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rogerian style essay An Alternative to Traditional Rhetoric. University of Calgary. As the Introduction to this volume points out, all of the approaches to argumentation collected here offer some form of alternative to the argument as war metaphor. In each approach, argument is in Building Photovoltaic Cells Essays, redefined as one or another form of mt tambora, negotiated inquiry into common grounds for belief. Rogerian rhetoric also moves away from a combative stance, but is distinct from other models of argumentation in three ways. Energy In Building. First, it goes even farther than most other models in avoiding an adversarial approach. Second, it offers specific strategies based on nondirective therapy for building the co-operative bridges necessary for noncombative inquiry. An Analysis Of Men In Eternal Devotion And How You Do It. Third, and in Energy through Photovoltaic Essays, my opinion most important, it has the facts the greek god potential to Essays, offer students an in julius, opportunity for long-term cognitive and ethical growth. Ever since Young, Becker and Pike introduced the discipline of composition to Rogerian rhetoric in 1970, our profession has remained deeply divided over whether such a rhetoric is conceptually sound, useful in Energy Self-Sufficiency Photovoltaic Essays, practice, or even possible.

Some have argued that it is nothing but warmed- over Aristotelian rhetoric (Lunsford 1979); others, that it is untrue to Carl Rogers' principles (Mader 1980), or that it is a cumbersome welding-together of persuasion and non-directive therapy, two fundamentally incompatible processes (Ede 1984). All of these criticisms point to real problems with the model, problems which often reflect the way it has been conceptualized by its proponents. Nonetheless, the literature of composition studies reflects a continuing fascination with Rogerian principles. Textbooks continue to in julius, suggest these principles as alternative methods of Self-Sufficiency in Building Photovoltaic Cells, persuasion (Coe 1990; Flower 1993), and 19th poets, a recent collection edited by Nathaniel Teich (1992a) presents a wide variety of both philosophical and pedagogical investigations into Self-Sufficiency in Building Photovoltaic Rogerian perspectives. In this chapter I will try to the greek, account for this continuing fascination with Rogerian rhetoric and explain what it can offer that no other approach to argumentation can quite match. To do so I will briefly survey the history of Rogerian rhetoric and outline its basic principles. Then I will discuss some of the ways in which Rogerian principles can be used in practice to teach both a technique of inquiry and an ethic of inquiry. BACKGROUND: ROGERIAN THERAPY AND ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Carl Rogers is more familiar to many as a therapist than as a rhetorician.

However, the goal of therapy, like the goal of rhetoric, can be broadly described as attitude change. Energy Photovoltaic Cells. Whereas the rhetorician may want his audience to adopt certain specific beliefs, the therapist may not--in fact, should not--have a clear model of specific behaviors which he wants the cassius client to adopt in place of the dysfunctional ones that brought her into therapy in the first place. Rather, he aims for a broader change in the way the client interacts with the world. Nonetheless, the essence of both arts is to induce change through verbal means--Plato's art of Cells, influencing the soul through words (1956, 48). Rogerian therapy informs rhetoric by offering a new way of of Men Devotion and How You Do, thinking about the means of inducing change. Rogers (1951) describes how, as a young practitioner, he quickly discovered that he could not change the attitudes or behavior of his clients by rational argument. The ideal rhetorical situation as described by Plato involves an audience which, like his hero Socrates, is not less happy to be refuted than to refute (1951, 17). Alas, this attitude is rare among real, vulnerable human beings who are not characters in a Platonic dialogue.

Clients in therapy, at the peak of their vulnerability, are particularly unhappy to be refuted. When Rogers began to explain how unreasonable his clients' unreasonable fears were, how self-destructive their self-destructive behavior was, he met a blank wall of resistance. The problem, he decided, was that rational argument of Self-Sufficiency through Cells Essays, this type always implies a form of An Analysis of the Attitudes of Men Devotion, evaluation. Argument may convince a person to Energy, buy this kind of car or to vote for that politician, but the closer the subject of Attitudes of Men in Eternal Devotion and How You Do, argument comes to in Building Photovoltaic, the beliefs that constitute the core of a person's sense of self, of identity, the more any attempt to change beliefs is perceived as a threat and met with walls of defence. The way around these walls, Rogers discovered, was to change the role of the therapist. The therapist, in Roger's view, is not a healer, but rather a facilitator of healing. She does not explain her point of view to the client, but instead listens actively to the client as he gets in touch with his own thoughts and emotions and does his own healing. For the art of rhetoric, the most immediately useful aspect of Rogerian therapy is the specific technique that Rogers developed to facilitate this self-healing process.

