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Social Conflict Theory in Sociology: Definition…
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Book Reports/All out info on theorists Spain book report 3469. Commercial! By: Danilo Ananias. Formal Name: Spanish State. Short Form: Spain. Term for Citizens: Spaniard(s). Capital: Madrid. Conflict Definition! Population: 38.8 million in insecurity song, 1986.
Projected 40 million by 1990, 42 million by 2000. Rate of annual growth from 0.8 percent to 1.2 percent from 1930s to 1980s. Growth rates expected to level off or to decline slightly for remainder of twentieth century. Education and Literacy: Primary education (age six to fourteen) free and compulsory. Insufficient number of conflict definition, state schools and teachers to meet this goal and an environmentalist, rising enrollment. Gap filled by private schools subsidized by state. By early 1980s, 40 percent of all schools private. By 1965 country had achieved nearly universal enrollment in primary grades. Secondary school attendance optional, but students deciding not to attend secondary school had to attend vocational training until age sixteen. In 1985 estimated 89 percent of students did attend secondary school, and 26 percent attended university.
Adult population 94-97 percent literate in late 1980s. Health: Uneven provision of health care. Maldistribution of health care resources of state's welfare system resulted in poor service in many areas, especially working-class neighborhoods of large cities. Definition! High ratio of doctors to inhabitants, but low ratio of nurses to inhabitants and relatively low public expenditures on health care compared with other West European countries. Poorest Country! Tuberculosis, typhoid, and leprosy not eradicated. Infant mortality rate 10 per 1,000 in 1985.
Life expectancy seventy-four years for males and eighty for females in late 1980s. Definition! Languages: Castilian Spanish official language and dominant in usage, especially in formal settings, but estimated one of four Spanish citizens had a different mother tongue. New 1978 Constitution allows for other languages to an Abundant Life:, be co-official within respective autonomous communities. Catalan, Galician, Euskera (the Basque language), Valencian, and Majorcan had such status by 1988. Theorists! Ethnic Groups: Spanish state encompassed numerous distinct ethnic and conceit, cultural minorities. New 1978 Constitution recognizes and guarantees autonomy of nationalities and regions making up Spanish state, and seventeen autonomous communities existed in conflict definition, late 1980s. Major ethnic groups: Basques, Catalans, Galicians, Andalusians, Valencians, Asturians, Navarrese, and Aragonese. Also small number of poorest country, Gypsies. Ethnonationalistic sentiment and commitment to the ethnic homeland varied among and within ethnic communities.
Nationalist and separatist sentiment ran deepest among Basques. Religion: 99 percent nominally Roman Catholic. Definition! Other 1 percent mostly other Christian faiths. Small Jewish community. Society generally becoming more secular as society and economy became more modern and developed. Poorest Country! Religious freedom guaranteed by conflict 1978 Constitution, which formally disestablishes Roman Catholicism as official religion. But church still enjoyed somewhat privileged status. Continuing government financial aid to church was contentious issue in late 1980s.
Size: Peninsular Spain covers 492,503 square kilometers. Spanish territory also encompasses the poorest country Balearic Islands (Spanish, Islas Baleares) in conflict definition, the Mediterranean Sea and the Canary Islands (Spanish, Canarias) in the Atlantic Ocean, as well as the city enclaves of Ceuta and become an environmentalist, Melilla in North Africa. Topography: Peninsular. landmass predominantly a vast highland plateau--the Meseta Central--surrounded and dissected by mountain ranges. Major lowland areas include narrow coastal plains, Andalusian Plain in southwest, and Ebro Basin in theorists definition, northeast.
Islands, especially Canary Islands, mountainous. Climate: Predominantly continental climate with hot, dry summers and rather harsh, cold winters. Wide diurnal and seasonal variations in temperature and low, irregular rainfall. Maritime climate prevails in muslim commercial bank, northern part of conflict theorists, country, characterized by relatively mild winters, warm but not hot summers, and generally abundant rainfall spread throughout year. Slight diurnal and seasonal variations in temperature. Mediterranean climate experienced from Andalusian Plain along south and east coasts, characterized by irregular, inadequate rainfall, mostly in autumn and winter. Gross Domestic Product (GDP): US$340.1 billion in 1988 (US$8,702 per capita).
Economy stagnant during late 1970s and first half of the 1980s, but real gross domestic product (GDP--see Glossary) growth averaged 3.3 percent in Extra Essay, 1986 and conflict, 5.5 percent in 1987, roughly double the West European rate. Insecurity Song! Agriculture: Made up about 5 percent of GDP in 1988 and employed about 15 percent of population. Very important producer of citrus fruits, olive oil, vegetables, and wine. Agricultural products made up more than 15 percent of country's exports. Productive and modern farming along southern and eastern coasts able to conflict, meet foreign competition. Small antiquated farms of northwestern region threatened by Spain's membership in European Community (EC--see Glossary). Industry: Made up about 30 percent of GDP and employed about one-third of work force in late 1980s. Consisted of unprofitable heavy industry segment, mainly government-owned, and profitable chemical and manufacturing components that accounted for most of Spain's exports. Services: Accounted for about half of GDP in 1988. Tourism vital to the economy, and it alone made up about a tenth of GDP.
In 1987 more than 50 million foreign tourists visited Spain. Imports: US$49.1 billion in 1987. Because of a surging economy, approximately one-fourth of conceit in literature, this amount consisted of capital goods and conflict, about one-fifth of consumer goods. Fuels made up approximately one-sixth. Exports: US$34.2 billion in 1987.
Raw materials, chemicals, and unfinished goods made up about one-third of this amount, as did non-food consumer goods, most notably cars and trucks. Insecurity Song! Agricultural products and wine supplied about one-sixth of conflict theorists definition, total exports. Major Trade Partners: In 1987 63.8 percent of Spain's exports went to the EC, which it supplied Spain with 54.6 of its imports. France was single biggest buyer of poorest country, Spanish exports, taking 18.9 percent in 1987. Federal Republic of conflict theorists, Germany (West Germany) most important exporter to how to become an environmentalist, Spain, supplying 16.1 percent that year. United States accounted, respectively, for 8.3 and 8.1 of Spain's imports and exports. Balance of Payments: Spain without a positive merchandise balance since 1960. However, large earnings from tourism and remittances from Spaniards working abroad guaranteed a positive current account balance up through 1987. General Economic Conditions: Strong growth since mid-1980s and controlled inflation made Spain's economy one of Western Europe's healthiest. Full membership in EC posed a threat for weaker sectors of the economy, both industrial and agricultural.
Spain had long had Western Europe's highest unemployment rate, more than 20 percent. Exchange Rate: In March 1988, 113.49 pesetas (see Glossary) to conflict definition, US$1. Fiscal year: Calendar year. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and insecurity song, citation styles, our writers have years of conflict theorists definition, ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is written from scratch based on your instructions and there is no plagiarism of any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions.
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Conflict Theory in Sociology -- Definition and…
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How to Summarize, Paraphrase, and Quote from Sources. As you identify and evaluate research sources, you must make accurate notes of information you think might be useful in your essay. Theorists Definition. There are many ways to take notes—from jotting down single words or phrases to photocopying entire articles. In Literature. (For instruction on note-taking, see “Taking Good Research Notes” in How to Research Your Topic on this Web Site.) There are three ways of incorporating source information into your own writing: summary , paraphrase , and theorists, direct quotation . When you summarize or paraphrase, you restate in your own words the idea(s) of another speaker or writer. When you quote, you reproduce the exact words of Extra Crimes are Justified, another speaker or writer.
Of the conflict definition three ways to introduce ideas from a source into your research papers for insecurity song college and university, direct quotation is the one you should use least€”except for literary essays (see Writing the Literary Essay on this Web site). Conflict Theorists. When you are writing about literature, quotations from the original work(s) are the primary evidence in your argument. Insecurity Song. Literary essays can also rely on quotations from secondary sources (critics). For an example of a research essay that relies on non-fiction literature for its sources, see Jessica Marlowe€™s €śWhat Makes You Happy?€ť on page 20 (APA format) and 441 (MLA format). Before we examine how to use source information in your research papers, let’s review what plagiarism is and theorists, how to avoid it. Plagiarism is the single most troublesome problem faced by students writing research papers and by the teachers who mark them. You can avoid it by citing (acknowledging) every piece of information that you found in the sources you used for poorest country your paper. Definition. Use an approved documentation style. See Format and Documentation on this Web site.
Here are the guidelines to follow: You do not need to give sources for facts or sayings that are common knowledge (e.g., “Edmonton is the Extra for Hate Crimes capital of Alberta”; “Sir John A. Macdonald was Canada’s first prime minister”; “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder”). Any words taken directly from a source must be marked as a quotation, and you must give full information about the source. (See the “Quoting” section below). Facts, opinions, and conflict, ideas that you found on poorest country, the Internet, in a book or article, or in any other source must be acknowledged even if you express the conflict information in how to become your own words. (See Format and Documentation .) Facts, opinions, and conflict theorists, ideas that you remember reading or hearing somewhere cannot be presented as your own. If you cannot find and muslim commercial, acknowledge a source, you should not use the information. Conflict. Note: Google is helpful in poorest country tracking down sources of information. If you aren’t sure if a fact, opinion, or idea should be acknowledged, err on the side of caution and cite it. (It’s better to be safe than sorry.) When you summarize information, you find the main ideas in an article, essay, report, or other document, and conflict theorists, rephrase them.
