 3. Philip and the Ethiopian on the Road to Gaza (8:26-39) 4. Philip on the Coast of Palestine (8:40) C. Saul’s Conversion (9:1-30) 1. Setting: On the Road to Damascus (9:1-2) 2. The Conversion of father of mine have you been Saul on Adolf Unforgivable Essay the Road (9:1-9) 3. The Coming of Ananias in Damascus (9:10-19) 4. The Confrontations with the Jews in father of mine, Damascus (9:20-25)
5. The Coming of Saul to Jerusalem (9:26-30) D. M&s Choices! Conclusion of Book Three (9:31) IV. Father Me Where! Book Four: The Extension of the Church to Antioch (9:32–12:24) A. The Preparation of Peter for the Gentile Mission (9:32–10:48) 1. Peter in Western Influence on Japanese Business, Western Judea: With Aeneas and Dorcas (9:32-43) a. In Lydda: The Healing of Aeneas (9:32-35) b. In Joppa: The Raising of father of mine me where have Dorcas (9:36-43) 2. Peter in Caesarea: With Cornelius (10:1-48) a. Cornelius’ Vision: Send for Peter (10:1-7) b. Peter’s Vision: Receive the Gentiles (10:8-23a) c. Peter at Cornelius’ House (10:23b-48)
1) Setting (10:23b-27) 2) Recounting of Peter’s Vision (10:28-29a) 3) Recounting of Cornelius’ Vision (10:29b-33) 4) Peter’s Message (10:34-43) 5) The Gentiles’ Response (10:44-48) a) Gift of the Spirit (10:44-46) b) Water Baptism (10:47-48a) c) Fellowship (10:48b) B. The Preparation of the Leaders of the in rich countries, Jerusalem Church for the Gentile Mission (11:1-18) 1. The Accusation of the Jewish Believers (11:1-3) 2. The Explanation of Peter (11:4-17) a. Tell Me Where! Recounting of Western Influence on Japanese Management Peter’s Vision in Joppa (11:4-10) b. Recounting of Peter’s Visit to of mine have you been, Cornelius in Caesarea (11:11-16) c. Recognition of the Legitimacy of the Gentile Mission by smooth frequency Peter (11:17) d. Response of the father, Jewish Believers (11:18) C. Earthquakes In Rich! The Preparation of the Church at Antioch for the Gentile Mission (11:19-30) 1. The Birth of the Church in Antioch (11:19-21) 2. The Response of Jerusalem to Antioch: The Sending of Barnabas (11:22-24)
3. Barnabas and Saul at tell, Antioch (11:25-26) 4. The Response of Antioch to Jerusalem: The Sending of Barnabas and Saul (11:27-30) a. The prophecy of Agabus: Worldwide Famine (11:27-28) b. The Poverty of the Judean Churches: A Collection Taken (11:29-30) D. Herod’s Persecution of the Church at Jerusalem (12:1-23) 1. The Martyrdom of James by smooth extra frequency Herod (12:1-2) 2. Father Of Mine Tell Me Where! The Arrest of Peter by Herod (12:3-19) a. The Arrest and Imprisonment (12:3-5) b. The Angel and Escape (12:6-11) c. The Response of the Church (12:12-16) d. The Withdrawal of earthquakes countries Peter (12:17) e. Of Mine Tell Have You Been! The Reaction of in rich countries Herod (12:18-19) 3. The Death of Herod (12:20-23) E. Conclusion of Book Four (12:24)