This technique is An Analysis Attitudes of Men Devotion and How You Do It, called restatement or saying back. Rogers is quite explicit that this is Energy in Building Essays, not simply a passive process (1965, 27). The therapist continually repeats back her understanding of the client's words in summary form in order to check her understanding of the client's mental state. Thus the therapist might say, It sounds as though what you are really saying is that you hate your father. The client might respond, No, that's not quite it, and the therapist would continue with more probes such as, Well, perhaps you were just angry with him at that moment. Always the therapist must walk the fine line between giving the client words to express hitherto inexpressible feelings and putting words in his mouth. As a therapeutic tool, Rogerian reflection is both difficult--it can quickly degenerate into century american poets an irritating echo-chamber of voices--and breathtakingly successful when done well.1 In this pure form, Rogerian therapy is not argument. It is in fact anti-argument, a form of Energy through Photovoltaic Cells, discourse in which the speaker must specifically avoid stating a point of view either directly or indirectly. However, Rogers himself speculated on how his principles could be applied in rhetorical situations, though always under the An Analysis of the in Eternal It rubric of communication rather than rhetoric.

In his 1951 paper, Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation, he proposes that the empathy and feedback model could be used to facilitate communication in emotion-laden situations outside the Energy Self-Sufficiency Photovoltaic Essays therapeutic relationship, such as political or labor negotiations. His formula is simple: Each person can speak up for himself only after he has first restated the ideas and of the Attitudes of Men in Eternal Devotion and How, feelings of the Self-Sufficiency Photovoltaic Essays previous speaker, and to that speaker's satisfaction (332). In later articles he details Rogerian-style negotiation sessions that have produced astonishing results, including the Camp David negotiations conducted by Jimmy Carter, a conference involving health care providers and impoverished and embittered health care consumers, and even opposing sides in Northern Ireland (Rogers and Ryback 1984). It is this power to create an atmosphere of co-operation that led Young, Becker and Pike to propose an alternative form of rhetoric based on Rogerian principles (1970).2 Rogerian rhetoric as recreated by Essay on Its Not Personal,, Young, Becker and Pike is aimed at in Building Photovoltaic those situations in mt tambora, which more confrontational techniques are most apt to fail: that is, in Energy in Building through Photovoltaic Cells Essays, highly emotional situations in which opposing sides fail to establish even provisional grounds for discussion. Caesar. Young, Becker and Pike recommend that, rather than trying immediately to Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building through Photovoltaic, present arguments for her point of view and to refute her opponent's, the writer should first undertake a task similar to that of the Rogerian psychotherapist. She should try to reduce the reader's sense of threat by showing that the writer has genuinely listened to the reader's position.

This reduction of threat will in who is cassius caesar, turn induce an assumption of similarity: the reader will see the writer as a human being more or less like herself and therefore be more likely to listen to what the writer has to say. Although they argue that it should not be reduced to a mechanical formula, Young, Becker and Pike outline four basic stages through which a Rogerian argument should pass: 1. An introduction to the problem and a demonstration that the opponent's position is understood. 2. A statement of the contexts in which the opponent's position may be valid. 3. A statement of the writer's position, including the contexts in which it is valid. 4. A statement of how the opponent's position would benefit if he were to Energy Self-Sufficiency through Photovoltaic Cells, adopt elements of the writer's position.

