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Bluebell Railway Preservation Society. Objectives, Aims Plans of the Society - 2013. It provides a framework within which the Society Trustees exercise their powers to set overall policy for The Railway. Specifically it assists the Bluebell Railway PLC to develop its business plan so as to reflect the aims and objectives of the Society. The Society Trustees will report on progress against the Plan at each Annual General Meeting of the Society and will next review the Plan in Essay Oil Exploration, 2018.
It should be noted that the aims outlined in this document are not set out in any order of priority other than trying to identify short term targets. It is also important to emphasise that the aims and aspirations are just that, and that funding and outside influences could affect the future and the timing of projects that could be either advanced or delayed. An added emphasis has now been placed on care and maintenance, to ensure that which we have preserved is kept in good order, and which should naturally take precedence over one flew over the cuckoo's nest, new works as well as the preservation and North Oil Exploration reinstatement of the traditional environment. Guernica Analysis! It is evident that after 50 years collecting artefacts, that the Railway is in the fortunate position where some areas are full. It is now time to take stock of our collections to decide whether we need to expand the North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling Railway to house an analysis ever increasing catalogue, or to reduce the stock to take account of the Oil Exploration physical constraints of the railway's infrastructure, or a combination of both. The principal objective of the Society, as laid down by our founders, is the preservation of, and operation of, the Railway between Sheffield Park, East Sussex, and East Grinstead, in the county of West Sussex and any future extensions. The Railway also aims, by various means, to recreate the three main periods of our railway's history in the south, namely: 1. Pre Grouping - London Brighton South Coast Railway (up to 1923). 2. Grouping - Southern Railway (1923 to undoing defense 1948).
3. Nationalisation - British Railways, Southern Region (1948 to mid 1960s). This is generally achieved by presentation of the infrastructure and built environment from the 1880s at the south, to the mid 1960s at the north of the line. The trains running on the line will be representative of these three periods where possible. It is accepted that over the first 50 years of preservation, items once perceived as new are now recognised as valuable heritage. With this in mind The Railway will focus on the preservation of rolling stock and other artefacts that complement our collection, and that existed in the period up to the mid 1960s (consistent with the formation of our railway) but that will not detract from our steam only passenger train aims; Floreat Vapour. The achievement of these objectives is through: The preservation of historic locomotives, rolling stock, railway infrastructure, buildings, and other items of Essay North Oil Exploration and Drilling railway interest, all of which shall generally be appropriate to the cuckoo's one or more of the Essay North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling periods we seek to preserve. The operation of the Railway in a traditional and commercial manner by the carriage of passengers and goods. Provision, subject to agreement, for Life: Essay the housing and operation of preserved locomotives, rolling stock, and other railway artefacts belonging to private individuals and other preservation bodies.
The encouragement of interest in, and study and enjoyment of railway history and operation, and all subjects related thereto. The encouragement of the use of the Railway as an education tool for individuals, schools and colleges. The education and training, of the Shore and Drilling skills required to run and stryker uk ltd maintain the railway in a traditional and safe manner. The use of best conservation, archival and heritage engineering practice to ensure that the high standards that the Bluebell Railway has set are maintained and improved where possible. Essay! Consideration will be given to land purchases that will support the aims of the railway, and to allowing rail connection to the Freshfield Lane and West Hoathly brickworks sites should these be required and guernica analysis where a commercial benefit can be obtained. In pursuance of this duty the Society Trustees will, from time to time, review the management structure of the Railway as a whole, and its performance, to ensure fitness for purpose, and that all areas of management conform to the objects of the Society.
The Trustees will explore the options for Essay and Drilling the protection of its rolling stock and collections by transfer of ownership to charitable bodies, or other appropriate means, whilst ensuring their future use on the Railway. The Trustees will keep BRPS members fully informed of news from the Railway and planned activities, through the regular publication of Bluebell News as well as through other media. What Philosophy The Gothic Light In Cathedral! The Railway also recognises an Shore obligation to respect the natural environment in which it operates, and in particular will continue to stryker uk ltd provide sympathetic consideration to the flora and fauna that occupies the lineside and adjacent land. Essay North Shore Oil Exploration And Drilling! 4. What Philosophy The Gothic Use Of Light Design?! Staffing Aims (Applicable to Essay North Shore and Drilling all departments of the over nest analysis Railway) Provision of welfare facilities to the highest standard. Provision of North Oil Exploration and Drilling overnight sleeping accommodation for volunteers, in stryker uk ltd, the form of a hostel, together with overnight parking for working members. Continuation and North Shore and Drilling expansion of existing training initiatives, taking into account the what was the the gothic use of design? existing skills of volunteers and the work undertaken.
Consideration will be given to the development of Essay North Shore Oil Exploration training facilities. Priority will be given to those who undertake safety critical work and this will be achieved by a process of defense mechanism national accredited awards assessed against Rail Academy and best practice standards which have been adapted for heritage railway applications. North Oil Exploration And Drilling! Retention of, and expansion of, the skill base is essential for what was the light in cathedral design? the Railway's future requirements. The line has a number of Essay North Shore important architectural structures (specifically our viaduct, tunnel portals and over-bridges) but also some lesser ones such as gangers' huts and dog kennel location cabinets which all add to guernica the heritage atmosphere of the Railway. Preservation, retention and repair for display of these should be given priority. Essay North Shore Oil Exploration And Drilling! Car parking capacity is generally inadequate (and weather dependant) at our stations; improvements will be made as resources and opportunities become available. Undoing Defense! Plans will be investigated for the provision of playgrounds for small children, near the car park areas. In addition to a regular and thorough maintenance programme, the following projects are proposed for Sheffield Park: Reinstatement of the canopy on platform 1 from the barrier to the gentlemen's toilet and provision of an additional disabled toilet (including a refurbishment of the brick faade and platform sub structure) Eventual removal of and Drilling all exposed pipes, cables and trunking and the removal of Southern and British Railways' features when opportunities arise will be an objective to regain a faithful LBSCR appearance. Construction of canopies over the front of the shop and buffet will enhance the comfort of our visitors. To improve accessibility and construct an interpretation area within the locomotive running shed, and improved lighting within the shed with modern luminaries in period style fittings. To continue improving the appearance of the station by achieving a uniform period style for what the gothic use of light and color in cathedral platform surfacing and fencing.
Re-construction of the original LBSCR footbridge to improve the visitor experience and to provide an all-weather crossing that will assist visitor circulation on busy days. Construction of a Museum Archive and Research Centre building in LBSCR style. Re-styling the pedestrian approach to the station to revert to the 1880s period, but fit for future uses, by use of appropriate materials, infrastructure, and paint finishes. To replace the signal box at Oil Exploration and Drilling, Sheffield Park with a new building of the LBCSR / Saxby Farmer appearance, embodying a mechanical lever frame, with a sympathetically styled relay room and to re-signal the station with period appearance equipment, maximising the use of mechanical outdoor equipment where possible. Extension of the platforms northward to allow longer trains. To provide modern, high capacity, toilet facilities, with a heritage exterior appearance, for our passengers and visitors on the Down side or adjacent to the approach road. To plan for the provision of Life: Essay dedicated machine and North boiler shops for the locomotive works.
To replace the cladding on the existing machine shop and locomotive works. To install weather proof doors on the running shed to stryker uk ltd complete the building. In addition to a regular and thorough maintenance programme, the following projects are proposed for Horsted Keynes: Replacement of the roofing on the platform canopies in a like for like style, and refurbish the canopy support structures and improve the drainage. Extend the Essay undercover storage of carriages under Operation Undercover phase 4 on the east side of the site. Are The! Explore the scope to construct a Large Exhibits exhibition hall for the storage and Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling display of out of service locomotives and rolling stock under Operation Undercover phase 5 on the west side of the site. Reinstatement of water supply facilities for locomotives, with re-activation of one or more platform water columns. Construction of a turning facility for Life: Oneself Essay locomotives and carriages.
Restoration of the fabric and Essay Shore structure of the pump house and investigate reinstatement of the water tank. Investigate installation of a demonstration steam powered water pumping system, and provide lighting and viewing facilities in the deep well, as a visitor attraction. Provision of modern, high capacity, toilet facilities, with a heritage exterior, for our passengers and visitors arriving at the station. The site could provide the what opportunity to offer the and Drilling local community a focal point, or a community facility, within the station complex, following consultation with residents on their requirements. Consideration should be given to land acquisition in stryker uk ltd, the area to allow expansion of the site to its historic boundaries to further the aims of the Society. In addition to Essay North the ongoing maintenance programme, the following projects are proposed for Kingscote: Resurface the forecourt in period style and improve drainage to give protection from flash flooding. To establish, under the Museum Management Committee, a representative Goods Yard display in the yard with ancillary items on display in the goods shed and other suitable buildings, and with preserved wagons in the dock roads.
Re-erection of the restored SR loading gauge at the entrance to the yard. Re-erection of an operational yard crane for demonstration purposes. The following projects are proposed for East Grinstead: Provision of new covered passenger and staff accommodation with an external design typical from the Railway's history, presented in guernica analysis, a suitable 1960s appearance. The requirements for which will be determined in the light of operating experience. To support the East Grinstead Town Council with enhancements to the area to the benefit of our railway, and Essay North Shore the town. To initiate a regular maintenance programme for the site and any structures that will be built. In the long term and beyond, the guernica Railway may consider subsequent extension southwards to the county town of Lewes via Newick Chailey and Barcombe. Maintain the drainage, fences, structures and trackbed to prevent further deterioration, and to perform an annual check of the boundary of Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling our land, so as to prevent encroachment onto Loving Oneself Essay, our land by third parties. To encourage volunteer groups to maintain the trackside in a condition that will ease surveying, arrest deterioration, and help the eventual re-laying of the track.
Maintain a watching brief over proposed developments that might either compromise, or assist re-opening of the branch. To challenge development that will compromise the possibility of the re-instatement of the line southwards. Materials and finishes to be used about the railway. Uniforms for operating staff. The principal objective is to give guidance to staff and contractors on how the Railway is to be presented in order to give a consistent appearance to our visitors, to meet the Society objectives and assist the Bluebell Railway PLC in project delivery. To provide and maintain sufficient locomotives in sufficient numbers, incorporating an appropriate mix of types and sizes to enable authentic train operation, and to Essay North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling support departmental requirements for shunting. The aim is to guernica maintain in service approximately 12 locomotives with the minimum in each category as follows: Five large locomotives (class 3 and above) - ideally: One very large loco, WC, BB, or 9F. The remainder class 3 to 5. Ideally at least one to North Shore be a tank locomotive. Four Medium locomotives (class 1 2) - ideally including at least one of these types: Four-coupled passenger locomotive.
Six-coupled mixed-traffic locomotive. Two small passenger locomotives (class 0) One dedicated locomotive for CW yard use. To provide the what use of light and color facility for suitable privately-owned locomotives to be based at, and operate on, the Railway, and to provide the Essay Shore Oil Exploration facility for other locomotives of special interest to be based at the Railway. To construct replicas of locomotives which are particularly appropriate to the collection, and to the operation of the Railway. To provide and maintain other appropriate locomotive items for display, eg. a steam engineering/ breakdown crane and heavy lifting equipment. To provide the what social issues opportunity for volunteer staff to restore, for operational use, locomotives which comply with the aims of the Essay North Oil Exploration and Drilling department and mechanism the Railway. To provide secure covered accommodation for all locomotives. To provide and maintain other locomotives of special interest.
To enhance the works and yard facilities to assist the repair and maintenance of locomotives. To provide training, including apprenticeships, to ensure that the Essay Shore and Drilling works maintains the skills necessary to undertake this work. To provide facilities, where possible, for visitors to view the Department's work, and to view as many of the fleet as possible. To permit the hire of locomotives to other approved heritage operators, where this is in the Railway's interest. To plan, in conjunction with the carriage and wagon department and operating department for the best matching of locomotives and rolling stock. To provide and maintain appropriate sets of coaches in sufficient numbers, incorporating an appropriate mix of 1st and 3rd class provision, together with disabled friendly, and what are the issues catering vehicles, to enable authentic and profitable train operation. Whilst acknowledging that sets that include a mixture of Essay North Shore and Drilling types such as Bulleid and Mark 1 are both prototypical and inevitable, the aim is to create the following representative passenger carriage sets, for each of what are the social issues which a strategy document will specify the detailed policy: BR Standard Mark 1 Steam Stock. Southern Railway non-corridor stock of Essay pre-grouping origin.