You shorten (condense) the conceit in literature most important idea or ideas in the source material and express them in your own words. The purpose of theorists, summarizing is to give the reader an commercial overview of the theorists definition article, report, or chapter. If the reader is interested in the details, he or she will read the original. It’s hard to overstate how valuable the ability to summarize is. Note-taking in school is one form of summarizing. Penalties. Abstracts of articles, executive summaries of reports, market surveys, legal decisions, research findings, and records (called “minutes”) of meetings, to name only a few kinds of formal documents, are all summaries. Thesis statements and topic sentences are essentially summaries; so, often, are conclusions. In committee, group, or teamwork, imagination and creativity are valuable, but the ability to summarize is even more so.
There is no communication skill that you will need or use more than summarizing. In conversation, we all summarize every day: for example, with friends, you may summarize the conflict definition plot of a movie you’ve just seen or what happened in class this morning; when your mother calls, you’ll summarize the events of the past week that you want her to know about. But most of an environmentalist, us are not very good at summarizing efficiently, especially in writing. Written summaries, unlike conversational ones, require planning. Summarizing effectively is a skill that doesn’t come naturally. You need to practise it . The work you summarize can be as short as a paragraph or a poem, or as long as a book. Conflict Definition. Before you can summarize anything, you need to read and understand it. The material you summarize is usually an article, essay, or chapter (or some portion of it). A typical summary for an undergraduate research paper ranges from a few sentences to one or two paragraphs.
Here€™s how to poorest country, proceed: Read through the piece carefully, looking up any words you don’t understand. Write the meanings above the words they apply to. The title often identifies the subject of the theorists article, and a subtitle usually indicates its focus. If the piece is long, the writer will often divide it into a number of smaller sections, each with its own heading. These headings usually signal key ideas. If there are no headings, pay particular attention to the introduction, where you are likely to Living Life: Essay, find an overview of the subject, together with a statement of the thesis; the topic sentence of each paragraph (topic sentences identify key ideas); and the conclusion, which often summarizes the thesis and points to its significance. In his essay “Put What Where? 2,000 Years of Bizarre Sexual Advice,” John Naish provides us with a history of sex manuals ranging from the conflict theorists definition oldest surviving examples written by the Chinese in 300 B.C. to the current mind-boggling array of Extra Penalties for Hate Crimes are Justified, books, videos, and DVDs available to conflict definition, consumers at the beginning of the 21st century. Then state, in order, the author’s key ideas. After each sentence in how to become an environmentalist which you identify a key idea, add in your own words any necessary explanation or clarification of that point. (The author, remember, developed each idea in his or her supporting details; your job is to condense those details into definition, general statements that capture the become an environmentalist gist of the author’s point.)
Resist the temptation to look back at the article or essay as you write your summary. If you have truly understood the source you are summarizing, you should be able to explain each point from memory. The time to check your work against the source is when you’ve finished the first draft of your summary. If the author’s conclusion contains any new information (i.e., is theorists, more than a summary and memorable statement), briefly reword that information in Extra for Hate Crimes Essay your conclusion. Revise your draft until it is coherent, concise, and makes sense to someone who is definition, unfamiliar with the original work. It’s a good idea to get someone to read through your summary to check it for poorest country clarity and conflict, completeness. Here€™s an example of bank, summarizing in action. Turn to definition, page 112 of Canadian Content , where you will find Wade Davis€™s €śThe End of the Wild.€ť Read this essay, highlighting the main ideas as you read. Now read our summary of Living, this essay, below, and see how close you came to identifying what we think are its key points. In his essay, The End of the Wild,€ť Wade Davis provides us with three telling examples of the destruction humans have visited on Earth€™s life forms over conflict, the last 150 years. He begins with the conceit in literature plight of the passenger pigeon, which once constituted 40% of North America€™s bird population.
Between 1850 and conflict definition, 1900, the entire population of passenger pigeons was wiped out. Then Davis turns to the Great Plains buffalo, a species that outnumbered humans as late as 1871 but fell prey to commercial market hunters. Finally, Davis recounts his own experience working as a logger in the pristine rainforest of west coast British Columbia. Davis€™s point is that humans are bringing ecological disaster to the planet. (113-115) This five-sentence paragraph (117 words) captures the gist of Davis€™s 4150 -word essay.
Admittedly, it isn€™t very interesting. All of the details that make Wade€™s piece such a compelling read are missing. Summaries are useful for conveying an outline or a brief overview of someone€™s ideas, but by themselves they are not memorable. Details and specifics are what stick in a reader€™s mind. These are what your own writing should provide. A summary should be written entirely in your own words. Your ability to identify and interpret the author€™s ideas is evidence of Living an Abundant Essay, your understanding of the source you are summarizing.
If you must include a short phrase from the source because there is no other way to word it, enclose the quoted material in quotation marks and provide a page reference. Now that we€™ve provided you with the conflict €śdo€™s€ť about summarizing, it€™s time to warn you about the €śdon€™ts.€ť. Introduce any ideas that are not mentioned in your source change the proportion or emphasis of the ideas represented in your source introduce your own opinion of the ideas or opinions discussed in your source use the same or similar working of the ideas that you found in your source. When you paraphrase, you restate someone else’s ideas in insecurity song your own words. Conflict. Unlike a summary, a paraphrase includes both the main and supporting ideas of conceit, your source. The usual purpose of theorists, a paraphrase is to express someone else’s ideas more clearly and insecurity song, more simply—to translate what may be complex in definition the original into easily understandable prose. A paraphrase may be longer than the original, it may be about the same length, or it may be shorter. Whatever its length, a good paraphrase satisfies three criteria: It is clear, concise, and easy to understand. Occasionally, you may need to clarify technical language or explain an become aphorism, a proverb, or other saying that states a principle, offers an theorists insight, or teaches a point.
Statements that pack a lot of meaning into few words can be explained only at greater length. Conceit In Literature. For example, a phrase familiar to all baseball fans is conflict definition, €śhitting for Life: Oneself Essay the cycle.€ť It simply isn€™t possible to restate this phrase in three words. (It means that a batter gets a single, a double, a triple, and a home run in a single game.) To paraphrase a passage, you need to dig down through your source€™s words to conflict definition, the underlying ideas and then reword those ideas as clearly and Extra Crimes Essay, simply as you can. Like summarizing, the conflict definition ability to paraphrase is not an inborn talent; it takes patience and much practice to perfect it. But the rewards are worth your time and effort.
First, paraphrasing improves your reading skill as well as your writing skill. Second, it improves your memory. In order to paraphrase accurately, you must thoroughly understand what you€™ve read€”and once you understand something, you€™re not likely to in literature, forget it. Here€™s an example of how€”and how not€”to paraphrase. Let€™s assume we are writing an essay on the topic of alcoholic beverages you can make at home. To begin with, read the conflict definition following passage, an in literature excerpt from Paul Quarrington€™s €śHome Brew€ť:
Malt and conflict definition, yeast are all you truly need to make beer, and humankind has been making it for muslim something like 8,000 years. (Q: What has humankind been making for 8,000 years? A: Beer!) Hops did not appear on the European scene until the conflict theorists 12th century, and even at Living Life: Loving that time, there was a resistance in the form of laws forbidding their use. Hops are the flowers of the female hop vine (an aggressive spreader, it has earned the lovely nomenclature Humulus lupulus and is also known as the €śwolf of the willows€ť), and their resins and oils impart flavour of a slightly bitter nature to conflict theorists definition, the beer. (73) There are two pieces of information in this paragraph that we want to include in our essay: Humans have been making beer from malt and yeast for 8,000 years. The hops that give beer its bitter taste were a late addition to beer-making. If we are not careful, or if we don’t have much experience with paraphrasing, our first attempt at a paraphrase might look something like this: In his essay entitled €śHome Brew,€ť Paul Quarrington explains that malt and yeast are the only essentials in beer-making, an activity that humans have been doing for poorest country 8,000 years. The use of hops did not appear in European beer-making until the conflict theorists 12th century, and it was resisted by many. Hops are the flowers of the female hop vine ( Humulus lupulus , also known as €śwolf of the willows€ť), and their resins and oils add a bitter taste to poorest country, the beer. This is not paraphrasing€”it€™s plagiarism.
Although we have indicated the source of the information and left out Quarrington€™s stylistic flourishes, the wording is almost identical to that of the original. Conflict Theorists. There are no visual or verbal cues to alert the reader that these are Quarrington€™s words, not ours. Let€™s try again. In his essay €śHome Brew,€ť Paul Quarrington tells us that for about 80 centuries, humans have been using malt and yeast to brew beer. Hops were added to European beer in the 12th century; in some places, laws were passed prohibiting their use. Hops are the bank flowers of the female hop vine, which is known both by its Latin name, Humulus lupulus , and by the name €śwolf of the willows.€ť The resins and oils of the hop flowers add a bitter taste to the beer. Although this version avoids much of Quarrington€™s original phrasing, it doesn€™t demonstrate any work on our part.
We have replaced the source€™s words with synonyms and changed the sentences, but our paragraph is conflict, still too close to Crimes are Justified, the original. Conflict Theorists. An acceptable paraphrase does not pass off someone else€™s ideas as your own by changing a few words and sentence constructions. A good paraphrase goes further. It uses source information but rearranges it, rephrases it, and combines it with the writer€™s own ideas (and sometimes ideas taken from other research) to create something new. Extra Essay. Let€™s try once more: In €śHome Brew,€ť Paul Quarrington tells us that humans have been making beer for at least 8,000 years. While the conflict definition only ingredients necessary to Penalties Crimes are Justified, the brewing of conflict theorists, beer are malt (made from grains) and yeast, other ingredients have been added over time to enhance the taste. The most successful and persistent addition to the basic malt and yeast mixture was hops, the flower of Humulus lupulus , which Europeans first introduced in insecurity song the 12th century.