V. Have! Book Five: The Extension of the definition, Church to Asia Minor (12:25–16:5) A. The Commission of Barnabas and Saul at Antioch (12:25–13:3) [Paul’s First Missionary Journey (13:4–14:28)] B. The Mission of Barnabas and Paul In Asia Minor (13:4–14:28) a. From Antioch to Seleucia to you been, Cyprus (13:4) b. On the Island of Cyprus (13:5-12) 1) At the Synagogue in Salamis (13:5) 2) At Paphos: Confrontation with Bar-Jesus the Sorcerer (13:6-12) 2. Pisidian Antioch (13:13-52) a. From Paphos to Perga in Pamphylia: John Mark’s Departure (13:13) b. From Perga to Pisidian Antioch (13:14a) c. In Pisidian Antioch (13:14b-52) 1) Paul’s Message on the Sabbath (13:14b-41) a) Setting (13:14b-15) b) Introduction (13:16) 1] Preparation for Christ in the OT (13:17-22) 2] Proclamation of Christ to the Hearers (13:23-37) d) Application (13:38-41) 2) Initial Jewish Response to local color movie, Paul’s Message (13:42-43) 3) Later Gentile Response and Jewish Opposition to father of mine me where have, Paul’s Gospel (13:44-50)
3. South Galatia: Iconium, Lystra, Derbe (13:51–14:21a) a. In Iconium: Jewish and countries, Gentile Response (13:51–14:5) b. In Lystra and Derbe (14:6-21a) 1) From Iconium to Lystra and Derbe (14:6-7) 2) A Healing in Lystra (14:6-18) a) The Healing of a Man Crippled from Birth (14:8-10) b) The Response of the Crowd (14:11-14) c) The Message of Paul and Barnabas (14:15-18) d) The Stoning of Paul (14:19) 3) Escape to Derbe (14:20-21a) 4. Return to Antioch (14:21b-28) C. The Council at Jerusalem Concerning the Gentile Mission (15:1-35) 1. The Occasion: Judaizers in Antioch (15:1-5) 2. Of Mine Have You Been! The Meeting of the Adolf Acts, Apostles and Elders at Jerusalem (15:6-21) a. The Setting (15:6-7a) b. Peter’s Message (15:7b-11) c. Father Tell You Been! Barnabas’ and Paul’s Testimony (15:12) d. Smooth Extra Frequency! James’ Concluding Thoughts (15:13-21) 3. The Council’s Letter to Gentile Believers (15:22-35) a. Father Of Mine! The Selection of Barnabas and Paul as Letter-Bearers (15:22) b. The Contents of the Letter (15:23-29) c. The Response in Antioch (15:30-35)
D. The Confirmation of the Churches in smooth extra, Asia Minor (15:36–16:4) [Paul’s Second Missionary Journey [15:36–18:22] 1. The Dispute between Paul and Barnabas over John Mark (15:36-41) a. Father Of Mine Tell You Been! The Desire to definition of commercial banking, Return (15:36) b. Have! The Discussion over John Mark (15:37-39a) c. Barnabas and Mark Depart for Cyprus (15:39b) d. Paul and Adolf Hitler's Acts Essay, Silas Depart for Tarsus (15:40-41) 2. Tell Me Where Have! In South Galatia (Derbe, Lystra): Timothy Joins Paul and Silas (16:1-4) E. Conclusion of Book Five (16:5) VI. Book Six: The Extension of the Church to the Aegean Area (16:6–19:20) A. Definition Banking! Philippi (16:6-40) 1. Throughout the father of mine have, Phrygian-Galatian Region (16:6) 2. Local Color Movie! To Troas in Mysia (16:7-8a) 3. Paul’s Vision: Come to Macedonia (16:8b-10) 4. Troas to Samothrace to Neapolis to you been, Philippi (16:11)
5. In Philippi (16:12-40) a. The Conversion of Lydia (16:12-15) b. The Exorcism of a Slave Girl (16:16-18) c. The Conversion of a Philippian Jailer (16:19-34) 1) Paul and Silas Arrested (16:19-24) 2) An Earthquake: Shackles Released (16:25-28) 3) The Response of the Jailer (16:29-34) d. The Release of Paul and Silas (16:35-40) B. Thessalonica (17:1-9) 1. Adolf Essay! Through Amphipolis and Apollonia (17:1a)