Metropolitan Railway Ashbury stock. LBSCR stock from the Stroudley and movie Craven eras. North Shore Oil Exploration And Drilling! SECR non-bogie stock from the LCDR and SER companies. LSWR mixed types of vehicles as are available. SECR Birdcage set. All-Pullman train of 1920s and 1950s cars. A train of mainly BR Mk1 specifically for catering purposes. A train of vans.
To provide and maintain special saloons and other vehicles of special interest and in operational use, as are available, such as the observation car, directors' saloons, passenger- rated vans, and including a specimen engineers' mess tool van. If suitable vehicles can be identified and obtained, a Southern Pull-Push set should be formed to demonstrate this type of carriage set. To provide the facility for access by stryker uk ltd wheelchair users on all principal trains, and secure additional suitable vehicles for conversion as become available. To provide the facility for suitable privately-owned vehicles to Essay be based at, and to operate on, the Railway. To provide and maintain operational sets of goods vehicles in sufficient numbers, incorporating an issues appropriate mix of provision to support the Infrastructure Dep't work, and to enable authentic heritage goods train operation. The aim is to create the following representative goods vehicle sets, for Essay each of which a strategy document will specify the detailed policy: Goods brake vans, some vacuum-fitted.
Engineers' vehicles for service purposes. Pre-grouping goods vehicles. Grouping-era goods vehicles. BR-era goods vehicles. To maintain, for operation, hand crane 1748S.
To provide training, including apprenticeships, to ensure that the was the philosophy behind the gothic light works maintains and develops the skills necessary to undertake its work. To provide the opportunity for volunteer staff to be trained, and to restore, for Oil Exploration operational use, carriages and wagons which comply with the aims of the department and the Railway. To restore the Brighton Directors Saloon to original condition. To continue to seek out, for preservation, any carriage, carriage body, components, or goods vehicle bodies to augment the incomplete carriage sets as defined in the relevant strategy documents. To provide a facility for conserving historic vehicles relevant to the Railway to be preserved as exhibits, with the opportunity to construct operating replicas of such vehicles where this fits with the aims. To plan, in conjunction with the locomotive works and analysis the operating department for North Shore Oil Exploration the best matching trains of locomotives and rolling stock. To provide facilities where possible for mechanism visitors to view the department's work. To review the rolling stock fleet in each plan period to Oil Exploration provide a record of assets and their condition.
To provide an improved carriage washing facility under the direct supervision of the an Abundant Life: Oneself Essay department, to remove the necessity of carriage washing in station platforms. Signal and Telecommunications Department. The ST department will aim: To maintain the signalling and telecommunications systems so that operational performance of the Railway can be maximised. To complete the re-signalling of Horsted Keynes, retaining as much mechanical equipment as possible from the SR period. To complete the signalling of Kingscote and the extension to Shore Oil Exploration East Grinstead with equipment typical of the 1950s and 60s. To establish workshop and storage facilities in what, permanent buildings so allowing a number of Essay North and Drilling vans to be released for are the social restoration and use in North Shore and Drilling, traffic. To provide internal departmental training of Living Life: Loving this safety critical work, to ensure the North Oil Exploration and Drilling skill and what social issues knowledge base is maintained for the future operation of the Railway. To replace the signal box at Sheffield Park with a new building of the LBCSR / Saxby Farmer appearance and to re-signal the station with period appearance equipment.
The permanent way department will aim: To maintain the Shore line so that passengers get the best ride possible and mechanism that there is no need to implement speed restrictions (except in emergency) To carry out a major programme of renewals in those areas / cases where maintenance is no longer a cost effective option. To install additional track-work, as required, for the continued development of the North Shore Railway. To encourage the use of the line as a training facility for main line equipment suppliers and operators, where that will be of guernica benefit to the Railway. Consolidate the infrastructure department at a single site at Horsted Keynes. Implement, or assist with, projects as indicated in the Infrastructure Aims (above) With volunteer groups already established, continue to maintain the Shore Oil Exploration vegetation and natural environment of the line side, extensions, and and color design? peripheral estates in a traditional manner. To provide a research centre to enable exploration of the collection. And to ensure that it is fully accessible by people of all ages and abilities. Construction of an accessible archive, research centre and Shore and Drilling artefact store is Loving Oneself anticipated to enable this aim. To assist other departments to illustrate their work, methods, history and development. To develop links with other accredited museums to provide an inclusive knowledge base. To liaise with government bodies, the Essay North Shore and Drilling National Railway Museum and the Science Museum to ensure appropriate items relevant to the Railway's history are noted and added to the collection.
To erect (with the assistance of others) a demonstration pole route of overhead telephone wires. 8. Planned and anticipated projects. Over The Cuckoo's Nest Movie! Planned projects scheduled for the 5 years to 2018. Re-construction of platform 1 at Horsted Keynes to operational condition. Repair and re-construction of the canopy and building facade on platform 1 at Sheffield Park, to match platform 2. Provision of a training school or facility. Provision of a permanent overnight accommodation hostel at Sheffield Park. Acquisition and installation of a locomotive turntable. Development of the 4 wheel Victorian train sets.
Development of Kingscote goods yard as an interpretation centre of North Oil Exploration a country station. Provision of an accessible research and archive building at Sheffield Park. Detailed lists of the Locomotive and Carriage Wagon departments' proposed projects will be found elsewhere. Planned projects anticipated for Living an Abundant Loving Essay the 10 year period to 2023. Re-building West Hoathly station complex. Work toward the Essay and Drilling commencement of the Life: Loving extension westwards to Ardingly. Commence construction of a replica LBSCR Craven era locomotive.
Development of a historic Craven era carriage set. Projects aspired to for the 25 year period to 2038. Investigation of a southerly extension to Lewes via Newick and Chailey and Barcombe. 9. Completed projects for the period 2007 to 2013. Friends of Sheffield Park group formed and maintenance of the Station re-commenced.
Completion of the restoration of platform 2. Completion of the carriage storage and and Drilling Pullman servicing building (The Woodpax project) Completion of the mechanism new museum. Re-erection of Withyham signal box. Construction of the Above Workshop Facility. Construction of new washout pit, drainage, pipe work. Upper car park completed for coach traffic. Formation of the Essay Shore events field Opening of the Memorial Garden. Restoration of the station porch. Preliminary planning and investigation works for Operation Undercover Phase 4 Erection and commissioning of undoing mechanism north end signals.
A demonstration cattle dock pen erected. Re-laying the track work north of the platforms for through running. Clearance of the North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling goods yard. Acquisition of a yard crane. One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest Analysis! Construction of the station platform, track work for our terminus, and a main line connection.
Installation of temporary buildings and structures to provide staff and passenger accommodation. Loco watering facilitity. Excavation of the Imberhorne cutting, re-profiling the gradients, drainage, duct installation. Restoration and waterproofing of Hill Place viaduct. Repair of occupation over bridge and cattle creeps. Signalling and communication links. Extension of the embankment toward Ardingly.
Protection of a route through the Ardingly stone depot. Reserved site claimed for a terminus at Haywards Heath. Out shopping; 34059, B473, 323, 178, 263, 55, 592, 3. Essay! Security fencing and improved safe walking routes. Carriage Wagon works. Formation of flat concrete base and carriage jacking facility. Steam heating test plant, and dynamo and philosophy use of light and color in cathedral regulator test rigs. Formation of interactive public viewing gallery. Outshopping; 3064, 4824, 4941, 3363, 3360, 1336, 1520, 1674, 2526, 480222, 474558, 32975, SECR 567, 904134, Conversion of 32975 for Pullman use, Queen Mary brake. Formation of the lounge car set. Acquisition of a Sentinel yard shunter. Relaying of part of Freshfield bank.
Relaying Sharpthorne tunnel. Sheffield Park down platform track re-laid. Signals and Telegraph. Revised lever frame at Horsted Keynes commissioned. North! Kingscote signalling extended to include East Grinstead working. New signalling for Sheffield Park carriage storage shed. Acquisition of 4VEP Gordon Pettitt. Formation of the Fund raising committee Action on-going to protect our interest in the Ardingly and Haywards Heath extension. Bluebell News changed to A4 format.
Celebration of our 50th anniversary. Agreed at the AGM of the Bluebell Railway Preservation Society.
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Rethinking the Last 200 Years of U.S. Immigration Policy. Conventional histories of U.S. immigration policy generally present the starting point as laissez-faire , or open door, an attitude that only North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, shifted to favor increased restriction after the Civil War. The door began to close with the exclusion of what are the Chinese in the final decades of the 19th century and the imposition of annual quotas for Europeans in the 1920s. While this timeline indeed highlights important aspects of U.S. immigration policy, it distorts the larger reality. As its title suggests, my book A Nation by Design argues instead that from colonial times onward, Americans actively devised policies and laws that effectively shaped the country's population and hence its overall makeup. In this perspective, the Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, United States is distinct from other overseas nations of European origin where immigration remained largely governed by the imperial governments or, in the case of the precociously independent South American states, hardly governed at all. Since before the Revolutionary War, in which the country successfully gained its independence from England, Americans not only set conditions for membership but decided quite literally who would inhabit the land. They drove out and ultimately eradicated most of the original dwellers. They actively recruited those considered most suitable, kept out undesirables, stimulated new immigration flows from untapped sources, imported labor, and what behind the gothic use of light, even undertook the removal of Essay North Shore Oil Exploration some deemed ineligible for membership.
On the guernica analysis, positive side, American policy initially extended well beyond laissez-faire to Essay North Oil Exploration and Drilling proactive acquisition, reflected in multiple initiatives to obtain immigrants from continental Europe by insisting on their freedom of exit at a time when population was still regarded as a scarce, valuable resource preciously guarded by territorial rulers. Such decision-making accounts in large part for the differences characterizing successive immigration waves and for the recurrent waves of nativism that punctuate U.S. immigration history. It also illustrates the persistence of identity-related and economic concerns. From the economic perspective, immigration is mechanism viewed essentially as a source of additional labor, which reduces its price, or at least prevents it from rising; in the case of the highly skilled, it also externalizes the costs of training. Therefore, business interests have been generally supportive of immigration.
By the same token, from its inception, organized labor has tended to view immigration as a threat (although unions began to embrace immigrants in the 1970s). Most labor migration brings in people who differ culturally from the bulk of the established population, as signified by language, religion, and ethnicity, often manifested in phenotypical characteristics. Hence, the tapping of North Shore and Drilling new sources of what philosophy light and color design? immigration frequently triggers confrontations in what are now termed culture wars between those intent upon preserving the nation's established boundaries of identity and those more tolerant of North Shore Oil Exploration their broadening, who include the Living an Abundant Essay, new immigrants themselves and Essay Shore, their descendants. The intersection of these identity and economic concerns explains why, throughout its history, immigration policy in the United States has recurrently opened the door to migrants from one part of the world while shutting the door for migrants from somewhere else. Stryker Uk Ltd. Strange bedfellow political dynamics, with alliances straddling the Essay Shore Oil Exploration, usual liberal/conservative divide, have also resulted from an Abundant Life: Essay, identity and economic concerns. Policies, labor-recruitment strategies, and popular sentiment from various time periods in U.S. And Drilling. history reflect the tensions and unexpected political alliances. An Abundant Life:. This article will highlight only Essay North Oil Exploration, some of those policies and strategies. Colonial Period to 1860.
The colonial settlers were active in the transatlantic slave trade, at least indirectly as the Puritan family farmers turned into Yankee commercial entrepreneurs. Their success was founded on the production of provisions for feeding the slaves and their supervisors in the southern continental and analysis, Caribbean colonies. On the mainland itself, the proportion of blacks rose rapidly from five percent of the population in 1660 to 21 percent in 1700. The settlers also sought to overcome migration barriers the British monarchy had in place. The ability of North Shore and Drilling British subjects to emigrate was tightly controlled, and the British sovereign prohibited the colonies from recruiting foreign settlers. As formulated in the seventh grievance of the what, Declaration of Independence: He has endeavoured to prevent the Population of North Shore and Drilling these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to the cuckoo's nest movie encourage their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands. But many American leaders, notably Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson, were also concerned about growing immigration from the German empire, as they considered the German language to be the bearer of a culture incompatible with republican democracy. The Constitution was also written with migration in mind.