The addition of hops was not greeted with universal enthusiasm: many beer lovers believed the bitter flavour spoiled the purity of conflict, their beer. In some regions, this exotic addition to the basic brew was banned by law. (73) Here we have used paraphrase to incorporate information from conceit in literature, a published source, identified in the first sentence, into a paragraph whose topic and structure are our own. Our paraphrase is roughly the same length as the original passage. If you want to take ideas more directly from a source, retaining the original arrangement and conflict theorists, some of the wording, you should follow the guidelines given below for quotations. When learning to write research papers, students tend to use quotations more often than paraphrases or summaries to introduce other writers’ ideas into Extra Crimes are Justified, their own work. In fact, a good research paper (unless it is an conflict theorists essay on Living Life: Oneself Essay, a work of literature) usually relies more heavily on summary and paraphrase than it does on conflict definition, quotation. If you use too many quotations, your paper will be a patchwork of the ideas of others, in their words. Very little of your own thinking will be communicated to poorest country, the reader. Remember that the main reason teachers assign research papers is to test your ability to find, digest, and make sense of specific information about a topic.
If what you hand in consists of a string of quotations, your paper will demonstrate only the first of these three skills. In most research papers, the conflict definition ideas, facts, and statistics are the important things, not the Extra Essay wording of an idea or the explanation of facts or statistics. Occasionally, however, you will find that someone else—an expert in a particular field, a well-known author, or a respected public figure—has said what you want to say but eloquently, vividly, more memorably than you could ever hope to say it. In such cases, quotations, as long as they are short and not used too frequently , are useful in developing your topic. Conflict Theorists Definition. Carefully woven into your own paragraph, they help convince the reader of the validity of what you have to say. Use quotations in writing the how to an environmentalist way you use salt in cooking: sparingly.
You can quote from two kinds of conflict definition, sources— people you know, or have heard speak, or have interviewed print, electronic, or recorded materials (e.g., books, articles, CD-ROMs, Web sites, films, tapes) —and your quotation may be long or short. If the material you are quoting is more than 40 words or four typed lines, it is a long—or block—quotation. After you have introduced it in a phrase or sentence, you begin the quoted passage on a new line and indent all lines of the quotation 10 spaces or 2.5 cm from the left margin. How To Become An Environmentalist. Do not put quotation marks around a block quotation . The 10-space indentation is the conflict definition reader’s visual cue that this portion of the Living Oneself paragraph is someone else’s words, not yours. In the paragraph that follows, prize-winning author Diane Ackerman quotes David Bodanis at some length in her book A Natural History of the Senses (New York: Random House, 1990: 142–43). She signals that she is quoting by indenting the entire passage she has borrowed from Bodanis: Committees put a lot of definition, thought into the design of insecurity song, fast foods. As David Bodanis points out with such good humour in The Secret House , potato chips are.
an example of total destruction foods. The wild. attack on theorists, the plastic wrap, the slashing and. tearing you have to go through is insecurity song, exactly what the manufacturers wish. For the thing about crisp. foods is that they’re louder than non-crisp ones . . . Destructo-packaging sets a favourable mood. Theorists Definition. . . Commercial Bank. . Crisp foods have to be loud in the upper. register. They have to produce a high-frequency.
shattering; foods which generate low-frequency. rumblings are crunchy, or slurpy but not crisp. . Conflict Definition. . Bank. . Companies design potato chips to be too large to fit into the mouth, because in theorists order to hear the high-frequency crackling, you need to keep your mouth open. Chips are 80 percent air, and each time we bite one we break open the air-packed cells of the chip, making that noise we call “crispy.” Bodanis asks: How to get sufficiently rigid cell walls to how to become, twang at conflict definition these squeaking harmonics? Starch them.
The starch granules in potatoes are identical to the starch in stiff shirt collars. . Conceit. . . [In addition to starch,] all chips are soaked in fat. Conflict Definition. . . . So it’s a shrapnel of flying starch and fat that produces the conical air-pressure wave when our determined chip-muncher finally gets to finish her chomp. Notice that Ackerman is careful to tell her readers the source of her quotations. To introduce the muslim commercial bank first one, she gives the author’s full name and the title of theorists definition, his book. To introduce the second quotation, which is from the same book, she simply identifies the author by how to surname. Thus, she doesn’t waste words by repeating information, nor does she leave readers wondering where the theorists definition quotation came from. (The only insecurity song, information missing is the Bodanis book’s publication data—city, publisher, and date—which would be provided in definition the list of Extra for Hate Crimes are Justified Essay, sources. (See Format and Documentation .) A spot quotation is a word, a phrase, or a short sentence that is incorporated into conflict, one of your own sentences.
Put quotation marks before and after a spot quotation . The quotation marks are a signal to the reader that these aren’t your words; a new voice is speaking. The following paragraph from an article by Robert Fulford contains several spot quotations (The Use and Crimes are Justified Essay, Abuse of Quotations, The Globe and Mail , Nov. 11, 1992). “You are what you quote,” in the words of the American essayist Joseph Epstein, himself a heavy user of quotations and the writer who introduced “quotatious” into my vocabulary. Winston Churchill understood the value of a well-aimed quotation: as a young man he read a few pages of Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations every day to spruce up his style and compensate for his lack of a university education. [Gradually,] he transformed himself from a quotatious writer into the most quoted politician of the western world. . . Conflict Theorists. . Fowler’s Modern English Usage warns against quoting simply to poorest country, demonstrate knowledge: “The discerning reader detects it and theorists, is contemptuous,” while the undiscerning reader finds it tedious. A few years ago Garry Trudeau made fun of George Will’s compulsive quoting by inventing a researcher who served as “quote boy” in Will’s office: “‘Quote boy! Need something on the banality of contemporary society.’ ‘Right away, Dr. Will!’” . . . In Literature. As for me, I say don’t judge, because you might get judged, too. That’s how the quotation goes, right? (C1) In addition to illustrating how to introduce and conflict theorists, format block quotations and conceit, how to theorists definition, punctuate spot quotations, the examples given above also show you how to modify a quotation to fit your space and suit your purpose. Although you must quote exactly and never misrepresent or distort your source’s intention , you may, for conceit in literature reasons of conciseness or smoothness, omit or add a word or phrase or even a sentence or two.
To leave out a word or words , indicate the omission by theorists definition replacing the word(s) you’ve omitted with three spaced dots called ellipses (. . .). If the muslim commercial bank omission comes at the end of your sentence, add a fourth dot as the period. If you need to add or change a word or words to conflict, make the quoted passage more readable within your paragraph, use square brackets around your own words, as we did when we added “[In addition to starch,]” in Ackerman’s second block quotation from Bodanis and “[Gradually,]” to Fulford’s paragraph. Another reason for changing words in a quoted passage is to keep the verb tenses consistent throughout your paragraph. If you are writing in the present tense and the passage you are quoting is in the past tense, you can change the verbs to present tense (as long as the change doesn’t distort the meaning) and put square brackets around them so the reader knows you have made these changes. Modifying short quotations to make them fit smoothly into your own sentences without altering the source’s meaning takes practice.
Reread the paragraphs we borrowed from Ackerman and Fulford, above. Notice that both authors omitted material to make the quoted passages shorter and poorest country, easier to read, and that they have signalled these omissions to the reader by the use of conflict theorists, ellipses (. Poorest Country. . .). How to Integrate Quotations into Your Writing. When you decide to quote source material, you should introduce it so that it will blend as seamlessly as possible into your writing. Don’t simply park someone else’s words in the middle of your paragraph; you’ll disrupt the flow of thought. If Diane Ackerman were not so skillful a writer, she might have “dumped” quotations into her paragraph instead of integrating them. Contrast the readability of the paragraph below with that of Ackerman’s second Bodanis quotation. Companies design potato chips to theorists definition, be too large to fit into the mouth because, in order to hear the high-frequency crackling, you need to keep your mouth open. Insecurity Song. Chips are 80 percent air, and each time we bite one, we break open the air-packed cells of the chip, making that crispy noise. €śThe starch granules in potatoes are identical to the starch in stiff shirt collars.€ť Starch is definition, just one of the ingredients that contribute to the crispiness of potato chips. €śAll chips are soaked in how to become an environmentalist fat.€ť €śSo it€™s a shrapnel of flying starch and fat that produces the conical air pressure wave when our determined chip-muncher finally gets to finish her chomp.€ť. Without transitional phrases, the conflict theorists paragraph lacks coherence and doesn’t make sense.
Not convinced? Try reading Ackerman’s version and the above version aloud. Every quotation should be introduced and integrated into an essay in a way that makes clear the relationship between the quotation and your own argument. Penalties Are Justified. There are four ways to theorists, integrate a spot quotation . You can introduce it with a phrase such as “According to X,” or “Y states” (or observes , or comments , or writes ), followed by a comma. Different verbs suggest different attitudes toward the quoted material.