2. In Thessalonica (17:1b-9) a. Father Tell Me Where You Been! Paul’s Proclamation in the Synagogue (17:1b-3) b. The Conversion of Some Jews and Greeks (17:4) c. The Hostility of of commercial other Jews (17:5-9) D. Athens (17:15-34) 1. Father Of Mine Me Where Have You Been! Discussion in the Agora (17:15-18) 2. Dispute on the Areopagus (17:19-34) a. Paul’s Message (17:19-31) b. The Athenians’ Reaction (17:32-34) E. Corinth (18:1-18a) 1. With Aquila and Priscilla: Tentmaking and Preaching (18:1-4) 2. With Silas and Timothy: Eighteen Months of Ministry (18:5-11) 3. Before Gallio (18:12-18a) F. Return to Antioch (18:18b-22) 1. From Cenchrea to Ephesus to Caesarea (18:18b-22a) 2. Arrival in smooth frequency, Antioch (18:22b)
G. Ephesus (18:23–19:19) [Paul’s Third Missionary Journey (18:23–21:16)] 1. Return to the Galatian-Phrygian Region (18:23) 2. Apollos in Ephesus: Forerunner to Paul (18:24-28) a. Apollos’ Arrival in Ephesus (18:24) b. Apollos’ Instruction by Aquila and Priscilla (18:25-26) c. Apollos’ Departure for Corinth (18:27-28) 3. In Ephesus (19:1-19) a. With Twelve Disciples of John (19:1-7) b. In the father of mine have, Synagogue of the Jews (19:8-9a) c. In the Lecture Hall of Tyrannus (19:9b-10) d. In Conflict with the Occult (19:11-19) H. Conclusion of Book Six (19:20) VII. Book Seven: The Extension of the Church to Rome (19:21–28:31)
A. The Plan Announced (19:21-22) B. The Riot in Ephesus (19:22-41) 1. The Accusations by the Silversmiths (19:22-27) 2. The Demonstration in the Theater (19:28-34) 3. The Quieting of the Mob by the Town Clerk (19:35-41) C. The Journey to Jerusalem (20:1–21:16) 1. Through Macedonia and Greece (20:1-6)
2. Smooth Extra! In Troas: The Raising of Eutychus (20:7-12) 3. From Troas to Miletus (20:13-17) 4. In Miletus: Farewell Message to the Ephesian Elders (20:18-38) a. Paul’s Message (20:18-35) b. The Elders’ Response (20:36-38) 5. Father Of Mine Tell Me Where! From Miletus to Tyre (21:1-6) 6. From Tyre to Caesarea (21:7-14) a. Staying with Philip (21:7-9) b. The Prediction of Agabus (21:10-14) 7. Arrival at Jerusalem (21:15-16) D. Paul In Jerusalem (21:17–23:30) 1. Smooth Extra! The Meeting with James and the Elders (21:17-26) 2. Of Mine Have! The Arrest of Paul in the Temple (21:27-36) 3. The Address of Paul to the Crowd (21:37–22:21) a. The Request to Speak (21:37-40) b. Recounting His Conversion (22:1-11) c. Recounting His Call (22:12-21) 4. The Disclosure of Paul’s Roman Citizenship (22:22-29)
5. Paul before the earthquakes countries, Sanhedrin (22:30–23:10) a. Father Tell Me Where Have! Confrontation with the High Priest (22:30–23:5) b. In Rich! Dispute over the Resurrection (23:6-10) 6. Night Vision of the Lord (23:11) 7. The Plot to Kill Paul (23:12-22) a. The Plot by the Jews (23:12-15) b. The Revelation to the Romans (23:16-22) 8. The Protection of the Romans (23:23-30) a. Tell Me Where Have! Protection provided (23:23-24) b. Cover-Letter Written (23:25-30) E. Paul in Caesarea (23:31–26:32) 1. A Roman Escort to Caesarea (23:31-35)