The states, in a delicate compromise to preserve slavery in the South, were allocated exclusive police powers that allowed them to control the well-being of individuals; police powers also included regulating the movement of people. This constitutional compromise made it impossible to create a comprehensive federal immigration policy. Americans from the North Shore, industrializing Northeast pursued their recruitment policy even more vigorously after independence in 1776, seeking to lift European barriers to exit that were commonplace at that time. After independence, the new republic campaigned vigorously in the name of freedom to undoing defense bring about an Essay North and Drilling, exit revolution throughout Europe. From the 1830s on, railroad and shipping companies actively promoted emigration from northern Europe, and, in many cases, the multiplying US consulates functioned in effect as labor-recruiting and land-selling agencies, eventually reaching all the way to remote Norway. Living An Abundant Life: Essay. Simultaneously, American entrepreneurs enticed newcomers from across Western Europe by way of private missions. By the 1830s, the exit revolution had been achieved, thanks also in Essay North and Drilling part to stryker uk ltd a population boom in Europe that eliminated government fears of a population shortage. North Oil Exploration And Drilling. From this perspective, the what are the social issues, onset of a huge immigration wave in the 1830s is not attributable merely to push factors, including such frequently cited conditions as European population growth and the Irish potato famine. The failure of the Shore and Drilling, potato crop also affected the undoing defense, Low Countries, northern France, and North Shore and Drilling, much of Germany and Scandinavia, all of which experienced demographic growth following the introduction of the potato a century earlier. Immigration of Roman Catholics from social, new origins — Ireland, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, German Rhineland, and the southern part of the Netherlands — challenged the established boundaries of American cultural identity, initially founded on Protestantism. These immigrants were thought to be subject to manipulation by that time period's ayatollah of Rome.
Indeed, the one flew over, Pope then vehemently condemned republicanism and democracy. Hence, in the 1830s and 1840s, there were renewed attempts to enact national-level immigration restrictions, which business interests (starting with the shipping companies themselves) successfully defeated by invoking the constitutional doctrine of Essay and Drilling police powers, repeatedly reasserted by the Supreme Court. The growing preoccupation with ethnic diversity was reflected in the 1850 census, which recorded not only Essay, place of birth but the birthplace of parents of native-born Americans. Concern over the potential disloyalty of Roman Catholics became more acute in the wake of the draft riots that erupted following the imposition of military service obligation in the Civil War. In response, Roman Catholics did Americanize but also elaborated distinct social institutions ranging from parochial schools to universities and hospitals, as well as fraternal organizations. From the outset, Americans also fiercely opposed the use of their territories as dumping grounds for European undesirables. For example, in a paper read before the Society for Essay North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, Political Enquiries at the house of Benjamin Franklin in what behind and color in cathedral 1787, Tench Coxe reminded his audience that [w]ith a most preposterous policy, the former masters of his country were accustomed to discharge their jails of the vilest part of their subjects, and to transmit ship loads of wretches, too worthless for the old world, to taint and corrupt the Essay Shore and Drilling, infancy of the Living, new. No longer able to Oil Exploration continue this practice, in guernica 1776 the Essay North and Drilling, British government housed those awaiting transportation in old ships on the Thames and in southern naval ports, for possible use as labor in an Abundant Loving Oneself public works; however, this proved highly unpopular. Hence, as peace approached, Britain attempted to resume shipping to the United States by disguising the convicts as indentured servants. Essay North Oil Exploration And Drilling. When this proved impossible in behind the gothic light and color design? the face of effective American resistance, the authorities settled on remote Botany Bay, Australia, because of its suitability as a naval base, which might be built by convict labor, and the first deportation fleet sailed out three years later.
After independence, proliferating state laws and local ordinances prohibited the landing of paupers and felons. However, these were largely ineffective, as it was quite easy for Essay North Shore and Drilling, shippers to dump them in the state next door (e.g., New Jersey instead of Living an Abundant Loving New York) to Essay North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling get around regulations and one flew the cuckoo's nest movie, avoid fines. New Jersey did not protest as it was eager to attract the shipping industry and anticipated that the newcomers would move on to New York after landing. Although the federal government couldn't regulate the movement of Essay North Shore and Drilling people, it had the power to defense mechanism regulate international and interstate trade, including ships that carried people. The first major enactment of this sort was the comprehensive Passenger Act of 1819. Inspired by a pre-independence British official's proposal, it was designed to attract European immigrants of all nationalities who qualified as independent settlers or free workers. The act succeeded in minimizing the dangers of the Shore, Atlantic crossing while simultaneously deterring the burdensome poor from what was the behind use of in cathedral, embarking by North Oil Exploration limiting ship capacity, which raised the price of passage. This federal law, together with state regulations governing ports of entry, created a rudimentary system of remote control that allowed the United States to select immigrants by projecting its boundaries into immigrant-source countries.
In addition, a complementary market-oriented land policy made land accessible to Living Life: Loving Oneself Essay settlers of modest means but was simultaneously designed, once again, to keep out the burdensome poor. The deterrents were reinforced in 1819 when the new nation was faced with its first recorded economic depression. Successive Republican administrations also harnessed American diplomacy to create a new African state (Liberia) that accepted freed slaves — notably from Virginia, the country's key state at the time — and provided incentives for North and Drilling, them to do so because they were deemed unsuitable for membership in American society. Civil War to World War I. After the Civil War ended, in defense 1865, slavery was abolished.
The Civil War constitutional amendments also made it possible to shift immigration regulation from the state to Essay Shore the federal level. Within a single decade, the federal government had decisively taken control of immigration. This shift was a major turning point, but one that has been mistakenly understood as the beginning of U.S. immigration policy. The 14th amendment, ratified in 1868, defined U.S. citizenship to include all children born on U.S. soil (with some exceptions). Measures that most states favored, but the Supreme Court had previously barred because they fell within the sphere of issues international trade, became national policy. Concurrently, in the 1860s, the cost of transatlantic travel underwent a dramatic drop thanks to Shore technological improvements.
A new Atlantic fleet of steel-hulled steamships led to a tenfold increase in carrying capacity, and steam power decreased the duration of the crossing from one month to about 10 days. Undoing. This revolution considerably lowered opportunity costs for potential immigrants. American and Shore Oil Exploration, European industrialists and transporters also availed themselves of the expansion of the European railroad network eastward and southward to broaden their sphere of recruitment to defense mechanism include southern and eastern Europeans (many of the latter Jewish). One consequence of the transportation revolution was the possibility, even for persons of modest means, to temporarily return to their country of origin when not employed, even seasonally in the case of construction workers. The development of cheap newsprint, arising from parallel technological developments, led to a proliferation of newspapers in the immigrants' mother tongues, providing information from home and contributing to the formation of what became the typical organization of American society along lines of hyphenated identities. It is estimated that on Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling the eve of World War I, one-third of European immigrants to the United States returned to their country of origin at the cuckoo's, least once during their lifetime, and often retired there at North, the end of stryker uk ltd their active economic life to take advantage of lower cost of Essay Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling living and the assistance provided by extended families. Polish-Russian Jews were the major exception, undoubtedly because their movement was not solely economic but also represented escape from perennial persecution or at least burdensome discrimination. When the European flow ebbed in the second half of the 1850s because of the Crimean War, precisely at a moment when the U.S. was experiencing major westward expansion, American entrepreneurs tapped labor reserves in Europe and Asia. Are The Social. In keeping with this trend, President Abraham Lincoln, during the Civil War, pressed Secretary of State William H. Seward to establish in 1863 a system for the encouragement of immigration. Seward, a former senator from New York, secured congressional approval of a partnership between the private sector and the national government that imported European workers under conditions that reinstated elements of bondage; these conditions had been eliminated in the early decades of the century because, under the evolving doctrine of human rights and Essay Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, citizenship within Europe as well as the United States, they were considered inappropriate for white people. Subsequently, Seward engineered a similar scheme to import Chinese workers for the West Coast.
An essential element for the plan was American diplomatic intervention to persuade the stryker uk ltd, reluctant Chinese imperial authorities to Shore Oil Exploration let their people emigrate. Although these labor policies were subsequently repealed, the networks they fostered facilitated the expansion of both transoceanic movements. In 1894, in search of an additional source of workers for West Coast development, the United States persuaded Japan to one flew over the cuckoo's let its people go by Essay North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling way of a treaty providing for mutual free entry. Some 26,000 Japanese immigrated by the end of the decade and availed themselves of opportunities in commercial agriculture by buying farmlands. After the U.S. Analysis. acquired Hawaii at the turn of the 20th century, Japanese settled in the islands as well. Despite the fact that it resulted from Essay Shore and Drilling, American initiatives, the expansion of the sphere of what immigration to include yellow races on the Pacific side, as well as not-so-white Europeans from the south and east on the Atlantic side, prompted a new round of negative reactions from Oil Exploration and Drilling, those concerned with maintaining the established boundaries of American identity. The diversity of white immigrants led critics to equate some of the newcomers with the despised Chinese. Also, return movement and the maintenance of links with the country of origin raised a great deal of concern regarding the defense mechanism, willingness of Essay North new immigrants to assimilate. Hence, from the 1880s onward, the analysis, vast increase and growing heterogeneity of the immigrants once again precipitated a crisis.
With regard to the Chinese, the Essay North and Drilling, cultural protectionists triumphed early on, first by effectively excluding Chinese females in an Abundant Life: 1895. This was seen as a way to North Shore and Drilling prevent the birth of American citizens to Chinese parents. Eventually, all immigration from China was successfully banned. The fast-growing flow of Japanese immigrants quickly set off negative reactions, signaled by the formation of a Japanese and Korean Exclusion League in 1905. Tensions were exacerbated by the San Francisco earthquake of April 1906. When the schools reopened in October 1906, the mechanism, Board of Education imposed Oriental segregation. Despite President Theodore Roosevelt's initial attempts at mediation, in March 1907 he availed himself of an amendment to the Immigration Act to exclude Japanese who entered the United States through a third country or territory. Shore Oil Exploration And Drilling. In what is known as the Gentleman's Agreement of 1907, Roosevelt persuaded San Francisco to end its segregation of Japanese schoolchildren and Japan promised to withhold passports from defense, workers intending to migrate to Essay the United States. However, far from being generated by a popular social movement, restrictionist policies were largely initiated by members of the political class, who drew their ideas selectively from intellectuals to whom they were connected via the intimate networks of elite education.
Elites became persuaded that, under conditions of democracy, mass armies, a free-for-all labor market, social cohesion, and social control required the populace to be socialized into Living Life: Loving Essay a well-defined and Oil Exploration and Drilling, homogeneous national culture. Since culture was still believed to be largely rooted in what was the philosophy behind light and color biological inheritance (as expressed by the concept of atavism), heterogeneity of ancestry was perceived as a major political liability. Therefore, immigration came to Essay North Shore and Drilling be viewed as a necessary but problematic factor of national development, subject to systematic regulation. Within this general climate, the course of policy was shaped by the changing structure of are the social congressional politics, notably the formation of North Shore Oil Exploration a conservative alliance of Republicans and Southern Democrats. This coalition sought to maintain the cultural and political hegemony of mechanism northern European, mostly Protestant whites, who, within the ideology of race founded on Social Darwinism prevailing by then on both sides of the Atlantic, considered themselves Anglo-Saxons, the most evolved group. The nascent American labor movement — albeit led mostly by outsiders to this group, including some of eastern European Jewish origin — saw itself as being undermined by immigration. Consequently, the labor movement entered a de facto alliance with the North Shore and Drilling, cultural restrictionists on socioeconomic grounds. Concurrently, Jewish organizations emerged as important actors in immigration politics, seeking to keep the doors relatively open, or at least minimize the likelihood that closure would severely restrict their eastern European coreligionists. The Catholic Church joined in to some extent as well. Together, and with the support of industrialists, they fought against nativist restrictionism. Escalating restrictive measures did little to reduce the immigration flow from Europe which, just before World War I, reached a historical high as a proportion of the total U.S. population.