For example, “Fulford suggests that writers should not overuse quotations” is more tentative than “Fulford warns that writers should not overuse quotations.” Other verbs you can use to introduce quotations are asserts, notes, points out, maintains, shows, reports, and Living an Abundant Loving Oneself, claims . Choose your introductory verbs carefully, and be sure to theorists definition, use a variety of phrases. Repeating “X says,” “Y says,” and conceit in literature, “Z says,” is a sure way to put your reader to sleep. George Bernard Shaw's poor opinion of theorists definition, teachers is well known: “Those who can, do; those who can't, teach.” If the passage you are quoting is a couple of words, a phrase, or anything less than a complete sentence, do not use any punctuation to introduce it. Oscar Wilde defined fox hunters as the muslim bank “unspeakable in conflict theorists definition full pursuit of the uneatable.” If you insert your own words into conceit, the middle of a quotation, use commas to separate the source's words from yours. “It is a truth universally acknowledged,” writes Jane Austen at the beginning of Pride and Prejudice , “that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of theorists, a wife.” In general, periods and commas are placed inside the quotation marks (see the examples above). Unless they are part of the quoted material, colons, semicolons, question marks, exclamation marks, and dashes are placed outside the quotation marks.
Use single quotation marks to mark off a quotation within a quotation. A ccording to John Robert Colombo, “The most widely quoted Canadian aphorism of all time is Marshall McLuhan’s ‘The medium is the message.’” Block quotations are normally introduced by a complete sentence followed by a colon (for example, “X writes as follows:”). Then you copy the quotation, beginning on a new line and indenting the entire quotation 10 spaces or 2.5 cm. If your introductory statement is not a complete sentence, use a comma or no punctuation, whichever is appropriate. The passage by how to become an environmentalist Diane Ackerman contains examples of both ways to introduce block quotations. Can you explain why Ackerman used no punctuation to introduce the conflict definition first block quotation and a colon to Extra Penalties are Justified Essay, introduce the second one?
Tips on Using Quotations in Your Writing. Use quotations sparingly and for a specific purpose, such as for emphasis or to reinforce an important point. Avoid the temptation to definition, produce a patchwork paper—one that consists of bits and Extra for Hate Crimes, pieces of other people's writing stuck together to look like an conflict definition original work. Far from Extra Crimes, impressing your readers, overuse of quotations will give them the impression you have nothing of your own to say. Conflict Theorists. Be sure every quotation is an poorest country accurate reproduction of the theorists definition original passage.
If you need to change or omit words, indicate those changes with square brackets or ellipses, as appropriate. Muslim. Be sure every quotation is relevant . No matter how interesting or well worded, a quotation that does not clearly and directly relate to your subject does not belong in your essay. An irrelevant quotation will either confuse readers or annoy them (they’ll think it’s padding), or both. Make clear the link between the quotation and your controlling idea . Don’t assume that readers will automatically see the connection you see between the quotation and your topic sentence. Comment on the quotation so that they will be sure to make the conflict theorists connection you intend.
If you have used a block quotation, your explanatory comment can sometimes form the conclusion of your paragraph. Always identify the insecurity song source of a quotation . This can be done by definition mentioning in poorest country your paragraph the name of the author and, if appropriate, the title of the source of the conflict theorists definition quotation. Include the page number(s) in a parenthetical citation.
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6 Tips on How to Tailor Your Resume to a Job Description (Examples) What does a hiring manager look for in the right candidate? Well, that depends on the job. A sales recruiter wants someone who can sell. An engineering recruiter wants someone who can engineer. So, how do you use your skills and achievements to conflict theorists definition, persuade the hiring manager that you're the best candidate for insecurity song the position? You need to tailor your resume to every job description, and you need to know how to use the theorists, right keywords . I know you're probably thinking - B ut that's going to take ages! It’s way easier than it sounds. This guide will show you how to tailor your resume to Penalties Crimes, a specific job or an employer by finding the skills and conflict keywords recruiters are looking for, ranking them, and putting them in how to become critical places on your resume. And then it will tell you how to conflict theorists, link those skills to your achievements.
Some recruiters receive up to 250 resumes on average in response to an open position. Falling into that pile reduces your resume to poorest country, little more than a needle in a haystack. Theorists! On top of poorest country, that, recruiters have developed ways to eliminate bad eggs, making their lives easier and yours harder. They use two methods - Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) and quick scans. Definition! Both methods comprise a keyword scan. The only difference is an environmentalist who does the scanning - a human or R2D2. The only way to beat both is to saturate your resume with keywords from the job description - aka tailoring your resume. Sounds complicated, right? In fact, it couldn’t be easier. Before you get started, here is a sample job description and a tailored resume example: Take a look at conflict the highlighted keywords in the job description. Can you see how they are reflected in the resume?
You should try and put the keywords all over your resume: in the resume summary, skills, and in your experience. I will show you how to do this step-by-step. Extra Penalties For Hate Essay! Read on. Conflict! No One Keeps a Master List, But it Works so Well. To start, you’ll want to make a master list of your skills . List all of the skills you have - even odd ones like being able to tie a cherry stem with your tongue. Why?
Listing unrelated skills gets your creative juices flowing. Now, rank your professional skills , starting with your strongest and muslim bank most valuable skills. Your list will come in handy when you want to determine which of your skills are the most important when compared to theorists definition, skills listed in the job description. Now, I will show you how to customize your resume and skills to a job description. How to Find the conceit in literature, Keywords You Need to Tailor a Resume.
Okay, you’re going to conflict, your job description for skills. Highlight all of the skills and experience you can find. Here's how: And, voilà! You have keywords. Poorest Country! As long as you have these skills, you will put all of them on your resume. Where exactly do they go? Well, that depends on their importance. And how do you know that?
Start by finding a couple offers similar to theorists, yours. Now , highlight the in literature, skills. Definition! Next , make a list of overlapping skills. In Literature! Finally , go to LinkedIn and snoop around for professionals with the job title from your job offer. Note, professionals who have done a good job of conflict, optimizing their LinkedIn profiles will have used keywords. Poorest Country! That’s because using keywords on LinkedIn makes your profile easier to find. Here’s our guide on theorists how to bank, optimize your LinkedIn profile using keywords. Have a look at theorists their skills and experience sections to find these keywords. If they match any on your list of overlapping skills, there is a good chance that these repeated skills are the most valuable and desirable. An Abundant Life: Loving! Pro Tip: Once you finish tailoring your resume to conflict, the job description, you can go back to your lists and poorest country add important skills to your resume that didn’t show up in your job offer. Theorists Definition! Here's How to how to, Categorize Your Skills Before Tailoring Your Resume.
By categorizing the most important skills, you can prioritize their place on your resume. That will allow you to even better customize your resume to a specfic job desciption or an employer. There are three types of skills: These are arguably the most important because they are mandatory. For example, let’s say you are applying for a position as a Software Developer. The job description says Java is required. If you don’t know Java, then you can’t do the job.
Mandatory skills should go in conflict theorists the top third of your resume so that a recruiter knows right away that you’re qualified. You can add them to a resume summary or objective. Detail-oriented Software Developer with 5+ years of experience. Proficient in Java and C++ . How To! Note, detail-oriented is a typical example of an conflict theorists definition, adaptive skill. More on that later. Here are two articles that explain how to write a resume summary and an Abundant Essay the only way to write a resume objective . Both will give you an idea of how to work skills into the top third of your resume. But why is the top third so important? Because that’s the first place a hiring manager looks. And remember - she’s only scanning. Conflict Theorists! So, you want her to see your best skills within seconds. Check out this article on resume formats to become, see where other things can go on your resume.
Transferable skills “transfer” from one job to definition, another. They include things like the ability to use Microsoft Office or to speak Spanish. Look at Extra Penalties for Hate Crimes are Justified your lists. You should have two: The master list of your best skills. Your list of overlapping skills.
Find the definition, transferable skills in your job description. Do any of them rank as overlapping skills? Are any of them at the top of your personal skill list? If so, work the top skills into your experience section . An Abundant Oneself! The rest can go in your skills section . These are skills that help you “adapt” to society. They include intangible skills like integrity or discretion. The best way to work them into your resume is to use them to describe yourself. Remember the example?
Detail-oriented Software Developer with 5+ years of experience. Proficient in Java and C++. Detail-oriented is an adaptive skill. Find the adaptive skills that are repeated across your lists and add those that you feel most strongly define you throughout your resume. Also, have you considered adding a Hobbies and Interests section? Hobbies and adaptive skills are both great ways to show off your personality.
For example, to conflict definition, demonstrate that you are detail-oriented, prove it with a hobby that requires attention to detail . Adding hobbies is also a good way for students to flesh out their resumes. Draw Attention to Your Keywords Using Numbers and Achievements. Once you’ve got all of your keywords in place, it’s time to make them sparkle. One thing that will make your resume better than any other is demonstrating how well you use your skills. Poorest Country! Adding details like numbers and achievements will spice up your keywords. Let’s say you want to be a waiter at a fancy restaurant. The job description says: Excellent customer service skills required. So you write “ responsible for customer service ” as a bullet point under your present retail job.
Stop right there. What does “responsible for conflict theorists definition customer service” even mean? First , the number will draw the eye of the commercial, hiring manager directly to this point - where you’ve written the desired keyword verbatim. (You’ve just passed the scan test.) Second , the hiring manager can see exactly how your customer service skills result in conflict something tangible. When you’re in charge of Extra Penalties Crimes are Justified, customer service, customers are happier with their purchases, resulting in fewer returns. (You’ve just secured an interview.) Here is the full read on conflict definition how to add achievements to conceit in literature, your resume to effectively impress a hiring manager.
Here's How to Check If You Tailored Your Resume Well. When you’ve finished tailoring your resume, it’s time to theorists, check if you did a good job. Try dropping your resume into a cloud generator. An Environmentalist! It will show you how frequently you’ve used a word. If your keywords aren’t prominent, consider adding them more than once. Did you perform that skill at multiple jobs? Keep in conflict definition mind that the robots can sense whether you’ve added skills ad hoc or in a meaningful way. Next, check out poorest country, Jobscan’s ATS simulator. Drop your job offer and conflict theorists definition your resume into their tool to see how well you’ve used keywords. It’s ideal to have a match over 80% , if not Jobscan will provide you with personalized tips on how to do better.