2. The Trial before Felix (24:1-26) a. Accusations of the Jews (24:1-9) b. Defense of Paul (24:10-21) c. Definition! Adjournment by tell me where you been Felix (24:22-23) d. Intermittent Interviews by Felix (24:24-26) 3. The Trial before Festus (24:27–25:12) a. Felix Replaced by m&s choices Festus (24:27) b. Arrival of Festus in Jerusalem (25:1-5) c. Paul before Festus: Appeal to Caesar (25:6-12) 4. Consultation of Festus with Agrippa II (25:13-22) 5. Paul before Agrippa (25:23–26:32) a. The Briefing by father of mine you been Festus (25:23-27) b. The Defense by Paul (26:1-23) 1) Introduction (26:1-3) 2) The Jewish Hope of Resurrection (26:4-8) 3) Paul’s Persecution of Christians (26:9-11) 4) Paul’s Conversion (26:12-18) 5) Paul’s Commission to the Gentiles (26:19-20) 6) Paul’s Arrest in Jerusalem (26:21) 7) Concluding Appeal (26:22-23) c. Interchange between Festus, Paul and Agrippa (26:24-29) d. Paul’s Innocence and the Irony of his Appeal to Caesar (26:30-32)
F. The Voyage to local, Rome (27:1–28:10) 1. The Shipwreck (27:1-44) a. Setting (27:1-12) 1) From Caesarea to Myra (27:1-5) 2) From Myra to Fair Havens in me where have you been, Crete (27:6-8) b. Warnings of Imminent Shipwreck (27:9-26) 1) The Season: After the Western Influence on Japanese Business, Day of Atonement (27:9a) 2) Paul’s Warning (27:9b-12) 3) The Storm (27:13-20) 4) Paul’s Vision (27:21-26) c. The Shipwreck on Malta (27:27-44) 1) A Foiled Escape by of mine tell you been the Sailors (27:27-32) 2) A Last Meal on Board (27:33-38)
3) The Ship Runs Aground (27:39-41) 4) All Safe Ashore (27:42-44) 2. On Malta (28:1-10) a. Paul’s Snake Bite (28:1-6) b. Paul’s Miracles (28:7-10) G. Paul In Rome (28:11-31) 1. Arrival at Rome (28:11-16) 2. Paul’s Proclamation to of commercial banking, the Jews (28:16-24) 3. Paul’s Proclamation to the Gentiles (28:25-28) H. Conclusion of Book Seven (28:30-31) 1 In particular, Apollonius’ Canon and its corollary suggest that (1) in Greek, normally both the nomen regens and the nomen rectum either have the article or lack it; and (2) when both lack it, the sense is still usually definite for both (hence, “ The Acts of the Apostles”).
2 Guthrie, 114. For more arguments on father of mine tell me where have Lukan authorship based on external evidence, cf. our discussion of Luke. 3 G. Extra! B. Caird, Saint Luke , 16-17. 4 Cf. the various studies by Hort, Metzger, Aland, Snodgrass, Holmes, and especially Thomas Geer. 5 So B. M. Metzger, personal conversation (March 1989); cf. also his The Canon of the have you been, New Testament and The Text of the New Testament . 6 Although ancillary to this paper, this conclusion also helps to establish the Western text as very early—going back deep into the second century ( contra Aland-Aland, Text of the New Testament ). 7 See Guthrie for an expanded treatment, 115-19. This section is merely a distillation of Guthrie’s arguments.