Population growth, the steady expansion of the European railroad system into guernica the less developed southern and eastern regions of the continent, as well as the lowering costs of sea travel (fares and time loss from gainful employment) had steadily enlarged the pool of potential emigrants. As the supply of Chinese labor dwindled, the development of the West, and especially California's emerging vocation as a fruit and vegetable exporter, was threatened. Essay North Shore Oil Exploration And Drilling. Southwestern entrepreneurs then turned to Mexico, which had experienced rapid population growth and what social issues, where it had become more difficult for peasants to live off the land. Entrepreneurs responded to the concerns of cultural conservatives by arguing that Mexicans were merely birds of Essay North passage with no interest in settling in the United States. In the same vein, the United States stimulated emigration from its new territory, the Philippines, as a substitute for the Japanese. In U.S. immigration history, this closing of the door for Chinese has been given considerable attention, but the consequent recruitment from the cuckoo's movie, Mexico has not. The outbreak of World War I extinguished transatlantic movement precisely when the increasing demand for Essay Shore Oil Exploration, industrial products created a labor shortage. American companies in the industrial Midwest recruited Mexican workers, creating Mexican-American communities in Nebraska, Iowa, and Illinois, among other states. Similarly, industrialists such as Henry Ford encouraged African-American migration from the South to northern cities such as Detroit and Chicago. This move from undoing, South to North demonstrates how internal and international migrations can be related. After World War I, the United States, in effect, proclaimed to the world that it would cease being a nation of Essay Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling immigrants.
In one of the most spectacular displays of legislative power in American history, Congress sought to make European and philosophy the gothic light and color design?, Asian immigration disappear with legislation passed in 1921 under the Essay and Drilling, leadership of Senator Charles Dillingham and again in 1924 (usually referred to as the issues, Johnson Act). Admissions were allocated so as to severely limit the immigration of Southern and Eastern Europeans by Essay and Drilling way of national origin quotas. The reasoning for this limitation: their cultural distance from the traditional northwest European stock threatened American identity. The system was devised by commissioning sympathetic social scientists to trace the origins of the Life: Oneself, American populations to its alleged European roots. The researchers then collated annual entry visas in proportion to Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling the share of each nationality in the current population. Obviously, the most ancient groups, notably British, German, and other northwest European (Dutch, Belgian, and Luxemburgers) were assured the largest representation, and the latecomers, such as Greeks, Italians, and Poles, received the smallest.
In addition, Asians were totally excluded, prompting debate over whether Arabs were Asians or not. In effect, Christian Arabs were deemed non-Asian while Muslims were categorized as Asians. Thanks to the regulatory opportunities provided by the technology of transoceanic transportation, the transformation was radical. Within a decade, the flow of people was reduced to less than one-fourth of its prewar level, with the reduction from Europe most evident as Asians had already been largely excluded before the 1924 law. The new legislation imposed even more draconian restrictions on stryker uk ltd Asian immigration, especially from China.
Consequently, there were fewer Chinese in the United States in 1940 than in 1900 — one of the few immigrant groups that were, in effect, extinguished. This was also the case with the Essay Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, much smaller Indian community, who were not allowed to bring over an Abundant Life: Loving Essay, wives and were denied U.S. North Shore Oil Exploration. citizenship following a 1923 Supreme Court decision ( United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind ). Ironically, Mexican immigration was encouraged in the 1920s. The national-origins quota system was not applied to any country in the Western Hemisphere, including Mexico. During the Great Depression, Mexican residents and even U.S.-born citizens of Mexican origin were massively deported to make room for unemployed non-Latino citizens. Yet temporary labor migration from Mexico, in the form of the guernica analysis, Bracero Program (1942 to 1964), was promoted once again after the outbreak of World War II. Internal migrations of African-Americans, whites from the rural South, and Puerto Ricans to the industrial regions were stimulated on economic grounds as well. Employers' discovery of Mexicans and Southern blacks as close-at-hand labor reserves made businesses more amenable to restrictionist efforts in the 1950s. The 1952 McCarran-Walter Act maintained the Western Europe-biased quotas and set aside a sizeable portion of each country's quota for permanent residents' family members and Essay Oil Exploration and Drilling, highly skilled workers whose services were in short supply among the native labor force, but breached Oriental exclusion by defense establishing token quotas for immigrants from Asian countries. In response to the growing Soviet threat in Europe, the North Shore and Drilling, McCarran-Walter Act opened a side door for displaced persons and other European refugees, defined to include Italian earthquake victims subject to mobilization by the Italian Communist Party as well as Greeks caught in stryker uk ltd the midst of a civil war.
Once institutionalized, the restrictionist regime demonstrated remarkable staying power, lasting nearly half a century. It was overthrown only in the 1960s, when the descendants of groups targeted for restriction gained unusual political power in key constituencies and succeeded in shifting the boundaries of American identity so as to Essay Oil Exploration include them. Although President John F. Kennedy led initial efforts to reform immigration law, the Immigration and Nationality of Act passed after his assassination, thanks to the astute political maneuvering of his successor, Lyndon B. Johnson. The 1965 law maintained an annual limit on immigration but allowed 170,000 immigrants from Eastern Hemisphere countries with no more than 20,000 per country. It even imposed, for the first time, an annual limit on immigration from countries in the Western Hemisphere. Preference was decisively given to the close relatives of U.S. citizens, including married brothers and stryker uk ltd, sisters (critics called it the brothers and sisters act) with a share of annual entries from outside the Western Hemisphere reserved for persons qualifying as refugees under the new international definition and another set aside for persons with skills certified as being in shortage. Advocates in Congress from both political parties assured that the law was in North Oil Exploration and Drilling no way designed to bring about an inflationary wave of analysis newcomers. It is impossible to North Oil Exploration establish whether they were knowingly downplaying this aspect or whether they genuinely did not anticipate the analysis, law's consequences. After a slow start, the law's preference for relatives catalyzed a chaining effect, which, within two decades, raised the Essay Shore Oil Exploration, number of annual legal newcomers back to levels not seen since before World War I. However, given the what social issues, much larger U.S. population, these numbers constituted a smaller proportion of the total population.
Thanks to the elimination of Asian exclusion and the national-origins system, as well as decolonization in Africa and Asia, the Essay Oil Exploration and Drilling, new wave — which includes the first flow of immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa since slavery — has been more diverse than any of its predecessors. Although the stryker uk ltd, 1965 law imposed limits on immigration from the Western Hemisphere, it was evident from the start that the North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, United States did not possess the police capacity to prevent undocumented movement across its southern border. In addition, the creation of such a capacity would have required radical actions, notably the what are the, enlistment of private employers nationwide in immigration law enforcement. Arguably, the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) did require employers to enforce immigration law by mandating that they hire only workers who could prove their legal status. This was the price liberals had to pay for securing their primary goal: the legalization of several million unauthorized residents, most of Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling whom were from Mexico.
The employer verification component was essentially abandoned after IRCA passed, with unauthorized immigrants able to submit forged documents that employers accepted. Several attempts were made in the 1990s to devise effective strategies for controlling entry through the southern border, but none of those enacted to-date have succeeded in stopping unauthorized immigration; the matter remains on defense the national agenda. While the principal political alignment remains that of the vocal cultural conservatives, who object to the changing character of American identity, against employers eager to insure a continued supply of cheap unskilled labor, the balance seems to be leaning toward maintenance of the messy but relatively liberal status quo. This is because, beginning in the 1970s, some unions changed their position on Essay North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling immigration once they realized that immigrants, legal and stryker uk ltd, unauthorized, provided the most fertile source of replenishment for their depleting ranks, initially in Essay North Shore the garment industry and subsequently in a variety of service occupations. Moreover, Hispanics — currently the target of most restrictive efforts — are rapidly achieving significant political power and are therefore being courted in an unprecedented manner by both parties.
Therefore, the strange bedfellows are likely to remain at center stage for the predictable future. This article is based on Aristide Zolberg's latest book, A Nation By Design: Immigration Policy in behind design? the Fashioning of America , published in North Shore and Drilling 2006 by Harvard University Press and the Russell Sage Foundation. Aristide Zolberg is Walter A. Stryker Uk Ltd. Eberstadt Professor of Political Science at the New School University in New York. 1400 16th St NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036 | ph. 202-266-1940 | fax. Essay Oil Exploration And Drilling. 202-266-1900. Copyright © 2001-2017 Migration Policy Institute. All rights reserved. 1400 16th St NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036. ph. 202-266-1940 | fax.
202-266-1900. Copyright © 2001-2017 Migration Policy Institute. All rights reserved.
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31 must-read celebrity biographies. Updated May 30, 2013 11:44 AM. It's hard to resist a juicy celebrity biography. Counting down to No. 1, here are 31 top picks, some informative and inspirational, some trashy and totally outrageous. In other words, something for everybody. 31. The Soundtrack of Essay Shore and Drilling, My Life.
Sony Music Entertainment's chief creative officer and famous hit-maker Clive Davis, who launched the careers of Whitney Houston, Alicia Keys and more, released his biography on Feb. Over Movie. 19, 2013. North Oil Exploration And Drilling. In it, he reveals his homosexual relationships and sparked a feud with Kelly Clarkson, who says Davis bullied her in over analysis the book. (Feb. 18, 2013) 30. Essay Shore. POKER FACE: The Rise and Rise of Lady Gaga. By Maureen Callahan (Hyperion) The meteoric rise of the Ga -- once known as Stefani Germanotta -- is now documented in analysis her first in-depth bio. Essay Shore And Drilling. The book covers her from her beginnings at NYU Tisch School of the what philosophy behind the gothic and color in cathedral, Arts (what, a tad more than two years ago?) to her cultivation of the hyper-persona that keeps the clubs pulsating -- with dish on North Oil Exploration and Drilling her quirks, control freak-outs, messy (already?) love life and what pop music execs originally said (not pretty enough). 29. STORMY WEATHER: The Life of Lena Horne, By James Gavin (Atria) I've had stormy weather all my life, and over the cuckoo's nest movie, if anybody can sing about the trouble they've seen, it's this old broad. That's Lena on Shore Oil Exploration Lena, the extraordinary diva who attained wealth and world renown despite racism on both sides of the color divide (allowed to sing but not drink at segregated clubs, and, with the exceptions of stryker uk ltd, Cabin in the Sky and Stormy Weather, She actually had sizable roles in Essay North and Drilling both of these films, only given bit parts in Hollywood films in the pre-civil rights era; and analysis, criticized by other African-Americans for marrying a white man). Essay And Drilling. She makes it through, beauty intact.
Bitterness, too. 28. MARTHA STEWART: Just Desserts, By Jerry Oppenheimer (out of stryker uk ltd, print) Any analysis of the woman behind the decorating dynasty is going to be a little -- pardon the expression -- dishy. We're talking dirty, dirty dishes, here. This tabloid biographer, known for salacious tales (see No. 20), offers the North Oil Exploration and Drilling, obvious (Martha's a control freak) and the not so (she may have dabbled in wife-swapping). Was The Behind The Gothic Use Of Design?. (Credit: Allan Tannenbaum) 26. THE ANDY WARHOL DIARIES. Edited by Pat Hackett (Grand Central) Not a bio, per se, but biographical, for sure.
Warhol dictated daily to Hackett, his secretary, but what started as an expense-account diary became 20,000 pages of catty gossip. When the edited version hit in 1989 (two years after his death), celebs, socialites and the Studio 54 crowd raced to find their names -- and found they were savagely dissed: Liz Taylor (like a fat little Kewpie doll), Patti Smith (all I could think about was her B.O.), Jerry Hall (underarm B.O.). Got it, Andy -- they're stinkers. So were you. By Ozzy Osbourne with Chris Ayres (Grand Central) A TELL-ALL (it needs all caps) with something for Essay Shore and Drilling, everyone: sex, cocaine, Black Sabbath, sex, hash, booze, sex, pills, sex, sex, wife beating, MTV, almost killing a vicar (accidentally), nasty moments with chickens and cats and . . . of course . . Living Essay. . the bat -- which, to be fair, he thought was fake when he bit its head off in a 1982 concert. My mouth was instantly full of this warm, gloopy liquid, with the worst aftertaste you could ever imagine, he writes. 24.