Pro Tip: You will also want to tailor your cover letter to the job description by adding keywords. Here is a complete guide on how to write a cover letter if you need a quick refresher. Tailoring your resume to a job description is a must. And it’s the one piece of advice to rule them all. By tailoring your resume to the job description, you signal to the hiring manager that your resume is relevant and that you’re the right person for the job. So if you’ve ever wondered why you’re not getting called interviews, maybe it’s time to rethink sending that generic resume and get busy tailoring to every job offer. What are you waiting for? Still not sure how to tailor your resume to a job offer? Find any of the advice above confusing? Let us know in the comments, and we will get back to you. Thanks for bank reading!
Natalie is conflict definition a writer at Uptowork. Become An Environmentalist! She loves writing about resumes and definition eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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essays by winslow Editor's note: The following essay was rekeyed and conflict theorists definition, reprinted on July 20, 2004 in Penalties Crimes are Justified Essay Resource Library Magazine with permission of conflict theorists definition, The Fenimore Art Museum and an Abundant Loving Oneself, David Tatham. The essay was previously included in an illustrated exhibition catalogue for the exhibition Winslow Homer: Masterworks from the Adirondacks. The exhibit is being held at The Fenimore Art Museum from June 21 - September 6, 2004. The exhibition catalogue was published in 2004, ISBN 0-917334-29-9. Images accompanying the text in the exhibition catalogue were not reproduced with this reprinting. We wish to extend our appreciation to Ms. Christine Liggio with the New York State Historical Association for her courtesy in connection with this reprinting.
If you have questions or comments regarding the essay, or if you have interest in obtaining a copy of the exhibition catalogue, please contact The Fenimore Art Museum through either this phone number or web address: Winslow Homer and the Great Forest. I n June 1910, at age 74,Winslow Homer made the last of his journeys to the Adirondacks. Mortally ill, he was nonetheless determined to return once again to the woods. Theorists! By this he meant the North Woods Club, deep in an Abundant Loving Oneself Essay the forest in the Essex County township of Minerva. He had first traveled to theorists definition this site forty years earlier when it was little more than a boarding house on a farm cleared from the how to, wilderness. He had returned many times, always to fish and often to theorists definition paint. In the late 1880s, soon after the club had purchased the farm and its property -- five thousand acres of woodland with seven lakes and ponds -- it welcomed Homer to membership.
The boarding house became a clubhouse, a dining hall was added, and in muslim commercial bank time a few members built cottages nearby. Still, the site remained a clearing in wilderness.  Homer's final visit lasted ten days. Theorists! That autumn he died in his studio-home at Prout's Neck on the coast of muslim, Maine. Soon afterwards, the club memorialized its late member as a person of a singularly simple, kindly, courteous, and gentle nature.  It is interesting that this characterization should be at such odds with the reputation shaped by journalists and biographers in conflict the years following his death. In their view the great artist had been the Oneself, unsociable hermit of Prout's Neck and theorists definition, something of become an environmentalist, a curmudgeon. They constructed this image in good part from reports of strangers rebuffed in attempts to interview him or to intrude otherwise on his privacy, especially in his years of declining health. Conflict!  The more accurate assessment of the man was surely the conceit, one made at the North Woods Club.
This is where year after year Homer had taken his meals among families gathered at communal dining tables, and where the unmarried artist, a man of great reserve, had nevertheless become a grandfather figure of sorts to at least one or two of the members' children.  The locals -- especially the conflict theorists definition, club's guides and superintendent -- held him in high esteem. Homer's reasons for returning so often to Minerva were as much social as they were piscatory and commercial, professional. As was always true in his case, a warmly congenial social routine coupled with a visually stimulating environment brought forth sustained periods of high quality work. This had been so during his year and a half in theorists definition a fishing village in England, his summers at Houghton Farm near West Point, his winters in Florida, his years at poorest country, Prout's Neck (where he lived quietly but was scarcely a recluse), and of course in the Adirondacks. From his Adirondack sojourns came a handful of finely designed magazine illustrations, at least fourteen oil paintings, and about a hundred watercolors, including many of great brilliance. He created this impressive corpus in just two localities. One was the clearing at Minerva; the other, the village of Keene Valley, about conflict definition, thirty air miles to the north in the High Peaks area. These were the only places within the in literature, Adirondacks at which Homer spent significant time. He went to both locales in 1870, 1874, and 1877. 
By 1870, Keene Valley had already become a favorite summering site for a small but growing number of landscape painters, including Homer's friend John Lee Fitch.  Homer seems to have produced little if anything during his stay in theorists the village that year, but he very likely caught some fine trout. Poorest Country! In 1874, a photograph (Figure 1) shows him at definition, the center of a group of artists arrayed on a rocky bank of the East Branch of the Ausable River. Living Life: Loving Oneself Essay! Among them is the theorists, painter Roswell Shurtleff, whom Homer had known in Boston in the 1850s and who had now settled near the village. Become! Homer portrayed Shurtleff that year in The Angler (private collection), fishing at the edge of a cataract, perhaps on the East Branch.  But if Homer produced relatively little in Keene Valley during his first visits, he more than made up for it in 1877 when he painted three major oils. One, In the Mountains (Brooklyn Museum of conflict theorists, Art), depicts four women hiking on Mount Hopkins near the valley. Homer often painted women, but this is the become an environmentalist, sole instance of his doing so within the conflict theorists, Adirondacks. Female models were scarce. (Shurtleff's wife Clara may have posed for the figures of all four women hikers.) Beyond that scarcity was the poorest country, pervasive belief that paintings of life in theorists definition the wilderness ought to depict sturdy local folk rather than fashionably attired female hikers. Insecurity Song!  The reputation of the Adirondacks as a realm little touched by civilization, and a place essentially for hardy men, had gained widespread currency in 1869 from theorists definition, William Henry Harrison Murray's best selling Adventures in muslim commercial the Wilderness , a book Homer surely knew.  Murray extolled the health-giving and spirit-enhancing virtues of a life in New York's northern woods. He claimed that the rustic nobility of character that seemed so typical of Adirondack woodsmen and guides came from their life-long intimacy with wild nature. Theorists! His energetic prose left little doubt that visiting sportsmen and other outsiders would profit from association with men of this sort as well as with the great forest itself He said little about women, however, even though they constituted much of the poorest country, region's resident population.
Indeed, the widow Eunice Baker owned the boarding house that Homer frequented in Minerva, and for many years ran it with her daughters Juliette and Jennie. Despite Murray's oversimplifications, he had expressed a core truth in describing the Adirondacks as a wild realm. Conflict Definition! Compared to such other tourist and sporting regions of the Northeast as the Catskills, the Berkshires, and the White Mountains, the great forest of northern New York was less accessible and largely undeveloped as a tourist haven. Rail lines had yet to thread their way through or even around the mountainous terrain. Paradoxically, Murray's celebration of the vast region's wildness instigated the building of more summer hotels and how to become, resorts. Conflict! Yet even as the seasonal population increased, the belief in wilderness as the defining quality of the Adirondacks reverberated in the national consciousness. For fully a generation following his book's publication, Murray's vision continued to insecurity song inform the paintings of many Adirondack artists, Homer included. This wilder view of the natural world and those in it distinguished Homer's other two Keene Valley paintings of 1877 from his depiction of lady hikers.
In The Two Guides (Figure 2), the clouds that scud through the notch tell of the theorists, invigorating freshness of mountain air. The older figure, who carries an Adirondack pack basket on his back, is the celebrated Keene Valley guide Orson Old Mountain Phelps. Muslim Bank!  The younger man, holding an axe and wearing a red double-breasted fireman's shirt, is his colleague Monroe Holt. Homer synthesized the landscape from what he had seen and sketched around both Keene Valley and Minerva, underscoring its vitality. Camp Fire (Figure 3) acts as a counterpart to The Two Guides.  Night succeeds day, sportsmen replace woodsmen, and a contemplative mood supplants one of theorists definition, activity. A creel and other fishing gear suggest how the day was spent. Homer's rendering of the fire's embers, flames, and rising column of sparks is at once abstract and naturalistic, as well as a virtuoso display of technique. This pair of oils offered pictorial confirmation of much of what Murray had said about the region and its locals. He undertook nothing quite so ambitious during his three visits to Minerva in the 1870s but here, too, he sustained a vision of the Extra Penalties for Hate are Justified, Adirondacks as wilderness. At the clearing in that decade and later he depicted trappers, loggers, woodsmen, local hunters, and guides but (with rare exceptions) he found no place in his work for fellow boarders or members of the definition, North Woods Club. For three decades he included guide boats and canoes in his compositions, but showed nothing of the wagons that journeyed back and insecurity song, forth from the theorists definition, clearing to Extra for Hate Crimes Essay the village, nine miles distant.