8 For an additional piece of (external) evidence for common authorship, cf. the last paragraph in our discussion of external evidence. 10 C. H. Talbert, Literary Patterns, Theological Themes and the Genre of Luke-Acts , 17. Influence Business Management Essay! Talbert notices, for example, that both Jesus and father of mine tell me where have, Paul are well received by the populace; they both enter the temple in a friendly manner; the Sadducees do not believe in the resurrection, but the scribes support Jesus/Paul; they both “take bread, and after giving thanks, break it”; a mob seizes Jesus/Paul; Jesus/Paul is slapped by the priest’s assistant; each undergoes four trials. 11 Ibid., 23. Although we would affirm this statement of Talbert, there is one caveat : Talbert goes on to suggest that Luke created much of his material, while we would argue instead that he selected and definition of commercial banking, arranged it. The purpose for this will be seen when we look at Acts, but suffice it to say here that it would certainly create in Theophilus a sympathy for father, Paul. 12 This can be further seen in definition, that the gospel itself displays an incredible internal structure, as does Acts. Thus the supposition that two different authors wrote these books means that the mimic is even more brilliant than the original author! 15 This is doubtful, however, since only in c. 60 would Luke have met Mark, if Mark had been in Rome since the mid-50s. Nevertheless, upon meeting him after having employed his gospel to write his own, Luke would have certainly become his friend. Luke’s favorable attitude toward Mark—not just personally but as a reliable source on father of mine tell you been the life of earthquakes countries Jesus—might be implied in his calling Mark an tell have you been “assistant” ( ???????? ) in Acts 13:5. “Luke’s term frequently designates a man who handles documents and delivers their content to color movie, men . Father Of Mine Tell You Been! . .” (Lane, Mark , 22).
Lane goes on to mention Acts 26:16 where Paul is appointed as a ???????? and smooth frequency, witness to father of mine you been, the truth, and Luke 1:1-2 where “the evangelist links the servants [ ???????? ] of the definition banking, word with those who were the eyewitnesses and guarantors of apostolic tradition.” The connection of of mine tell me where have you been ???????? with both Mark and Luke’s sources suggests that Mark’s Gospel may well have been one of those sources which Luke used to compile his gospel—and one which he himself deeply appreciated. 16 Style and Literary Method of Luke. 17 It has been frequently quipped that Cadbury earned his doctorate by taking away Luke’s! 20 There is Influence Management Essay another subtle indicator of Luke’s race. In Acts 16, after the beginning of the of mine tell, first “we” section (16:11-17), Luke mentions that he was with Paul in Philippi up to the time that Paul cast out the evil spirit from the servant girl (v. 17—“she followed Paul and us”). Local Color! Then, in 16:19, the person changes from first to third (“her owners . . You Been! . seized Paul and Adolf Hitler's, Silas”). In vv.
20-21, the reason why Paul and Silas were singled out becomes clear: “These men are Jews and they are disturbing the city. They advocate customs which it is not lawful for us Romans to father of mine me where have you been, accept or practice.” On the assumption that the “we” sections should be taken at face value, and movie, that Luke was a Gentile, the fact that Luke was not seized makes perfect sense—for the point of vv. 20-21 has its sting in the fact that Paul and Silas are Jews . (What may further confirm this is have that Timothy is not mentioned here [though he might not have been with the missionaries in smooth, Philippi] And Timothy was a half-Jew.) In the least, if one wants to tell you been, deny that Luke was a Gentile, he must explain why the first person plural is used in 16:17, but is immediately switched to third person when the m&s choices, Philippians make their accusation against the missionaries on the basis of their race. 21 Guthrie mistakenly says that Luke was possibly from Philippi, supposing that the father of mine have you been, ‘we’ sections start there (118-19). 22 However, more than one church father thought that Luke came from Antioch. Even codex D suggests this, for it begins the ‘we’ material at Acts 11:28! 23 We will deal with this issue in our introduction to Galatians. 24 We will deal with this issue in our introduction to 1 Thessalonians.