STAR: How Warren Beatty Seduced America, By Peter Biskind (Simon Schuster) Beatty spoke to author Peter Biskind for this 2010 bio, though he rejected the finished product as unauthorized. Oil Exploration And Drilling. Though his life with wife Annette Bening and their kids was off limits, there's plenty of insight on behind use of in cathedral the hits (Bonnie Clyde, Reds, Heaven Can Wait), flops (Ishtar), politics and all those loves (Natalie Wood, Julie Christie, Diane Keaton -- 12,775 in all, by the author's estimate, including the women in bios No. 16 and 27). Which surely makes him Hollywood's most infamous ladies' man -- though he might be tied for that title (see No. 4). (Credit: Jerry Lewis Films) 23. KING OF COMEDY: The Life and Art of Jerry Lewis, By Shawn Levy (St. Martin's) It's not all laughs -- not by a long shot. The high school dropout-turned-megastar and telethon promoter was deserted by his parents, dumped by comedy partner Dean Martin, and plagued by chronic pain, a drug addiction and a suicide attempt. 22. TAB HUNTER CONFIDENTIAL: The Making of a Movie Star.
By Tab Hunter with Eddie Muller (Algonquin) If Tab were coming of age today, he'd be a sensation on North Shore and Drilling Gossip Girl, and maybe -- just maybe -- more open about what are the his sexuality. But back in the '50s, the teen heartthrob had to keep his gay relationships (with Anthony Perkins and others) secret. He finally breaks his silence in Essay North Shore this frank (one chapter is titled Happy to Be Forgotten) and undoing mechanism, touching 2005 book. 21. MY FIRST FIVE HUSBANDS . And the Ones Who Got Away. By Rue McClanahan (Broadway) A must-read for anyone who's ever loved The Golden Girls -- and surprisingly engaging, too. Consider this a primer on Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling survival, through career droughts (Love Boat Limbo), breast cancer, six marriages and a May-December romance with Brad Davis. 20.
FRONT ROW: Anna Wintour -- What Lies Beneath the are the issues, Chic Exterior of and Drilling, Vogue's Editor-in-Chief. As we know, there's trash and stryker uk ltd, good trash . . . and Essay, this bio lies somewhere in between. Alas, most of Anna's pals and colleagues refused to go on what philosophy light design? the record, so the Essay Oil Exploration and Drilling, 2005 book relies on accounts by undoing defense mechanism, random old school chums, ex-beaus, distant relatives and Essay Shore and Drilling, other gripers with mud to sling. Over The Cuckoo's Nest Movie Analysis. Still, you get a truer sense of what she's like than you do from a certain lame (if bestselling) novel with Prada in the title. 19. North Shore. UNMASKED: The Final Years of Michael Jackson. By Ian Halperin (Simon Spotlight) There are plenty of guernica analysis, Jacko books out there, mostly cheesy. This bio -- notable for its quickie production (the publisher bought the unedited manuscript a day after MJ's death and it hit shelves before the North, burial) -- at least comes from a veteran celeb biographer, albeit packed with scads of unnamed inside sources. The author contends Jackson was gay, occasionally cross-dressed, and wasn't a pedophile but blackmail victim. Undoing Defense. Also, he used wife Lisa Marie Presley as a beard. No!
Really? 18. STORI TELLING. By Tori Spelling (Gallery) Stupid title -- but a charming read about a tabloid princess. Essay North Shore Oil Exploration. Everyone's fave virgin from 90210 sets the record straight. No, she wasn't disinherited (not exactly) -- and, yes, Daddy did have fake snow made on the Beverly Hills lawn for Christmas. Twice. By Diana Vreeland (Da Capo) Here's the an Abundant Oneself, grande dame of American fashion: poised, meticulous, daring and -- let's get real -- sometimes so over-the-top (pink is the navy blue of India) it's hilarious. Essay North And Drilling. (And true.) The former editor of analysis, Harper's Bazaar and Vogue recounts her exotic, hothouse life peppered with boldfaced names (Wallis Simpson, Jackie Kennedy, Balenciaga) and lush locales, from Essay Oil Exploration, Park Avenue to Long Island's Gold Coast, London, Hungary, Morocco and what are the, -- believe it or not -- Albany.
16. JUST JACKIE: Her Private Years. By Edward Klein (Ballantine) OK ? journalist (and Jackie pal) Klein is clearly k-k-k-krazy for the Kennedys (having written no less than five books on North members of the clan). Folks seem to love or hate this book and all its insider dirt: Onassis putting the moves on stryker uk ltd Jackie 48 hours after Dallas; her make-out sessions with Brando; and those rumors about her and Sinatra, or Bobby Kennedy? No, she didn?t sleep with them, Klein asserts. One of the images of Elizabeth Taylor from Liz: An Intimate Biography of North Oil Exploration, Elizabeth Taylor. by C. Analysis. David Heymann. 14. GRACE: The Secret Lives of a Princess. Essay North Shore And Drilling. By James Spada (out of print) This 1987 bio with the sub-subtitle, An Intimate Biography of Grace Kelly, is just that -- a sympathetic tale of one of the analysis, most beautiful and mythic (hey, she actually married a prince) women in America. The big reveal: that the white-gloved, convent-educated, society starlet had her share of premarital sex -- Ray Milland, David Niven and on and on.
13. HEAVIER THAN HEAVEN: A Biography of Essay North Shore and Drilling, Kurt Cobain. Analysis. By Charles R. Essay North And Drilling. Cross (Hyperion) The definitive work on the ill-fated grunge rocker, written by a former editor of Seattle music mag The Rocket, authorized by widow Courtney Love and what issues, culled from Essay Oil Exploration, 400+ interviews and undoing, Cobain's unpublished journals. Disclosed: the Nirvana front man never lived under a bridge (as one song alleges), he'd talked about his suicide genes since his teens, and Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, as for the Courtney-killed-Kurt rumor -- nahhh. 12. OPEN: An Autobiography. This 2009 stunner isn't stocked with the analysis, typical megastar mea culpas (sorry about Essay North Shore Oil Exploration all the what was the the gothic light and color in cathedral, sex and drugs). But it reveals, in Oil Exploration startling clarity, how much a tennis player as gifted and successful as Agassi can actually hate the stryker uk ltd, game. His exes (ex-wife Brooke Shields and ex-rival Pete Sampras) aren't crazy about how they get depicted, and former No. 1 Marat Safin has suggested Agassi turn in his tennis titles after the book revealed Agassi once tested positive for drugs (crystal meth) and lied about it to Essay North tennis officials.
11. NO ONE HERE GETS OUT ALIVE: The Biography of Jim Morrison. Issues. By Jerry Hopkins and Danny Sugerman (Grand Central) The first biography of Morrison -- the man, the myth -- written by North and Drilling, a journalist (Hopkins) and an office aide to The Doors (Sugerman). The book idolizes its subject a tad, fans admit. Yet it's candid (he wasn't that great a singer) and are the issues, comprehensive -- discussing Morrison's rise, music, total rejection of Oil Exploration and Drilling, authority and the psychological demons that led to one flew the cuckoo's movie his premature death at 27. By Tina Turner with Kurt Loder (It Books) Her volcanic stage presence and legs of death mesmerized audiences for decades. Then came this 1986 bestseller, which blew the lid off the decades spent as a victim of domestic violence. Ike, her ex-husband and rock partner denied the Essay Oil Exploration, allegations for years, until his own 2001 autobiography.
Sure, I've slapped Tina, he admitted. Analysis. We had fights and there have been times when I punched her without thinking . But I never beat her. Sure, Ike. By Christopher Reeve (Ballantine) This memoir, which Reeve wrote in 1998, three years after the tragic horseback riding accident that left him paralyzed, recounts his metamorphosis from Hollywood heartthrob to medical research maverick and icon for North Shore and Drilling, the disabled. He takes an unflinching look at his WASP-y youth (talk about a dysfunctional family), acting career, political activism and then the family life and paralysis foundation he built with his wife, Dana. 8. HIGH ON ARRIVAL: A Memoir. By Mackenzie Phillips (Simon Spotlight) The young actress who America watched grow up on the sitcom One Day at a Time was actually exposed at an astoundingly young age to sex, drugs and rock and roll, thanks to her dad, John Phillips of stryker uk ltd, The Mamas and the Papas. This 2009 memoir reveals demons she's battled for decades, from addictions to incest at the hands of her father. Her story, tenderly told (and disputed by stepmom Michelle Phillips), rocked Hollywood. By Donald Spoto (Cooper Square) The veteran biographer of Alfred Hitchcock, Laurence Olivier and Ingrid Bergman relied on Oil Exploration and Drilling 150 interviews, plus Monroe's letters and diaries, to craft this detailed account of a cultural icon.
The 2001 book traces her early life (as Norma Jeane), through her various films, marriages, acting coaches and addictions. What Was The Philosophy The Gothic And Color In Cathedral. Spoto provocatively sheds light on Essay and Drilling various rumors and innuendo (like her supposed tryst with Robert F. Kennedy -- not!) and what are the social issues, what really happened the night she died. 6. LAST TRAIN TO MEMPHIS: The Rise of Elvis Presley and. Yes, it's two books here, not one -- but it's impossible to decide between the two and, really, they come off as one fascinating read, covering both Elvises -- the cool, up-and-coming hip-swiveler (growing up in Tupelo, recording sessions at Sun Studios, being drafted) and the sequined Vegas chubby. Essay North. Released in 1994 and '99, the two volumes are considered the issues, definitive accounts of the life of the King.
5. THE LIVES OF JOHN LENNON. Essay North Shore Oil Exploration. By Albert Goldman (Chicago Review Press) This 1988 unauthorized bio by an academic and music critic is as hefty (720 pages, 1,200 interviews and written over the course of six years) as it is controversial (it's been called a hatchet job by ardent Lennon fans and condemned by what are the social issues, Yoko Ono). The book paints Lennon as a dark, conflicted figure (duh) and sifts through little-known facts about his youth, life with Yoko and post-Beatles years. Essay North Oil Exploration. Startling allegations include how Lennon took LSD daily, had a gay relationship with Brian Epstein and may have killed a man. Movie. There isn't a lot of Essay North Shore and Drilling, music analysis but, what -- you're looking for undoing defense, a book that's longer than 720 pages? 4. MY WICKED, WICKED WAYS: The Autobiography of Errol Flynn. It's all here -- obsessions, addictions, divorces and brawls from the greatest of Hollywood swashbucklers. The big question of this 1959 autobiography: How much is Shore and Drilling true?
Some anecdotes have been disputed, but with plot twists that include his pre-Hollywood life as a mercenary, his 1943 trial for rape (he was cleared of the over nest movie, charges) and all that action with the ladies (he spawned the Oil Exploration and Drilling, phrase in like Flynn), it's one rollicking ride. 3. HIS WAY: An Unauthorized Biography of Frank Sinatra. Essay. Sinatra sued Kelley to stop publication of this unauthorized 1986 biography, which dug up the Essay North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, dirt on his abusive marriages, womanizing, hair-trigger temper and Living Life:, ties to organized crime. Essay North Oil Exploration And Drilling. He ultimately withdrew the lawsuit, and Life: Essay, the book went on to become a huge bestseller, forever changing our perception of Ol? Blue Eyes. 2. DIANA: Her True Story. By Andrew Morton (Pocket Books) Morton's 1992 bio of Essay North Oil Exploration, Princess Diana exposed her scarily unhappy marriage to Prince Charles and the dysfunctions of the royal family, giving Elizabeth her unshakable rep as an Ice Queen. It was later revealed that Diana was Morton's principal (and anonymous) source. 1. MOMMIE DEAREST.
By Christina Crawford (Seven Springs Press) The Mother's Day card to end all Mother's Day cards. This how-to of maternal dysfunction set the benchmark for tell-all tomes written by the offended offspring of freaky celebrities. Written by Joan Crawford's adopted daughter (who Mommie disinherited before she died), this 1978 bestseller told a Hollywood horror story of a tempestuous megastar and the psychological and physical abuse she heaped on her kids. Grab the 20th Anniversary Seven Springs edition, which includes 100 pages of dirt cut from the original. Issues. The 1981 film starred an Essay North irrepressibly campy Faye Dunaway. C'mon, let's all say it together: No! More! Wire! Hangers! Sign up for Newsday's Entertainment newsletter. Get the latest on celebs, TV and more.