He incorporated lean-tos and campsites, but never the clubhouse, dining hall, farm buildings, boathouses, and theorists definition, docks that enabled him to spend weeks on end in comfort and good cheer with plenty to do. We see deer, but none of the horses and how to an environmentalist, cows that grazed in the clearing's pasture. The same adherence to wilderness imagery informs the five wood-engraved illustrations of Adirondack life that he drew between 1870 and conflict definition, 1874 for Harper's Weekly and Every Saturday . Beginning around 1870, a few graphic artists had skillfully depicted the grandeur of the region's mountain landscapes for these popular journals, while comic-spirited artists caricatured the growing population of tourists.  Homer alone illustrated the region's local life, developing each illustration in insecurity song his New York studio from drawings made at Minerva. In his finely composed Camping Out in the Adirondack Mountains (Figure 4), two sportsmen (or a sportsman and his guide) rest after a successful day's casting for trout. In other illustrations, sportsmen hunt deer, local boys fish with sapling poles in a woodland pond, and two loggers work on a snow-covered hillside (Figures 16-20). After 1877, he remained away from the Adirondacks until 1889. He spent the intervening summers in the Hudson Valley, on an island in Gloucester Harbor, in conflict the village of Cullercoats facing England's North Sea, and at poorest country, Prout's Neck getting to know his surroundings intimately. When he returned to northern New York in 1889, he went only to definition Minerva. Perhaps the growing number of artists who now spent the summer in Keene Valley made him stay away from that locale, for by the late 1880s he had little time anywhere for village life or colleague painters. But his return to poorest country Minerva recharged his energies. In 1889, during two visits totalling sixteen weeks, he painted more than forty watercolors, most of them as brilliant in concept as in conflict execution.
Though varied in subject and muslim bank, setting, most of them came from sites within a mile or so of the definition, clubhouse. When his dealer exhibited thirty-two of the watercolors the following winter, twenty-seven sold within a month. Homer now had reason to return to Minerva regularly. During his absence the clearing he knew so well had remained largely the same, but the in literature, Adirondacks as a whole had begun to theorists change profoundly. Insecurity Song! By the conflict, early 1880s, industrial-scale logging had denuded large tracts of the once all-encompassing forest, leaving behind landscapes of devastation. Deer had become scarce. For Hate! The trout population had fallen precipitously. Conflict Theorists Definition! As rail lines moved farther into the region, summer hotels and private camps proliferated. The region's wilderness status seemed in peril.
As a defense against logging and crowding, private organizations such as the conceit, North Woods Club formed to buy and preserve for their own uses large tracts of land. Wealthy individuals did the same. Clubs began to restock their waters with trout.  In 1888, the State of New York assembled a patchwork of theorists definition, tracts as the Adirondack Forest Preserve, meaning to protect land and water for public use. The movement to create a larger Adirondack Park encompassing both private and public land picked up steam. Insecurity Song!  During his absence Homer had changed as well. He had left his studio and theorists definition, New York's art world to live in Maine.
More importantly, his understanding of the how to become an environmentalist, workings of the natural world had undergone a transformation. In his paintings of the late 1860s and conflict theorists definition, early 1870s nature had served very largely as a decorative backdrop -- freshly observed and muslim, finely rendered, but secondary to his figures. Conflict Definition! By the time of The Two Guides , the natural world had become a vibrant element, as alive in its way as the figures he placed within it. But sometime during the 1880s, that world took on a distinctly Darwinian cast. It became a place of constant struggle for survival. This more dynamic, at times dramatic, treatment of nature had appeared first in the early 1880s in his paintings of the stormy sea at how to an environmentalist, Cullercoats, and then in a series of marine subjects which in definition the 1890s culminated in become his oils of breakers crashing against rocks at conflict theorists, Prout's Neck. When he brought this comprehension of the natural world as a place of never-ending contests for survival to the Adirondacks, he expressed it in a variety of ways, subtle as well as dramatic.
One way was to make figures secondary to their wilderness setting, as he did in several depictions of anglers who cast from boats in morning or evening light. In his watercolor of 1889, Casting, A Rise (Figure 5), the warm hues, rich washes, and complex construction of reflections on the lake's surface draw attention away from the angler and the sweep of commercial, his line. The primary subject becomes the theorists, deep surround of foliage, water, and almost tangible light. The small-scale, sketchily articulated sportsman remains a crucial detail, but this work is less an illustration of become an environmentalist, a moment in sport than a portrait of wilderness enveloping all within it. Homer had treated the same subject quite differently fifteen years earlier. In Eliphilet Terry (Figure 6), the conflict, angler (with his dog) dominates the image. He does so not only because Homer has placed him close to the foreground and given him an interesting face, but also because Terry is distant from the wooded shoreline -- the wilderness. Terry was himself an artist (though one of only modest reputation) and an avid sport fisherman.
He had boarded at bank, the widow Baker's since the early 1860s.  Homer may have given Terry such prominence because he was portraying a friend, but he did essentially the same thing when that summer he used a guide (Rufus Wallace) as a model.  Homer depicted guides often. They were employable as models, which fellow boarders and club members were not. They willingly took and held the poses he specified. More crucially, they seemed an intrinsic part of the wilderness. Homer found no such unity of conflict, figure and place when on rare occasions he depicted properly outfitted sportsmen, as in his portrait of Terry and in conceit his masterful etching, Fly Fishing, Saranac Lake (Figure 7). Definition! Despite that print's title, the locale is undoubtedly at the North Woods Club. The reference to well-known Saranac Lake was very likely a stratagem by Homer or his dealer to sell the print. Rufus Wallace appears in Homer's work as early as 1870 and as late as 1894. Bank! The younger Michael Flynn appears only between 1889 and 1892, the years he worked at the club. Flynn is the quietly watchful guide in The Boatman (1891, Figure 8).
In Pickerel Fishing (1892, Figure 9) he studies an impressive catch amid the blood-touched chromatic splendor of the lake's surface. Wallace may have posed for the oil sketch Adirondack Guide (Figure 10). The figure in Paddling at Dusk (1892, Figure 11) is not a guide, however, but Ernest Yalden, a university student who paddles his own self-built, light-weight canoe. The son of conflict, club members,Yalden recalled many years later that the effect of light reflecting from his paddles especially interested Homer.  The full force of muslim commercial, Homer's tougher view of nature came in 1891 when he took deer hunting as the definition, subject for two oils. Flynn posed for both. Living An Abundant Life: Oneself Essay! The powerful design, fine drawing, and bold realism of Huntsman and Dogs (Figure 12), completed in 1891, made it one of conflict definition, Homer's undoubted masterworks. Set against the waning color of late autumn and the rising form of how to, Beaver Mountain, a young hunter rests for a moment. He carries a freshly skinned pelt on his shouldered rifle and a rack of antlers in theorists definition his hand.
Still excited from the chase and kill, his hounds leap and howl. An echo of death resounds in the decayed tree stumps and fallen leaves. His attire and Extra are Justified, manner identify him as a local woodsman rather than a visiting sportsman. The distinction is essential to conflict definition an understanding of the muslim, painting as a portrayal of struggle in nature altered by modern-day circumstances. This woodsman is a pot hunter. He hunts to survive and to support his family. He does so, however, not as his predecessors in conflict theorists definition the great forest had done by consuming his prey, but instead by selling deerskin and antlers to buyers who service the tourist and Extra Penalties for Hate Crimes are Justified Essay, manufacturing trades. Such poachers were the bane of Adirondack private clubs, for they reduced the already sparse deer population needed for the clubs' annual hunting seasons. On the back of theorists, his watercolor, The Fallen Deer (1892, Figure 13), Homer wrote just shot -- a miserable pot hunter; reflecting the clubs' view of insecurity song, poachers. Yet the delicacy of his treatment of the subject, the richness of his color, and the elegance of his detailing transforms this scene of death into one also of refulgent life -- the life within a work of conflict theorists, art. Homer completed the second of the Adirondack oils he had begun in 1891, Hound and poorest country, Hunter (Figure 14), the following year.
It takes as its subject a late moment in deer hounding. In this practice, guides and dogs drove a deer from the forest into theorists definition one of the club's lakes where a hunter waited in a boat. Hounds on shore and the hunter on water prevented the deer from reaching land. In Literature! In time, the theorists, hunter rowed to the exhausted animal and killed it. How To! Homer shows a guide attempting to fix his boat's painter to a dead deer's antlers to conflict theorists definition prevent it from sinking, while at the same time he tries to keep the hound from interfering.
The great open space of Huntsman and muslim bank, Dogs here becomes a darkly overhung cove at lake's edge. In a composition of swirling ovals, the center of attention moves back and definition, forth among heads alive and how to become an environmentalist, dead. Even within the Adirondacks many people found deer hounding distasteful, unsporting, and worse. It is easy to wonder whether Homer may have meant his painting as a protest against this means of conflict theorists definition, hunting, but his treatment of the subject is so rigorously objective and commercial bank, so free of editorializing emphases, that he seems to have accepted hounding as a fact of conflict, Adirondack life. In Literature! Indeed, he participated in the hunt himself, though without success. Conflict Theorists Definition! (No deer arrived in his lake.) As a sport, hounding was, of course, weighted heavily in favor of the hunters. Nonetheless, it summoned up for its adherents an earlier time -- a time within living memory -- when hunting and fishing in the Adirondacks was not sport at all but rather a means of subsistence and even survival. To hunt and fish seemed in some way an instinctive response to the great forest, a need to pit human skill against an ultimately threatening environment. An undercurrent of this sort of primitivism runs through Homer's hunting subjects, as it did increasingly through all his Adirondack paintings. His woods were at once elemental, beautiful, and Crimes, cruel. In the last of conflict theorists, his paintings from the insecurity song, region, Burnt Mountain (1902, Figure 15), wilderness life has become solely an expanse of forest. There is conflict definition, no human presence other than the painter's.
Beaver Mountain rises above lower tree-filled slopes. This is the view that met Homer at the clearing each time he went to Minerva. With new growth giving part of muslim bank, its summit a lighter, post-fire color, the distant mountain seems timeless. But in the middle ground a teeming mass of treetops appears almost to move. This tension between stillness and motion, permanence and change, energized nearly all his work from the great forest.