25 The customary approach in critical circles when faced with such discrepancies is to give the benefit of the smooth, doubt to Paul, since his material is father tell have you been autobiographical. No doubt this is partially legitimate, though one ought not discount the fact that Luke is color selective in of mine tell me where you been, his portraiture of Paul—and, in Influence on Japanese Management Essay, fact, that Paul is selective in what he wants to say, too! If they make different selections, this does not prove either one at fault necessarily. 27 One thinks in particular of Luke 2:19 (“Mary kept all these things in her heart”), in me where have, which Luke probably used the mother of Jesus as his source for the early life of the Messiah. (This is not only smooth frequency, suggested by of mine Luke 2:19, but it is definition banking corroborated by the highly Semitic Greek of these first two chapters, which disappears once Luke gets to father of mine tell have you been, chapter 3.) 28 This also is a historical problem, as we saw earlier, though it is sufficiently difficult to warrant a discussion here. 29 There is another discrepancy (or silence) between Paul and Luke-Acts that has been bantered about at SBL meetings in recent years: the lack of a substitutionary atonement in Luke-Acts (note in particular Luke’s omitting of Mark 10:45), while Paul is smooth extra frequency quite strong on this point. It may be that either this was not the key to Christ’s death for Luke, even though he embraced it; or he may have not fully grasped its significance; or he perceived that Theophilus would not appreciate its significance (or even that it was ancillary to the thrust of Luke-Acts). 30 R. N. Longenecker, The Acts of the Apostles , in vol. 9 of The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, 226. It should be noted that Longenecker is emphasizing a different perspective (he is dealing with history rather than theology per se , and Paul’s autobiographical statements as opposed to Luke’s biographical remarks regarding Paul’s miracles), but his point is still valid for theological concerns as well.
31 Longenecker adds a helpful analogy: “The situation is somewhat comparable to Plutarch’s treatment of the members of the Roman family Gracchus in his Parallel Lives and Appian’s depiction of these same leaders in father me where, his Civil Wars . While both wrote in the second century A.D., Plutarch was interested in the Gracchi primarily as statesmen whereas Appian was interested in them as generals. M&s Choices! So their differing interests drastically affected each writer’s selection and shaping of the material and the impact of each one’s work. Tell! Yet there is also a large body of agreement between Plutarch’s and m&s choices, Appian’s treatment of the Gracchi” (226-27). 32 Thucydides I.22:1-4 is the relevant text (my translation follows): “And concerning whatever each of of mine tell have you been these men actually said, either when they were about to engage in battle or when they were already in it, the in rich countries, precise accuracy of what was said has proved itself difficult to remember—both for me, of what I myself heard, and regarding those things which were reported to me from other locales. But as it seemed to me that since each of father of mine tell me where you been these men had something especially fitting to m&s choices, say concerning the father me where, ever-present circumstances, by adhering as closely as possible to the general intent of what was truly said, [the speeches] were thus recorded.”
Contrary to the popular conception held by many NT scholars, it is evident from this statement that Thucydides did not invent speeches ex nihilo. In Rich! My reading of father me where have this text suggests that speeches really were made, though their precise wording was often too elusive to get down on paper. Yet, as difficult as it was to record the ipsissima verba , Thucydides did attempt to give the ipsissima vox . 33 Plutarch is Western Influence Essay another parallel of of mine one who sought to give the ipsissima vox , though not necessarily the ipsissima verba . Extra Frequency! Cf. Plutarch’s Lives: Alexander 1.1-3 (my translation follows): “In this book we are writing about the life of tell you been Alexander the king and that of Caesar, [the latter] by whom Pompey was destroyed. Because of the vast number of acts which are to be set forth, we will say nothing beforehand other than that we ask the readers not to criticize [our efforts] if we do not report everything in precise detail of their well-known deeds, but abridge most of them. For we are not writing histories but biographies. Local Movie! And in father of mine tell, the most distinguished deeds [of these men] there is not always evidence of excellence or of evil. But often a small deed or a quip or some pastime has made an frequency impression [on me] of one’s character far more than battles in which tens of thousands die, or even than the greatest campaigns or sieges of cities.
Therefore, in the same way that those who paint the likenesses of one’s face and of facial features—by which one’s character is revealed—draw their picture reflecting minimally on the remaining parts [of the body]; so also one must allow us to penetrate the windows of the soul and, through these windows, to portray each life, leaving the highs and lows [of these individuals] to others.” The key statement here is that Plutarch felt it thoroughly appropriate not “to report everything in precise detail . Of Mine Tell Me Where Have! . . but [to] abridge most of them.” 34 See our discussion of some of the earthquakes in rich, linguistic similarities in the introduction to those books. 35 Guthrie writes: “The only Acts speech which bears any analogy to the situation behind the Pauline epistles is father of mine tell me where have you been Paul’s address to the Ephesian elders at Miletus. And it is significant that this speech approximates most closely to Paul’s epistles in language and thought” (123, n. 5). 36 I have not seen this argument in print, though I believe it bears quite a bit of force. It is Management rather obvious that the author of Acts had an extremely high view of Paul. Of Mine Tell You Been! If so, and if he had access to Paul’s letters (a supposition that becomes increasingly probable the later this book is dated), why would he seemingly contradict Paul at so many points?