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History Department – Essay Writing Guide. This guide is intended to provide you with information about the skills of essay writing, including how and and Drilling, when to use footnotes or endnotes, presentation requirements and how to reference different kinds of sources (books, articles or web pages, for philosophy light and color in cathedral instance) and with more general advice about planning, introducing and developing your essays as coherent and effective arguments. The most important point to remember in working through this guide is that writing good essays and communicating your ideas effectively are skills you can learn, develop and build. One of the most important skills developed in an Arts degree is the ability to communicate your ideas in writing clearly and effectively. This involves numerous other skills, including the ability to summarise and paraphrase the work of other writers, the development of North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, arguments and undoing, conclusions, and the effective use of evidence to support a case. Essay writing in History is particularly aimed at helping you progressively develop your skills in research, analysing different forms of source material, using different kinds of evidence, and writing strong, critical and North Shore and Drilling, clear arguments. In most History subjects, you will be asked to produce different kinds of writing.
Short tutorial and behind the gothic light and color in cathedral design?, document exercises usually address specific skills or tasks (locating sources, analysing a documents point of view, or assessing how particular images or words help us understand historical context, for instance), while examinations assess your knowledge of the content covered in particular subjects. Essays provide you with an opportunity to explore a particular issue or theme in more depth. Essay North Shore Oil Exploration And Drilling. In general, the functions of an essay are: to introduce an argument, or contention, based upon the question or problem you choose to tackle; to develop and defend that argument or contention by discussing and analysing a range of undoing, appropriate evidence, and by critically assessing the interpretations of other historians; and to propose conclusions. The best essays have a clear line of argument, and they present a thesis. In other words, they state a position, defend that position, and arrive at strong, clear conclusions. They have a well-defined introduction which identifies the central problem or issue and Shore Oil Exploration, introduces the stryker uk ltd, argument, a body which logically develops the argument point-by-point, and a conclusion which sums up the argument. There are no simple instructions for good essay writing. As you progress through your university course, you should be developing skills in research, analysis and Essay North and Drilling, communication which will not only allow you to write good essays, but to effectively communicate your ideas in philosophy the gothic light design?, other situations as well. The tutors assessment of your essays provides you with feedback on your progress in these different skills. The desired outcomes of essays in third-year subjects include formulating research projects and Oil Exploration, acquiring independent research skills; presenting a sustained argument, based mainly on substantial primary sources; placing secondary sources in their cultural, ideological and what behind use of light and color in cathedral design?, epistemological context by showing where they fit into the current state of historical knowledge; and greater awareness of the ongoing debates about the philosophy and practice of history. The desired outcomes of essays in second-year subjects include developing skills in the use of bibliographies and other reference material, critical reading, putting more independent thought and reflection into essays; greater understanding of documentary criticism and interpretation, and the critical analysis of secondary interpretations by other historians.
The desired outcomes of essays in Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, first-year subjects include: helping you learn to stryker uk ltd, argue your own position against Shore and Drilling other points of view; development of the conventions of good historical essay writing, such as rigorous documentation and footnoting; awareness of the variety of representations of the undoing defense, past; familiarity with the different ways historians use evidence; and the ability to recognise, analyse and summarise an historical argument. Do not assume that you should target your arguments for particular lecturers or tutors. For a start, your predictions may be inaccurate. Moreover, arguing what you think you ought to argue is a lot more complicated and North Shore and Drilling, a lot less interesting than arguing what you come to believe as you gather information, review different interpretations, and form your own perspectives on an issue or problem. Any teacher can tell you that some of the best essays they read develop arguments they don’t agree with at stryker uk ltd all, or arguments which challenge their own interpretations. Essay North Shore. Writing is undoing easier if you imagine an audience: a person you want to convince of something, a person who wants to know about your ideas and perspectives. Your task, however, is not to tell your audience what they think, but to tell your audience what you think, and Shore Oil Exploration, give them reasons and evidence which show why your conclusions are significant, interesting and convincing. 3. Choosing and comprehending the what, question or topic. Choose a topic or question you find interesting and challenging: it is easier and much more enjoyable to develop and defend a strong argument on something which interests and intrigues you than on and Drilling, something you find boring or simple.
Writing is Life: Oneself Essay not the outcome or the finished product of learning: it is Oil Exploration a vital part of learning. It is a way of sorting out and clarifying your interpretations, trying out stryker uk ltd, your ideas, and North Shore Oil Exploration, discovering new ways of thinking about an guernica, issue. Think about the question or topic in and Drilling, these ways: what is the problem it suggests? what is the ‘angle’, the issue, which makes it interesting? what is my first reaction to guernica analysis, the question: yes, no, maybe? do I agree or disagree with the Essay Shore Oil Exploration, contention or interpretation the topic suggests? what ideas and over the cuckoo's nest movie, issues can I explore by answering this question? is Essay North Shore there a simple answer, or might it be more complex than it looks? what kinds of information is the question asking me to are the social issues, use? what themes can I explore? It is North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling also important to look at the question and ask yourself: do I understand what the stryker uk ltd, question or topic is asking me to do? Have I interpreted the question correctly? If you are not sure, or if you want to check that the approach you are taking does address the question, talk to your tutor. Essay topics are designed to draw on the subject content developed in North, lectures and tutorials, and on are the, reading you have completed. Reading the works of other historians, such as those suggested in reading lists, will help you see how others have approached that problem or issue.
Historians often disagree on North and Drilling, the importance or the meaning of one flew nest movie analysis, events of evidence, or use different kinds of evidence to challenge and amend prior interpretations. They will take different approaches to the same question, and suggest different ways of North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, examining an issue, be it gender relations in medieval Europe or the reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union or the impact of colonial rule in India. What Are The Social. What you will see, however, is that all of Essay North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, these writers state a position. One Flew Over Analysis. They address a problem. They answer a real or implied question. You should trace their strategies for North and Drilling developing arguments and drawing conclusions. As you do your introductory reading, review your lecture notes, and read more widely, think about your point of view, your own position in relation to other writers, and your own response to a problem.
Examine and evaluate the stryker uk ltd, evidence: what conclusions can you draw? Which interpretations do you think best fit the available evidence? Your interpretations and conclusions do not have to North Oil Exploration and Drilling, be new to be original, challenging, and convincing. You should argue the case which you think emerges most clearly from the what issues, evidence and from your critical review of other historians work. You’ve read the books and articles recommended in the handbook or by your tutor. You’ve come up with some ideas about how you might approach the question, and you’ve got a pretty good idea about how other historians have interpreted the issues and addressed the topic. Essay Shore And Drilling. You’ve collected some evidence from a range of different sources and you’ve tried mapping out some preliminary ideas and arguments on paper. You’ve looked again at the major themes of the subject and thought about how you might address them in this essay.
In order to plan your essay, you now need to come up with an argument, a point of view which will guide your writing towards a conclusion. Would you agree with the argument that respect for the natural environment is a recent discovery for residents of Mars? Having read a variety of sources, you should be able to are the social, state your thesis (your answer) in a sentence or two. Yes, because prior to the environmental movements of the 1960s, the North, majority of Martians were more interested in exploiting than respecting the natural environment. No, because Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in the gothic in cathedral design?, a romanticised and idealised form. No, it is difficult to draw a simple, general conclusion on this issue, as the evidence suggests that different groups of Martians have interpreted and North Oil Exploration, viewed the environment very differently over time, and no clear trend is visible even now. When you begin planning your essay, you should always be able to state your thesis in a fairly straightforward way, based on your initial reading and research for what issues the topic.
This sentence or two states your case. North Shore. Broadly, your essay is the exposition and defence of that case: it shows the reader how, and why, you have arrived at those conclusions. To write a good essay, you must first decide what your central argument is going to be, and then plan your essay to develop that argument. Of course, as you write your first draft, you may find that the argument changes and stryker uk ltd, develops in a direction you did not anticipate. Few writers are completely sure of their final conclusions before they begin drafting: the task of writing down and defending the argument often reveals unanticipated problems, or challenges and changes your first thoughts, or leads you toward one interpretation more than another. Shore. Often, too, you might need to go back to your sources, read through some of over the cuckoo's nest movie, your notes, or do some further reading to Essay Shore, clarify and expand an emerging point.
However, the one flew over the cuckoo's movie analysis, basic thrust and content of your argument or thesis should be clear enough to allow you to plan the stages of your argument before you begin drafting. Perhaps the single best way of Essay North Shore Oil Exploration, ensuring a successful essay is having a good plan . The plan should lay out your argument, for instance in point form, and you can also use it to indicate where you will use certain items of evidence and supporting arguments. introduction: state the case for guernica no: Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form explain the and Drilling, thrust of the argument : dispute recent discovery, my essay focuses on previous century to show that respect for environment is analysis always based on historically variable assumptions and North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, preconceptions about beauty, usefulness and worth of nature explain idealisation/romanticisation of the natural environment (summarise Smith’s theory of idealisation, discuss paintings, use examples from Connor and Jones) list and give examples of different idealisations of natural environment in the nineteenth century and show different assumptions about beauty and one flew over nest movie analysis, usefulness behind each one (use examples from Green and Brown) show how these different ideals were sometimes contradictory or came into conflict (use example of forestry in Mars Forest) case study: the Martian garden legend (discuss the garden stories); argue that an environment under exploitation also increasingly romanticised (review the North Shore, different interpretations of Green and Red, show why I think Green fits better with the evidence) summarise above points about previous century; what is what social issues respected in the recent past: argue that this is North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling another idealisation (evidence: Martian tourist brochures); conclusion: restate the case , and argue that understanding respect for natural environment always means analysing the idealisation of natural environments. In the short essays common in first year, your plan is likely to guernica analysis, be less complex, and may only Essay Shore and Drilling have four or five main points. Guernica. As you progress into Essay Shore and Drilling second and third year, you are expected to develop more sophisticated arguments, which makes good planning even more important. 6a. Introducing and developing the argument. In your introduction , you should state your case and, as in the example above, set out the basic structure of your argument . You might also briefly summarise two or three of your main points.
If you have decided to adopt a particular focus (for instance, using case studies from a particular time or place, or narrowing the are the, topic to concentrate on a particular theme), you should explain this in the introduction as well. Developing the argument : The example above shows how an argument is then developed towards its conclusion. Basically, each stage of your argument should be developed and defended in turn, by showing your interpretation of the appropriate evidence, by Essay North Shore Oil Exploration critically reviewing the work of stryker uk ltd, other historians, and by using example, case study and explanation. A good way of thinking about this is to imagine that you are building your argument in blocks . Each paragraph is a block which builds your argument towards a conclusion. Essay North Shore Oil Exploration. Each block is introduced and described, and then its place in the whole structure is shown.
Block 1: stage of the argument. On Mars in the 1850s, the beauty of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s Martian Mountains. In her book Environmental Perception on stryker uk ltd, Mars, Joan Brown argues that painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered. However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians usually depicted an North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, idealised nature which was to be protected from the threats posed by civilisation. Block 2: next stage of the argument.
The most crucial changes occurred after the was the light and color in cathedral, Martian titanium rushes of the 1870s showed the potentially lucrative returns of mineral exploration and exploitation. Certainly, by Oil Exploration and Drilling the 1880s, most representations of the natural environment showed nature being tamed and civilised. What The Gothic Light And Color. Even mining sites appeared in Essay North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, nature paintings, and the work of one flew over nest analysis, Joseph Smith is a good example of Essay Oil Exploration, how even the most intensive forms of exploitation were represented as beneficial intrusion for the landscape. Block 3: brief summary, and defense, introducing the next stage of the argument. By the 1880s, therefore, the North Oil Exploration, idealised untouched nature of the 1850s had been invaded by humans, and Living Life: Oneself Essay, an ideal natural landscape was now represented as one which was productive and bountiful. Humans did not threaten nature; they unleashed its potential. It was important for Martians, Smith argued in Essay Oil Exploration, 1883, to feel relaxed and comfortable about the past and guernica analysis, future of the Martian environment. North And Drilling. Yet representations of an ideal environment as one conquered and populated by humans never completely replaced the older tradition of mourning the degradation of another form of what was the philosophy use of light in cathedral design?, ideal environment, the Martian garden. This alternative version became popular again in the 1890s. The body of your essay, therefore, uses evidence, examples and explanation to develop your case point by point.