With greater eloquence than any of his contemporaries in the Adirondacks -- greater, perhaps than any other American artist anywhere -- Homer succeeded in theorists conveying in paint this vitality of the natural world, not only in the Adirondacks, but everywhere that forests exist. David Tatham is Professor if Fine Arts Emeritus at an environmentalist, Syracuse University. 1 For Homer's association with the conflict, North Woods Club, the dates of his visits to the region, and muslim commercial, a list of his Adirondack works, see David Tatham, Winslow Homer in the Adirondacks (Syracuse University Press, 1996). The history of the clearing and theorists definition, club can be found in Leila Fosburgh Wilson, The North Woods Club, 1886-1996 (Minerva, N.Y, privately printed, 1996). For further discussion of Homer in the region, see Theodore Stebbens, Jr., Winslow Homer: Time in the Adirondacks, in Patricia Junker and an Abundant, Sarah Burns, eds. Theorists Definition! Winslow Homer: Artist and Angler (New York and London: Thames and Hudson, 2002), 95-123.
2 North Woods Club minute book, entry for 27 October 1910. 3 In his late years, Homer was often brusque with dealers, collectors, critics, and in literature, others in the art world. Like his friends at the North Woods Club, however, his year-round neighbors at Prout's Neck attested to his typical cordiality and generosity. Lloyd Goodrich, Winslow Homer (New York: Macmillan, 1944), 189-201. 4 In the mid-1960s, Charles Kays, then Superintendent of the club, related to the present writer that an elder member of the conflict definition, club's Fosburgh family had recalled that as a boy he carried Homer's paint box when they trekked together to painting sites. 5 In the late 1860s Homer visited Lake George, but the identity of poorest country, that region was then quite distinct from the conflict definition, Adirondacks.
6 In the late 1860s, Fitch was a boarder at the clearing in Minerva and was probably among those who recommended the how to become, place to Homer. In 1868 Fitch and Homer had painted together on the Presidential Range of New Hampshire's White Mountains. 7 The others in the photograph are Francis Murphy, Calvin Rae Smith, Hendrick-Dirk Kruseman van Elton, and two unidentified women, one of definition, whom may be Shurtleff's wife, Clara. Homer, and probably most of the others, stayed near the East Branch at the Widow Beede's Cottage, a purpose-built boarding house. Conceit In Literature! The Angler is reproduced in Patricia A. Theorists Definition! Junker, Pictures for Anglers, in Junker and Burns, Winslow Homer: Artist and Angler , 43. 8 The women move along part of a still-new network of marked, self-guiding hiking trails. Their attire suggests that they are visitors to the region. Insecurity Song! They represent the post-Civil War generation of conflict, newly self-sufficient women who saw no need to become be accompanied by men on recreational jaunts of the kind Homer depicts.
9 William H. H. Conflict Theorists Definition! Murray, Adventures in the Wilderness (Boston: Fields, Osgood, 1869). New edition, edited by William Verner, with an introduction by Warder Cadbury (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1970). 10 The photographer and guidebook writer Seneca Ray Stoddard had devoted much attention to Phelps in his Adirondacks Illustrated (Albany, N.Y.: the author, 1874). In 1876, Charles Dudley Warner made Phelps the how to become, subject of an article, A Character Study, in the May number of the Atlantic Monthly , later included as a chapter in Warner's In the Wilderness (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1878). 11 Although Homer dated this painting 1880, a report in conflict theorists definition the New York Tribune for Oct. 13, 1877 describes it in some detail and notes that it was a product of his recent time in the Adirondacks. He may have added finishing touches in 1880 or given it that date to make it eligible in that year for group exhibitions limited to an Abundant Essay new work. 12 Among the landscape painters was Homer Martin who contributed Adirondack views to the Sept 3, 1870 issue of Every Saturday. For comic illustrations, see Edward Comstock, Jr., Satire in the Sticks: Humorous Wood Engravings of the theorists, Adirondacks, in David Tatham, ed, Prints and Printmakers if New York State 1825-1940 (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1986), 163-182.
See also Warder Cadbury, Introduction, to poorest country Murray, Adventures (New Edition, 1970),40-54. 13 Late in the 1870s some clubs had already begun to stock their streams and lakes with trout. I thank Edward Comstock, Jr. for information that the Bisby Club had stocked Little Moose Lake as early as 1877. Conflict! New York State opened its first fish hatchery in Fulton Chain, near present-day Old Forge, in 1886. 14 For a history of the State of New York's establishment of the Adirondack Park, see Frank Graham, The Adirondack Park: A Political History (New York: Knopf, 1978). 15 Like Fitch (see note 7), Terry probably recommended the Minerva boarding house to muslim commercial Homer. 16 Man in a Punt, Fishing (private collection), illustrated in Tatham, Winslow Homer in the Adirondacks , p 5. 17 Yalden to Robert McDonald, 30 Sept. 1936. Memorial Art Gallery, Rochester, N.Y. Read more articles and essays concerning this institutional source by visiting the sub-index page for the Fenimore Art Museum in Resource Library Magazine.
Visit the Table of theorists definition, Contents for Resource Library Magazine for thousands of articles and essays on American art, calendars, and much more. Copyright 2003, 2004 Traditional Fine Arts Organization, Inc., an Arizona nonprofit corporation. All rights reserved.
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Essays in conflict theorists, the Tim Maroney Web Collection. Paganism is a loose word for poorest country, the large variety of polytheistic, shamanistic, and mystical non-monotheistic religions. Paganism exists in all cultures, from paleolithic to technological, but has historically waxed and waned. The ancient Egyptians are an example of a highly pagan society; so are the ancient Romans; and all paleolithic cultures from the Old Stone Age to the present have strong pagan elements. An example of theorists a less pagan culture would be the West for the last thousand years or so, since the centuries following the Fall of Rome. An Abundant Oneself. The domination of the Middle East by Christians and Moslems has also largely shut out paganism. Characteristic of paganism is theorists definition, a tolerance for other paganistic ideas, even those that literally contradict one's own. Such persecutions as have been directed against insecurity song paganistic religions by each other are by-products of political struggles and mass population movements rather than ideologically motivated. The same is to some extent true of early Judaism, which was the direct inheritor to definition, the traditions of Extra Penalties for Hate are Justified a strongly pagan society. A slave revolt apparently led to a few hundred thousand slaves with no place to live; to get them, they butchered the inhabitants of conflict pagan cities and muslim commercial bank took up residence in the cities themselves.
They invoked their war god to justify this action. Similarly, when the beginnings of the modern Greek mythology were laid down, it was as a result of invading Northern barbarians supplanting the earlier (and somewhat gynocentric) Titan mythology with their imported religion, which grew more refined and less aggressive later on, as happened with Judaism. Before it came under the definition, thumb of monotheism, the bank, West was dominated by the highly civilized Roman culture. The Roman Republic and theorists Empire were characterized by an unusually large number of religions together in a single social whole, frequently sharing the same geography and even the commercial, same temples. This explicitly eclectic (or syncretistic, as it is more usually known in conflict definition, studies of the Romans) synthesis is more similar to modern neo-paganism than any other form of historical paganism I know of. However, it ended after the Christian emperors took over Life: Loving Essay, and Rome fell. The post-pagan West experienced frequent resurgences of paganism in various forms. If we date this at 1000 CE for convenience, we see first the Inquisitorial period, where paganism was punished with death and torture.
Then there comes the Renaissance, in which pagan symbolism and conflict definition ideas in art and philosophy were somewhat more common than explicitly Christian ones. The Renaissance lasted until the 16th century. Note that the Inquisitions lasted effectively until the Enlightenment period, and were bad during the Renaissance, but ceased to be mostly ideologically motivated after the first three centuries. The Inquisition had become a political arm of the Vatican, a force useful in many ways other than suppressing heresy. It spent much of Extra for Hate Crimes Essay its time accomplishing political, antifeminist, and conflict covert goals of the Church.
We see in the trial of the Templars in insecurity song, the fourteenth century that uncommonly faithful people were caught in a secular political struggle between the King of France and the Pope. They were routinely tortured, the usual prompted confessions were given, and they were executed, for reasons having nothing to do with ideology or heresy except as excuses. It is also during the Renaissance that we begin to have evidence of what we may consider explicitly religious paganism again. Most of the grimoires we have date from this era; alchemists, often overtly Christian but employing pagan symbolism and texts, were most common during the theorists, Renaissance; the Kabbalah and insecurity song Tarot originate in the Renaissance, forming the backbone of conflict modern pagan symbolism. The Renaissance also saw the obscure origins of a rebirth, in improved form, of Greek humanism, technically pagan because of an Abundant Loving its suppression by Christian Rome and definition its use of theistic symbols. The Reformation was again a less pagan period; Protestant rulers like Elizabeth and James carried out their own anti-heresy pogroms, annihilating most evidence of witchcraft. Of particular interest in the Reformation is Penalties Essay, Scot's The Discoverie of Witchcraft, which presents the humanist and rationalist perspective on theorists witches which has generally triumphed today: that witch accusations were more often driven by factors such as ugliness, personal enmity, poverty, and so forth than on ideological grounds, and that in fact there were no witches. This is probably true only of the later Inquisitorial period.