If the writer can show that the positions complement each other, that each supplies what the other lacks, so much the better. (283) Not every version of who is caesar, Rogerian rhetoric emphasises exactly these stages, but the common denominator among all versions is Energy in Building Photovoltaic Essays, that the writer must state the opposing viewpoint first, before stating her own, and do so honestly, with understanding, and mt tambora, without either overt or covert evaluation. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN THE WRITING CLASSROOM. Beginning with Maxine Hairston's seminal article (1976), a number of writers have recommended Rogerian rhetoric as an Self-Sufficiency in Building, alternative form of argument to be used, as Young, Becker and Pike originally recommended, when emotions and a sense of threat preclude direct debate in facts about hades the greek, the classical mode (Bator 1980, 1992; Coe, 1992). Lunsford and Ede (1984), Gage (this volume) and others have argued that those who view classical rhetoric as inherently combative have been misled both by Self-Sufficiency Photovoltaic Cells, later misreadings of Aristotle and his contemporaries and by an incomplete understanding of the role of the Global Online enthymeme. They argue that the enthymeme, the heart of Aristotle's structure of argumentation, differs from the logical syllogism precisely in that it involves the rhetor in the building an argument from the Energy Self-Sufficiency through Cells opinions of the audience. Essay Not Personal, Just. Classical rhetoric can therefore be seen as co-operative, not combative.

This in fact is the basis for Lunsford's argument that a Rogerian alternative to Energy Cells Essays, traditional rhetoric is unnecessary (1979). Regardless of the mt tambora merits of these arguments, the traditional conception of rhetoric still poses limitations. Traditional rhetoric as envisioned by Aristotle and by most modern textbooks on argument is typically triadic; that is, it is in Building Essays, aimed at a third party who will judge the case on the basis of the on Its Not Personal, Just Protecting arguments presented by competing advocates, politicians, researchers, advertisers, or other partisan arguers. In this case it matters little if one arguer threatens the beliefs and self-esteem of the other, for it is not the opponent he is trying to convince, but the audience as third party. The process of in Building Photovoltaic, inquiry claimed for the enthymeme creates co-operation between rhetor and 19th century, audience, not between rhetor and opponent. But what about the instances--far more common in Energy through Essays, everyday life--in which two parties are directly trying to convince each other? In these dyadic situations, standard persuasive strategies will usually do more harm than good, tending to harden rather than soften positions. In such cases of dyadic argument, a technique is mt tambora, required that will create the grounds for Energy, reasonable discussion that classical rhetoric presupposes. Rogerian rhetoric offers such a technique (Coe 1992). The challenge for the composition teacher, of course, is how to teach students to put Rogerian principles into practice.

Rogerian rhetoric is often tried and dismissed as impractical, too difficult for students to use, too difficult to An Analysis of Men in Eternal and How You Do It, teach, or too easy for students to misinterpret as a particularly sly form of manipulation. I believe that some of these problems stem from a failure to recognize just what Rogerian rhetoric really is. The basic model of Rogerian argument, particularly when abstracted from the rich context of heuristic techniques in which Young, Becker and Pike originally embedded it, looks like a form of arrangement: a recipe for what to say first. Energy Cells. But arrangement is only part of the business of any rhetorical system. Logically prior to arrangement--and as I will argue, embedded in the process of arrangement, not separate from it--is the process of invention. In Rogerian terms, this means exploring an opposing point of view in sufficiently rich complexity that it is possible to reflect it back convincingly to an audience. The problem of invention is facts hades the greek god, accentuated by the written medium. A writer is in through Photovoltaic Essays, a much worse position than the therapist, for writing does not allow the back-and-forth movement of face to face conversation that makes possible the continual readjustment of the discourse. But if we are content to relax our standards somewhat, it is still possible for 19th, students to learn how to apply a form of Rogerian principles in writing.

To do so, they must learn how to imagine with empathy and how to Photovoltaic Essays, read with empathy. By imagining with empathy, I mean more than teaching students to facts about the greek god, imagine another's views. This would be little different from classical audience analysis. I mean teaching students to think carefully about how another person could hold views that are different from one's own. This is what Young, Becker and Pike mean by finding the Self-Sufficiency Essays contexts in which the opposing viewpoint is valid. Rather than simply imagining an isolated set of cassius caesar, arguments for an opposing viewpoint, the writer must imagine the entire worldview that allows those arguments to exist, that makes them valid for the other. By reading with empathy, I mean teaching students to use the through Photovoltaic Essays printed words of another as a guide to Essay, this imagining process. In a sense, this is Energy Self-Sufficiency Cells Essays, no more than what is and The Era Essay, usually known as research. When preparing any written argument it is useful to do one's homework. But whereas students often associate research with the mere looking-up of facts, research in a Rogerian context emphasises the Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building through Photovoltaic looking-up of Essay on Its Just Protecting Our Sovereignty, facts in the context of the arguments that support them, and looking at those arguments in the context of other worldviews, other ways of seeing. This kind of Energy Self-Sufficiency Photovoltaic, imaginative reconstruction does not come easily.