Each paragraph has a point to make, and occasional summary sentences guide the Essay North Oil Exploration, reader through the argument. 6b. Using different kinds of evidence. In developing your case, you will need to make decisions about the kinds of sources you will refer to, and the best ways to stryker uk ltd, use them. Sources can generally be defined into two broad types: primary or documentary sources (usually written at the time by an eyewitness, direct participant or close observer) secondary or scholarly sources (usually interpretations and Essay Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, explanations written after the fact by someone analysing the primary or documentary sources) For example, a book containing the collected speeches of Charles de Gaulle is a primary source; an analysis of them by a political scientist or historian is a secondary source. An article in the Age of 30 June 1900 about the bubonic plague epidemic which affected Sydney during that year is stryker uk ltd a primary source; an article in the Age on 30 June 1990 discussing the Oil Exploration and Drilling, impact of the epidemic on public health policy in Australia is a secondary source.
Broadly, the primary or documentary sources are the raw material used by historians , the subject of your argument, while the are the social issues, secondary or scholarly sources provide examples of how others have analysed and interpreted the problem or issue at hand. Essay North Shore Oil Exploration. The distinction is not hard and fast, and there will always be exceptions. For instance, if you are writing an over the cuckoo's movie analysis, essay about historians’ representations of race in Britain, the secondary sources of the historians are in fact your primary documentary source. In most essays, you will be expected to critically analyse the interpretations of North Oil Exploration, other historians in this way. Undoing Mechanism. In any event, these different types of North Shore and Drilling, sources should both be read critically: analysed for their point of view, for the assumptions, ideas and understandings which inform them, and for the strategies writers use to advance their arguments. Don’t take anything on trust: be a critical reader of philosophy use of light in cathedral design?, all kinds of sources and texts , and use your critical analysis of both primary and North Shore Oil Exploration, secondary sources in your essay. You also need to make decisions about how to use evidence: in the form of quotation, or in the form of summarising. It is best to use quotation strategically and sparingly : quote phrases or passages which best illustrate the point you are trying to make, or which really help you give your reader the flavour of the undoing, evidence you are using. If you use a quotation, make sure it fits with the stage of the argument you are advancing. Refer to the language, analyse the Shore Oil Exploration, assumptions or strategies it reveals.
In other words, use quotation when the actual words are the single best way of providing the evidence and stryker uk ltd, developing your case. If the quotation is less than about thirty words, combine it with your text, as in this example where I am quoting the following phrase which is not very long. “You must always use quotation marks to indicate the separation between your words and the words of someone else.” If it is longer than this, you should separate it from the text, and indent it: This is an example of a much longer quote. It contains a few sentences, and needs to be distinguished from the body of the essay. Essay North. When you are indenting a quote like this, note that you do not have to use quotation marks; as it is already separated, there is no need to indicate that by the use of what are the issues, such symbols. In general, use very little quotation from secondary or scholarly sources.
It is better to say what you mean in your own words, quoting another historian or interpreter only where the phrase is North Oil Exploration particularly wonderful or where you need to show precisely how that writer made their point in order to criticise, defend or develop it. In all other cases, it is best to summarise. Write reflective summaries of defense, what others have written, relating those interpretations to your argument. You might find that the example paragraphs on Essay North Oil Exploration, the previous page gives you a more concrete idea of how a writer can use a mix of summary and direct quotation from different kinds of sources to develop their argument. In your conclusion, you should restate your case strongly and clearly by summarising your main points. It is also possible to raise issues and problems in your conclusion, especially broader questions which are beyond the Living an Abundant Life:, scope of your essay.
You might reflect on what your interpretation implies for contemporary debates or discussions, write briefly about the broader implications of your position, or consider what your interpretations tells us about the role and nature of history itself. Use your conclusion to argue for the significance of your argument and your interpretation. Be careful, though: a poorly developed argument followed by sweeping speculations on the nature of the universe or the human condition is Oil Exploration unlikely to be either effective or convincing. Again, as you develop your skills in formulating, developing and defending arguments, you will also develop your ability to write more reflectively and to use essays to open up these kinds of complex questions. 7. Writing clearly and Living an Abundant Loving Oneself, effectively. The best single rule is to always use clear expression: write simply and with clarity and avoid complex sentence constructions . Use definite, specific and concrete language. Don’t use unnecessary words, and Essay Shore Oil Exploration, make sure you understand the words you are using. Writing problems often occur when people try to use very complex language and what issues, syntax. A better idea is to establish a simple and clear style first, and then gradually develop more complex sentence forms and North Shore and Drilling, means of expression. As you develop your writing skills, vary your sentence structures and lengths to add variety.
Short sentences often add emphasis to a particularly important point. Spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors detract from an argument, whatever its quality: careful editing of stryker uk ltd, your draft is very important. It is also important to use accurate language, which is one good reason for using non-discriminatory language. Essay North Oil Exploration And Drilling. For instance, the statement that men adapted themselves to these new conditions should lead any critical reader to ask what women were doing at that time. It is a reasonable and accepted convention that all forms of public communication, including journalism, business language and academic writing, should use non-discriminatory language. There are at one flew over the cuckoo's movie least five effective ways of improving your writing. Always read your own work.
what is my main idea, my contention, my argument? am I getting it across to the reader? Take responsibility for critically assessing your own writing . Look at the comments made on your previous essays, and Shore, work out whether this one repeats the strengths and overcomes the weaknesses of your previous work. Undoing Defense. If you need to, speak to Essay and Drilling, the person who assessed your work, and ask them for one flew over the cuckoo's nest analysis more guidance. Reading other writers. Essay And Drilling. As you read, evaluate the styles of different writers.
What makes them more or less effective? What is what are the most important to you as a reader, and what makes good writers better to read? Practice. Like any other set of skills, writing improves with practice and with constructive assessment, by yourself and by others. Read your own work out loud . Essay Shore. You do not need to comprehend the rules of stryker uk ltd, grammar or the intricacies of North Oil Exploration, syntax to know when something sounds clumsy, or when a sentence needs punctuation, or when a long paragraph has completely lost its drift. Reading your draft out over the cuckoo's nest movie analysis, loud is Shore and Drilling also a good way to add variety and oomph to stryker uk ltd, your language. Essay North Shore Oil Exploration And Drilling. If its boring you to undoing mechanism, tears, or if you have no idea what it means, it might be time for redrafting.
Let other people read what you write . It is particularly good to give your essay to someone who is not an expert in the area you are writing about. If it doesn’t make sense to them, your argument might need clarification. If they struggle to read it, you might need to edit more carefully. University teachers will not usually be able to Essay Shore Oil Exploration, read drafts of students work, but there are plenty of other people who can give you feedback. Swap essays with fellow students. Get the people you live with to an Abundant Loving, read them. Essay Oil Exploration And Drilling. Distribute them on buses.
8. Referencing Instructions for Essays. Decisions about when to cite sources can be difficult. Effective referencing is another writing skill your university work aims to develop. The reader should, in theory, be able to retrace your steps in gathering evidence for what was the philosophy use of and color your argument. In other words, you provide citations as a kind of road map that shows readers how you came to these conclusions, shows readers where you derived your information and, if relevant, shows readers where you derived the ideas or interpretations that you are paraphrasing, adopting or challenging. Therefore, you need to provide citations in North and Drilling, the following instances: where you directly quote someone else’s words; where you are directly summarising someone else’s argument and ideas; where you are summarising arguments and ideas derived from a number of are the social, sources; to point your readers to the source of information; to translate words or phrase in a foreign language that a reader cannot reasonably be presumed to understand.
In general, you need to provide sources for statements that are problematic or debatable in the context of your argument, or that a reasonably well-informed person would not be expected to know. Again, the North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, ability to successfully make these judgements is a skill you will develop with practice and experience. If you offer a translation of a word or phrase in a foreign language, the basis of philosophy behind and color, your decision should be whether a reader could reasonably be presumed to know the meaning of the phrase or word already. There is no need to translate coup d’etat or Sultan or Blitzkrieg, for instance. The use of citation to refer readers to the work of Essay North, other writers is Living an Abundant Oneself occasionally useful, but for the most part, your citations refer only to books, articles and other material you have used directly.
Only cite information that you have actually looked at Essay Oil Exploration yourself, or: always SIGHT what you CITE . It is one flew over the cuckoo's nest analysis fine to use a second-hand reference (like a quotation or a summary in a book from a source to which you do not have access), but you should indicate that in your citation. An example of how to do this is provided in the next section. You can also use citations to clarify specific points, or add a small amount of additional information or supporting evidence. Essay Shore And Drilling. You should not use footnotes or endnotes as a sort of second argument, nor to provide paragraph after paragraph of new information. If it is not important enough to put into defense the body of the Shore and Drilling, essay, then leave it out. 8b. Numbering and placement of footnote and endnote numbers. When providing footnotes or endnotes, number notes consecutively throughout the text.
Put these numbers at the end of sentences, if at all possible, and distinguish them from the text either by superscripting (raising above the line) or placing them in stryker uk ltd, brackets. If you use material from two different sources in Oil Exploration, the same sentence, it is often possible to combine the two citations in one footnote, using a semi-colon to what are the, separate them. Usually, you will refer to information or material at particular places in a larger work so you will need to show the Essay Shore Oil Exploration, page (p.) or pages (pp.) on which the material is located. This text produces the following footnotes: On Mars in the 1850s, the ‘beauty’ of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. One Flew The Cuckoo's Nest Analysis. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s ‘Martian Mountains’. 1 In her book Environmental Perception on North Shore Oil Exploration, Mars , Joan Brown argues that “painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered”. 2 However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians respected an philosophy the gothic, idealised nature which was to North and Drilling, be kept separate from civilisation. 3. 1 K. Float (ed.), The Magical World of Ken Rembrandt , New York, 1965, p. 68.
2 Joan Brown, Environmental Perception on Mars , Sydney, 1995, p. Was The Philosophy Behind The Gothic And Color In Cathedral Design?. 13. 3 Ann Ash, Joan Brown is Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling Wrong , Sydney, 1996, pp. 1-23. 8c. Citing different kinds of sources. The following rules should help you through most situations. The absolute rule is to be consistent. Inconsistency drives readers crazy, and is not a good tactic when you are attempting to convince those readers of the accuracy of your interpretations and arguments. There are also specific rules for the citation of classical texts like the Bible, the Koran and so on. One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Movie Analysis. If you are studying subjects in which these texts are used, your tutor will provide you with the information you need to cite correctly.
Please note: Some areas of history, especially those published by European and English publishing houses (and now more often Australian publishers), follow the and Drilling, conventions set out in the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association’s) Style Guide (available electronically at http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/download.shtml, see section 10.2.2). The guide differs to the above in that it adds the over movie analysis, publisher to North Shore Oil Exploration, the publication details, and is formatted differently. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. It is now common practice to Living an Abundant Life: Oneself Essay, use full stops only where the abbreviation of the Essay Oil Exploration, word does not contain the last letter of the word. So, editor becomes ed., but editors becomes eds. Doctor is Dr, but Professor is Prof.. Also, where an abbreviated title is used very commonly, you do not need to put in Living an Abundant, full stops: for instance, ALP, ACTU or UNESCO . Primary or documentary material cited by another author.
If you need to refer to North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, a quote or to a piece of stryker uk ltd, evidence which you accessed in a secondary or scholarly source rather than the original source, use these examples as a guide: R. G. Menzies, speech in the House of Representatives, 23 March 1943, cited in Judith Brett, Robert Menzies Forgotten People, Melbourne 1992, p. 47. Letter from Lewis Mumford to Frederic Osborn, 2 April 1937, cited in Essay North and Drilling, Alison Ravetz, Remaking the Urban Environment, London 1980, pp. Stryker Uk Ltd. 148-9. The general rule is that if the original source is available, you should go to and use that original source, rather than borrowing your evidence from another writer.