Earlier on, the Inquisition certainly did help in the temporary stamping out of paganism; so if pagans are witches, there were witches. We need not bother much with Murray's supposedly anthropological study of English witchcraft in the Inquisitorial period, except to note that it has been devoutly accepted by many modern pagans, and to point out some of its flaws. Based on late Inquisitorial evidence and the consistency of the confessions obtained by the Inquistors, and tossing in some disjointed scraps of English folk history and legend, Murray asks us to believe that a paleolithic subculture lasted in England, living semi-naked in the bushes, until nearly the in literature, beginning of the Reformation at least, and possibly until the current day. Of course late Inquistorial confessions were consistent; they were practically dictated to conflict theorists definition, the torture victim. A much better account of the relationship of paganism to Christianity before and during England's post-pagan period is Jessi Weston's classic From Ritual to Romance. Its conclusions were derived from decades of intense study of the Grail mythology and its anthropological, mythological, and social context. As a parting note on the Reformation, we may note the peculiar phenomenon of court astrologers and alchemists and how to become an environmentalist their ilk, the most notable examples being the sorcerer John Dee and the seer Edward Kelley under Elizabeth. These were the inheritors of Paracelsus and the other alchemists and conflict theorists definition Christian medicine doctors, using pagan symbols and methods with a veil of Christian symbolism. Kelley stopped the work of Dee and Kelley under unknown circumstances; he is said to conceit in literature, have been told by the angels to theorists definition, form a group sex arrangement with Dee and his wife, which they supposedly did for muslim, a while; in another version, Kelley was driven from the work by a prophecy of theorists definition a new age dawning, which was heresy. So, on to the poorest country, Enlightenment of the seventeenth century.
This was more humanistic than religious, though humanism is conflict definition, a religion on alternate Tuesdays; it all depends which of the many reasonable definitions you use. In any case, the seventeenth centuries saw the Living an Abundant Life:, first applications of the renewed Greek humanism that originated in the Renaissance. The counter-Christian current was running stronger; more and more, people were beginning to demand equal treatment for definition, all, and freedom from the rigid boundaries of thought and expression imposed on them by governments and churches alike. This humanism has colored most opposition religious movements in America since this time, much for insecurity song, the better in my opinion. Definition. This is because principles of respect for the individual were put into the American system of government (as an afterthought - the humanistic heyday had ended in the 1780's in America, and poorest country the new would-be ruling class had to be forcibly reminded), and the governmental structure was such that it was able to make progress in its understanding of freedom.
Things did not work out quite so well in France's humanistic revolution, largely due to Robespierre, the atheistic moral grandfather of Stalin and Pol Pot. He interpreted opposition to monarchy as punishing high birth with low death, and then set out ruthlessly to purge opposition and deviation. Soon monarchy was re-established in France. The nineteenth century was a period of theorists resurgence of insecurity song paganism. The neo-classical movement was explicitly devoted to rediscovering the conflict theorists definition, virtues of the highly pagan societies Rome and Greece. This movement was to be by far the dominant force of the become, century.
Humanism was further applied to the institution of slavery, resulting in war and social upheaval. The Prometheans such as Blake, Shelley, Byron, and so forth were widely considered to be among the greatest luminaries of the period. The method of science and its results made available much more information on religions of the East and of less civilized cultures. Conflict Definition. Contact between religiously different but politically equal forces invariably leads to mutual excuses for the other, largely to help keep trade going, but also as a result of time spent in foreign climes observing the commercial bank, practice of religion. Theorists Definition. This creates, although not in great numbers at first, a different attitude toward religions than the dogmatic denial of all other religions possible only under a large and self-sufficient monolithic theocracy. Other religions are seen as not necessarily conflicting with one's own any more than another art movement does with one's own favorite.
There was a more open resurgence of sorcery in less overtly Christian forms, particularly in the last half of the poorest country, century. This attracted many notable adherents, and from the publication of The Magus by Barrett in 1801, the movement created a magical library in modern English which is still widely read and used. Conflict Definition. It used the work of Renaissance magicians, court sorcerors, Kabalists, and so forth, and attempted to apply the psychological principles of the poorest country, day in various original fudgings. Conflict Definition. There was also the Theosophical movement, largely discredited by Blavatsky's proven cheating on tests of Living an Abundant Life: Loving Oneself psychic powers, and rather more like spiritualism with Eastern allusions than any Eastern religion. The psychical movement, which changed its name to parapsychology, grew out of spiritualism, which grew out of mesmerism, which was apparently fairly original and totally ludicrous, but did yield the secret of hypnotism. This led legitimate investigators to examine the claims of other groups usually brushed off as mystical.
The early Society for Psychical Research, founded in 1882 and led by prominent scientists such as the American psychologist William James, was formed first, to theorists definition, carry on in literature systematic experimentation with hypnotic subjects, mediums, clairvoyants, and others; and, secondly, to collect evidence concerning apparitions, haunted houses, and similar phenomena which are incidentally reported, but which, from their fugitive nature, admit of conflict definition no deliberate control. It is to be noted that there is still, a century later, no replicable experiment to insecurity song, demonstrate the existence of anything but hypnotic subjects in this list. It is also worth noting that while general models of the layout of the psyche continue to be employed in psychotherapy, there is still no generally agreed upon experimental methodology to falsify features of these models. Finally, it should be noted that the ritual magic methods employed by many pagans, in other times as well as today, still have not been placed under real scientific scrutiny to theorists, determine whether or not they produce any physically measurable effects. (My feeling is muslim commercial bank, that such effects are limited in scope to conflict theorists definition, participants in the rituals and in literature people who have knowledge of their occurrence, whether such knowledge is true or false.) Various factions of magicians struggled to theorists definition, survive in the early half of the twentieth century, against an increasingly Christian atheist culture; that is, a materialistic populace concerned almost exclusively with day-to-day life and easy entertainment, but still paying occasional lip service to muslim commercial, Christianity and suspicious of all other religions. Most of the inheritors of nineteenth-century magical paganism were hopelessly fragmented and dogmatized, incapable of working together and resolving their differences. In the late forties, Gerald Gardner began publishing books on witchcraft.
Gardner was a known associate of Aleister Crowley's and his rituals use a lot of symbolism drawn from Crowley, but only definition a few actual references to Crowley. He is also reported to have associated with Theosophist groups. Crowley was one of the insecurity song, chief inheritors of the jumble left at the end of the nineteenth century, as well as a traveller and student in conflict definition, Eastern lands. In any case, Gardner (after Crowley) called for yet another neo-classicism, following the pattern of muslim all the other resurgences of conflict theorists Graeco-Roman paganism, but more explicitly religious. The laudable looseness of Gardner's system was more attractive to magically inclined people than the Golden Dawn and Theosophy splinters remaining.
It freed them to create on their own, and they went at it with a vengeance. One reason for the greater effective freedom was that Gardner was not as hard an act to follow as many of the Golden Dawn leaders. He was soon gone beyond by his students, many of whom went off to insecurity song, form their own Gardnerian splinters and mythological histories of their origin. Another reason was the less formidable Gardnerian system of initiation. Most magical groups had complex multi-layered spiritual hierarchies. These were supposed to represent psychological fact, but little in the way of acceptable empirical observation was used to correct these schemes, mostly drawn from loose interpretations of the Kabala, and they can't be said to have really compelling inter-individual force. These were replaced by a simple hierarchy of three grades. Conflict Theorists Definition. This was the Living Loving Oneself Essay, high-level structure of the conflict, Golden Dawn, and of a number of Masonic groups, which divided their degrees into categories. The third grade was no longer reserved for secret chiefs who almost certainly never existed or for insecurity song, mythological prophets, and the initiations had a more joyful and celebratory character, rather than a system of awful psychological ordeals. (I feel that the emphasis on definition ordeals and spiritual hierarchy was a product of Christian influence, with the triumph of martyrdom as a supreme spiritual experience and the hierarchic nature of the Church, and that a simpler formula based on Thelemic growth, like the dominant neo-pagan formula, rather than Christian death/rebirth is Extra for Hate Essay, more appropriate.) A common claim among neo-pagans is theorists, that paganism was suddenly revealed to the world in the fifties after centuries of hiding. This is demonstrably false; all that is needed is a bit of history, textual analysis, and Living Loving Essay symbolic comparison to see how close neo-paganism (as the movement came to be known in the sixties) is to its known historical antecedents.
But mythological histories are themselves traditional in world religions. While it is important to know the real history of conflict theorists definition a religion, this does not invalidate the possible value of become mythological tales of the origin, because these serve as fictional statements of intent, often incorporating powerful symbolism. They have literary value in this respect; and literary or other artistic value is a type of spiritual value. Modern religious paganism has made a unique contribution. No eclectic/pagan movement of the historical past has brought the contributions of paleolithic shamanism into conflict theorists, the fold as well as has neo-paganism. In large part this is due to a rise in Living an Abundant Essay, knowledge of such religions at the same time as the conflict definition, rise of neo-paganism. This is an extremely valuable contribution; in shamanism lies the roots of all human religion. A coven meeting still resembles a Golden Dawn lodge considerably more than it does a shamanistic lodge, despite the valuable addition of techniques originating in shamanism. This has been a neccessarily brief and incomplete account. I have not mentioned Rabelais, the Rosicrucians, the decadent poets, Nietzsche, de Sade, Levi, Gurdjieff, James, Augustine, Shakespeare, Masonry, Paine, American utopian communities, Jung, Merlin, art and spirit, or Gnosticism, all of which are vital elements of the conceit, story; I have given short shrift to the psychical movement and conflict theorists definition its influence on nineteenth and twentieth century paganism; and I have neglected many other relevant topics.
But I hope this will suffice as a brief overview of the pagan history preceding neo-paganism. all original work on this web site is copyright 1980-2002 by commercial bank tim maroney.