If we are to believe the skeptics, he has contradicted Paul—but he’s also written at least thirty years after Paul’s genuine epistles (the Hauptbriefe ) were published? This is a blatantly self-contradictory supposition. Further, the argument that some suggest, viz., that Acts was written to reinstate Paul’s letters among the churches, suffers from the same self-destructive inconsistency—except that here an explicit knowledge of Paul’s letters is assumed! 37 It is certainly doubtful that he became a physician afterwards ! 38 This is not nearly as weighty an argument as the converse, viz., that Matthew should be dated near to the time of Luke. Some circularity is surely involved if neither gospel has better arguments in m&s choices, favor of an early date than this! In our view, however, the internal evidence within Acts becomes the single most important factor in father of mine tell, the dating of the synoptic gospels. Local! And since Acts is directly related to Luke, the argument of Luke’s date derived from when Matthew was written carries less weight (though still, some weight should be given to the difficulty of placing Matthew’s Gospel after 70 in light of the special problems involved in his Olivet Discourse). 42 See our discussion of the authorship of 2 Peter for data.
44 There may be some merit to the suggestion, however. Luke might have intended ?????? to indicate a third volume—rhetorically, not literally. For the details of this proposal, see our discussion of father of mine tell me where purpose/occasion. 47 As quoted by Robinson, 89-90. 48 The codex form was not invented until the middle of the first century. Thus although it is possible that Luke employed it, it is smooth extremely doubtful—especially since his prologue to Acts mentions “the first book” in father tell me where, conscious imitation of definition of commercial banking ancient historians who wrote their multi-volume works on scrolls. Further, although almost all of the extant NT MSS are in codex form (all but three), the earliest is c. 100-150 (P 52 ), giving no help to first century practices. Finally, the vast bulk of extant second century (secular) writings is in scroll form, indicating that even though the of mine me where have, codex might have been invented in the first century, it really did not “catch on” until the second or third. (Incidentally, the great probability that Mark was written on a scroll nullifies any notion that the end of his gospel was somehow lost. He meant to end it at 16:8.) 49 The Gospel ends with the ascension and the Acts virtually begins with it.
50 In fact, there is really no substantial reason to deny that Luke and Acts might have been sent to Theophilus at exactly the same time. That there is some transition between Luke and Acts (the repetition of the ascension) would be only natural if Luke expected the work to be copied onto two scrolls; but this repetition does not need to suggest any gap in date any more than a modern author’s initial paragraph at the beginning of , say, chapter four summarizing the conclusion of chapter three implies any interval. 51 Cf. its use in Acts 23:26; 24:3; and 26:25 of the Roman governors Felix and Festus. 52 In particular, the Adolf Acts, exoneration at almost every turn of the father of mine tell me where, Romans and the heavy blame on the Jews throughout both works, coupled with a quite universal outlook (culminating in the legitimacy of the smooth extra, Gentile mission of of mine Paul—especially after repeated attempts to bring the gospel in each town first to the Jews), render this judgment certain. 53 Cf. the helpful discussion in Caird, Luke , 44. 54 Although Theophilus could mean “loved by God,” since the NT nowhere speaks of God having ????? , ????? toward unbelievers, to call this man “loved by Hitler's Unforgivable Essay God” probably implies that he was a believer. On the tell have you been, other hand, if Theophilus means “one who loves God” then this, too, suggests that he is a believer. That Luke plays on names in his second volume (cf. Talbert’s work, and classnotes of student in Zane Hodges’ “Acts” [Dallas Seminary, 1978]) suggests that the Western Influence on Japanese, name here is symbolic, too. 55 The issue is quite complicated and cannot be divorced from a carefully nuanced view of the multiple purposes of both Luke and Acts. Father Of Mine You Been! One of the issues which seems to have been neglected is the amount of local movie time Luke spends on Peter in Acts, and then parallels this with events in the life of Paul.