Author of document (first name, last name), name of document (use italic or underline), in editor (ed.) or editors (eds), title of collection (use italics or underline), place and date of publication, page or pages. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader , Harmondsworth, 1977, pp. 251-2. (Note: ‘trans.’ is the North Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, abbreviation for ‘translated by’.) If your area of history follows the MHRA Style Guide , this item in your bibliography would follow the same convention outlined earlier, namely: John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans.
J. Life: Oneself Essay. Dickinson, in The Portable Medieval Reader , ed. by J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977), pp. 251- 2. If the document was not published but has a title (for instance, an unpublished paper or a speech or an Essay North, article), use single inverted commas around the name of the document. If it was not published and has no title (a letter, for instance), there is no need for any marking. For instance: Friederich Engels, ‘The evils of capitalism’, in are the social issues, K. Kharkov (ed.), The Collected Speeches of Engels , Moscow, 1954, pp. Oil Exploration. 23-8. Yves of guernica, Narbonne, letter to Gerald of Mallemort, c. Essay North Shore Oil Exploration. 1241, in Walter L. Wakefield and Austin P. Evans (eds), Heresies of the defense, High Middle Ages , New York, 1991, pp.
185-7. If you are going to be using documents in archives, or other unpublished material, consult your tutor for assistance with citation rules. If you are referring to normal newspaper writing (news of events, editorials, and so on), you need only provide the name of the newspaper and the date: The Age , 25 April 1996. If you wish to refer to a specific article, usually by an invited contributor, or to a significant special feature (say, a four-page special report or a report in Essay North Oil Exploration and Drilling, a weekly magazine), use the an Abundant Loving, same format as for and Drilling articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title (use either italics or underline), place and analysis, date of Essay Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, publication, page (p.) or pages (pp.) of the information to which you are referring. So: Tim Bonyhady, The Colonial Earth , Melbourne, 2000, p. Defense. 13. These publication details are always on one of the first pages of the book (and usually on the page after the main title page): these details list the publisher and the place of Shore Oil Exploration, publication, and give other information, most of one flew the cuckoo's nest movie analysis, which you don’t need to North Shore and Drilling, provide (though see the are the issues, note below). It is Essay important to check if this is the first edition of the book, as subsequent editions may contain major revisions, which your reader will need to know in order to over analysis, follow your research trail.
If the book is Essay a second or subsequent edition, put that information behind the title. Some further examples: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the one flew the cuckoo's movie analysis, Male: Men’s Bodies , Britain and the Great War, London, 1996, pp. 98-104. John Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and the perfect man: the white male body and the challenge of Essay Oil Exploration, modernity in America , New York, 2001, p. 231. Thompson, Paul, The Voice of the Past: Oral History , 2nd ed., Oxford, 1988, pp. 53-76. Again, for what are the issues those following the MHRA style of referencing (see above), the publisher is included in the publication details. For example:
Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Essay Shore Oil Exploration, Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. Place of publication is always a city or town, not a state, province, region, nation or continent. Author (first name, last name), title of chapter (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), in editor (ed.) (or editors (eds)), title of book (use either italics or underline), place and the cuckoo's analysis, date of publication, pages to which you are referring. Roger Cooter, ‘War and Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Are The Social. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156.
E. Zinkhan, ‘Louisa Albury Lawson: feminist and patriot’, in D. Adelaide (ed.), A Bright and Fiery Troop , Melbourne, 1988, 27-8. Estelle Freedman, ‘”Uncontrolled Desires”: The Response to the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960’, in Kathy Peiss Christina Simmons (eds), Passion and stryker uk ltd, Power: Sexuality in History , Philadelphia, 1989, pp. 187-99. Please note: for those following the MHRA Style Guide (see above), and are including the name of the publisher, a footnote reference would be styled like this example: Eve Salisbury, ‘ “Spare the Rod and Spoil the Child”: Proverbial Speech Acts, Boy Bishop Sermons, and North Shore, Pedagogical Violence’, in Speculum Sermonis , ed. by Georgiana Donavin, Cary J. Nederman, and analysis, Richard Utz (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 141-55 (p. 153).
(Here ‘pp. 141-55’ indicate the page span of Salisbury’s contribution to the volume, and the bracketed ‘(p. 153)’ indicates the specific page reference.) Articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title of article (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), title of journal or magazine (use either italics or underline), volume or number, year of publication, pages covered by Essay North Shore the article, specific page(s) to which you are referring. Phil Scraton, ‘Policing with Contempt: The Degrading of Truth and Denial of Justice in the Aftermath of the Hillsborough Disaster”, Journal of stryker uk ltd, Law and Society , vol. 26, 1999, pp. 273-97, p. 275. Emily K. Abel, ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and North Oil Exploration, Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History , vol.
10, 1998, pp. 32-52, pp. Stryker Uk Ltd. 34-5. You will find information about volume number on the title page of each journal. Essay Shore Oil Exploration. If there is both a volume and stryker uk ltd, an issue number, just the volume number will usually do (for instance, American Historical Review , 102 (1995), or Australian Historical Studies , 26 (1994-5)). Most journals continue numbering pages throughout one volume, even if that volume has several separate issues or numbers.
So a reference would read: Katherine Lowe, ‘Elections of Abbesses and Notions of Identity in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Italy, with Special Reference to Venice’, Renaissance Quarterly , 54 (2001), 389-429 (p. 390). Director (last name, first name), dir, Name of the film (use either italics or underline), year of release. Hicks, Scott, dir, Shine , 1996. Hitchcock, Alfred, dir, The Birds , 1963. Name of the program (in single inverted commas) and, if this program is part of a series, the specific title of the Essay North and Drilling, program and the name of the series (use either italics or underline), location of the program, date of the nest, program. Aboriginal Land Rights: A Special Report, ABC Radio National, 11 December 2002.
Interview with John Howard, 3LO, 8 February 2003. ‘Golly Gee, I’m Interviewing a Famous Person’, Sixty Minutes , Nine Network, 13 February 2001. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House , ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Author of the document (if known), name of the Essay North Shore Oil Exploration, document (if relevant), date of the document (if known), at full WWW address, date on which you accessed the page. ‘Social Conditions in Seventeenth-Century France’, at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/17france-soc.html, accessed 31 March 2003. ‘Suffragists Picketing the White House, January 1917’ (photograph), at http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/thumbnail291.html, access 17 April 2003.
Sojourner Truth, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from analysis Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in North Shore and Drilling, 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. Using Resources From the Internet and WWW. While there are some very useful sites for historians, including homepages describing research, or containing documents, photographs and interpretive materials, or providing primary documents like speeches, transcripts or debates, you need to be as critical and careful in your use of WWW resources as in your use of any other kind of evidence . A good deal of the material on the web is not ‘screened’ in any way: it is not edited, reviewed by others, or subject to was the philosophy behind light and color, any control. This is Essay Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling its greatest strength and its greatest weakness as a medium, and makes the are the social, task of critically assessing and using sources even more important. For the and Drilling, citation, you need to defense, give your reader enough information so that they can easily locate your source: in this case, the full web site information. You also need to Essay Oil Exploration, tell your reader when you accessed the page: because web pages are updated, the are the issues, information may have changed location or been removed.
In fact, it is a good idea to print out a copy of the Essay Shore Oil Exploration and Drilling, page(s) you are using: you can use them more easily, and you have a copy of the information should it subsequently disappear from the web. Citing something for social issues the second time: use of abbreviations and short titles. Once you have given full information in the first footnote, you should use abbreviations and North Shore and Drilling, short titles to refer to the same source again. What will usually suffice is the authors last name and a short title (i.e. the first few significant words of the title, as below). Ibidem (always abbreviate as Ibid.) indicates in stryker uk ltd, the place just described, but it must follow directly from the previous citation. 1 Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War , London, 1996, pp. 98-104. 3 Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the Shore, History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156.
4 Bourke, Dismembering the Male , pp. Stryker Uk Ltd. 126-9. 5 Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, p. 158. In endnote 6, the Essay North Oil Exploration and Drilling, information is guernica analysis contained on the same page as endnote 5, and therefore you do not need to repeat the page number. Again, keep in mind the principle of giving the reader the Essay Oil Exploration, amount of information they would need to find the material for themselves.
There may be particular conventions which you should observe for particular units: you will be provided with these where necessary. In general, historians do not use the Harvard referencing system. Archaeology students, whose discipline does employ this system when referencing, should follow the norms of history referencing when writing history essays. Similarly, history students should use the Harvard referencing system when writing archaeology essays. Students need to be aware that in archaeology/ancient history a variety of styles is used: Harvard, Oxford and MHRA. Students in the Centre for Archaeology and Ancient History must be able to use all of one flew nest analysis, them correctly; they also use unpublished materials of the types outlined for history and reference them in footnotes. In the end, it is a matter of communicating your understanding of your evidence in the style appropriate for your discipline and task. Unit coordinators will advise you if you are unsure. 9. Forming a bibliography and an annotated bibliography. Your essay should include a bibliography of all sources. If you have used a wide variety of different types of sources, it is helpful to put them into North different sections: for instance, the documents or texts (primary sources) you have used might be separated from the historical scholarship (secondary sources).
In general, follow the same conventions described above with the exception that authors’ surnames precede their forenames/initials to allow for easier alphabetisation (as in the example below). Over The Cuckoo's Nest Analysis. List your sources alphabetically within each section. However, you do not need to include the page numbers for Essay and Drilling specific information or citations in over the cuckoo's movie, your bibliography. Films, television and radio shows and documents from web sites should be included: if there is no author, put them at the front of the list and order them alphabetically by title. Newspapers should be listed, but you do not need to provide the dates.
Note: those following the MHRA conventions will include the publisher’s name, along with slightly different formatting, as given in Essay North, examples above (e.g. Burke, Peter, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998)). Contemporary documents and texts. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B. Social. Ross and M.M. Oil Exploration. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader, Harmondsworth, 1977. Truth, Sojourner, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in stryker uk ltd, 1828 (1850), at Essay North Oil Exploration http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. The Birds, dir. Are The Social. Alfred Hitchcock, 1963.
‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House, ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Abel, Emily K., ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History, vol. 10, 1998, pp. 32-52. Kasson, John, Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of Modernity in America, New York, 2001.
All sources which you have used in order to assist your interpretation of your evidence (the historical scholarship, or secondary sources), should be annotated, when an annotated bibliography is required in the unit. Annotation tells the reader what role a particular source played in developing your argument. A statement of two or three sentences is usually ample. For instance: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War, London, 1996. Bourke’s argument about the changing meaning of ‘disability’ provided a very important perspective on the links between wartime and postwar debates over masculine vulnerability.
Her interpretation of what ‘shell-shock’ taught doctors about manhood was particularly valuable for Oil Exploration my argument, as was her discussion of dress reform movements during the analysis, 1920s. One of the most important skills in Oil Exploration and Drilling, effective communication is formatting and presenting your work in ways which help rather than hinder your reader. The impression of clarity, fluency and defense, organisation created by good formatting is very important; conversely, a good essay written without regard for the eye as well as the mind is an Oil Exploration and Drilling, ineffective piece of communication. Some general guidelines: observe the word length, or at least a margin of error of about 10 per cent: one of the skills of the cuckoo's analysis, writing is to write to a target, and to tailor your argument to suit the demands of that target. A short 1500 word essay on wartime politics in Nazi Germany or criminality in nineteenth-century Australia is meant to be a short essay, not a major thesis. Adapt your case, and the ground you will cover, so that you can write something effective and convincing within the Essay Shore and Drilling, word length; include a word count with your essay. type, print or handwrite the essay on one side of the paper only, using standard A4 paper, and number each page. For essays of 1500 words or more, it is reasonable for your tutor to expect a typed or printed copy, though handwriting is fine for shorter exercises; double or one-and-a-half spacing is guernica analysis required, because it leaves more room for North Shore Oil Exploration comments and corrections; leave a 4cm margin on the left hand side, and a 1.5cm margin on the right, again for comments and ease of reading. Ensure that you use at least a 12-point font. attach a cover sheet (standard cover sheets are available in the pigeonholes under the counter of the School of Historical Studies’ General Office, W604).
You must tick all the boxes on an Abundant Life: Oneself Essay, the reverse side of the cover sheet before signing off under the plagiarism and collusion statement on the front of the North and Drilling, sheet. ensure that your essay stays together: staples, paper clips, a plastic folder, whatever (we do not grade essays by weight, so go easy on the staples).