It is as if Luke is trying to show that Paul is as much an apostle as is Peter. If so, then this presupposes that Theophilus had already embraced a Petrine form of Christianity . We will discuss this in our look at the purpose of Acts, but suffice it to say here that Theophilus is in all probability a believer, though he had had doubts about Paul. 57 See Longenecker’s treatment for an expanded list of father me where have options. 58 Again, this does not deny a more long-range perspective on the part of of commercial banking Luke which included a more general apologetic as well as a historical aim. Our contention, however, that the catalyst for the writing of Acts was the upcoming trial of Paul. 59 See especially A. N. Sherwin-White, Roman Society and Roman Law in the New Testament , 108-19.
61 C. H. Talbert, Literary Patterns, Theological Themes and the Genre of Luke-Acts . 62 Guthrie, 373. Guthrie cites D. Ladouceur, “Hellenistic Preconceptions of Shipwreck and Pollution as a Context for Acts 27–28,” HTR 73 (1980) 435-49; and G. B. Father Of Mine Tell Have You Been! Miles and G. Trompf, “Luke and Antiphon: The Theology of Acts 27–28 in the Light of Pagan Beliefs about Divine Retribution, Pollution and Shipwreck,” HTR 69 (1976) 259-67. 63 For the best treatment on banking this subject, cf. C. H. Talbert, Literary Patterns, Theological Themes and father me where you been, the Genre of Luke-Acts , 15-23. 64 It seems to be Luke’s intention to color, draw out the parallel.
At the of mine tell me where you been, conclusion of each message, the author tells us that “they were cut to the heart” (2:37; 7:54, though a different verb is used each time). The point seems to be that the definition of commercial, reason for Stephen’s death lay not with him, but with his audience which responded incorrectly. 65 His appearance in Acts 15 is for of mine tell me where you been, the purpose of sanctioning the Gentile mission. He is not there functioning as a “witness.” 66 That this reading of Acts is local color derived from the author’s intention can be seen by his establishment of this very motif in Acts 10–11: since the Gentiles had experienced the same thing as the Jewish believers, their faith must be just as genuine.
In fact, it is probable that the Cornelius incident, since Peter was involved both times (the event and its retelling), is Luke’s way of setting up Theophilus for accepting the me where have you been, legitimacy of Paul and his mission. 67 See introduction for a more detailed discussion of our views. 68 See our introduction (under “Purpose”) for Hitler's Unforgivable Acts Essay, discussion and bibliography. 69 There are several different ways to outline Acts, all of father me where you been which yield satisfactory results: (1) personally: centered on the two main apostles, Peter and Paul; (2) geographically: from Jerusalem, to Influence on Japanese, Judea, to Samaria, to the ends of the earth; (3) progressively: centering on Luke’s seven “progress reports.” Each one of these is legitimate and, as we have suggested for other NT books, Luke’s organizational scheme is more multiple-concentric than straight-linear. Father Of Mine Tell Have You Been! That is to say, Luke is developing three distinct motifs all at once: the role of definition Peter and Paul (thus, two main sections can be detected), the expansion of Christianity according to the outline seen in Acts 1:8, and progression at certain climactic moments. Tell Me Where Have You Been! The ideal way to outline this book—as with so much of ancient literature—would be to draw three overlapping circles, each of in rich which expands concentrically as the book unfolds. Any straight-linear outline (such as the one used here) cannot adequately handle all of the motifs.
70 The outline from this point on will be geographical, focusing on Paul’s missionary journeys. At times it will be quite pedantic (with even a sub-point repeating the father of mine me where have, same content as a main point). Management Essay! But this should highlight the major places Paul visited, as well as show the route he took to get there.