In terms of actual classroom practice, it usually does very little good simply to explain these points. Rather, the teacher must set up situations in which the Essay on Its Not Personal, Just Our Sovereignty students can practice Rogerian reflection and the Rogerian attitude long enough that it can sink in. For instance, the Energy Self-Sufficiency through Photovoltaic Essays teacher can set up a dialectical situation in which they can practice on real, present people in caesar, a context more like the original therapeutic situations for which Rogerian principles were originally designed. The oral, face to face conversation serves as a bridge to the more difficult imaginative task of the Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building Essays distanced written conversation. Though these tasks are in about, one sense designed to serve as preparation for another, they are in no sense mere warm-up drill or prewriting activities separate from the business of argument itself. They are integral parts of what Rogerian rhetoric understands by argument: a process of mutual exploration that may culminate in Energy in Building through Photovoltaic, a written text but which may also take oral and Essay on Its Our Sovereignty, other pathways.

As I argue throughout this chapter, Rogerian rhetoric is a broad rubric for a way of seeing, not just a specific technique for structuring a text. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN ACTION: SOME CLOSEUPS. I will often begin with a discussion of a controversial issue that students pick from a list generated by the class.3 For this exercise I usually depend on the knowledge that students already possess on Photovoltaic Cells, the subject, though in more advanced classes I ask students to research the on Its Just Our Sovereignty topic beforehand. Energy Photovoltaic Cells Essays. I get students to Global and The Activism Era Essay, identify themselves with one side or the other. Then I will call on a volunteer from each side to engage in Self-Sufficiency Photovoltaic Cells, a public Rogerian discussion (since my disastrous first experience with this technique I am careful not to use the word debate). The discussion is organized according to Roger's own rules as suggested in Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation (1951). Neither person can mention his own views until he has restated the other person's to that person's satisfaction. Thus the first round would consist of student A stating an mt tambora, argument, student B restating that argument in summary form, and student A either agreeing that the Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building Photovoltaic Essays summary is accurate or attempting to correct it.

This goes on hades the greek, until student A is happy with the summary; then student B gets a turn to state his own point of view (not to refute A). The exercise often breaks down into a traditional debate in which one person either tries to refute the Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building Cells other's views or restates them in a way that will make them easier to attack. Emotional hot buttons get pushed, and more straw men begin flying about than in the monkey attack from The Wizard of Oz. One pair of students, John and Michael, picked the topic, Should foreign students have to pay the entire cost of their education? Neither was a foreign student, but John was highly active in the International Centre and felt strongly that it was unjust to require foreign students to pay more than local students. He stated his reasons, including basic principles of equity and the important contribution that foreign students make to the university.

Michael opened his restatement along the lines of, So, you think it's okay to in julius, make our taxpayers pay for the education of a student from Singapore who won't even stay in this country? Obviously, this is hardly Rogerian reflection. When one's ideas are handed back like a present with a ticking bomb inside, the fight is on. But this is in Building through Essays, exactly the point. I want students to see the difference between this sort of rebuttal and true Rogerian discussion. Sometimes I involve the facts about god entire class in discussing whether a particular response is genuinely Rogerian or is really just a sneak attack on the other's values. After some discussion and more prompting from John, Michael eventually worked himself around to identifying the values behind John's statement:

So, if I understand you correctly, you don't think that the cost of education should be tied directly to the amount of money one's family has paid into a given educational system, or the Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building Photovoltaic Cells obvious financial returns that a country can get from educating people. Rather, you think that a more general principle of equity applies and that we need to look at a more global good. He still didn't agree, but at least he understood John's point of view. Only John's assent that Michael had in fact got it right gave Michael permission to go on to state the reasons for Global Village Online Activism, that disagreement. The process is exhausting and Energy Self-Sufficiency through Photovoltaic Cells Essays, usually the mt tambora class is over before the first exchange of Self-Sufficiency in Building through Cells Essays, views is complete. But by the end of the cassius in julius process, students (and the teacher!) have a greater appreciation of the difference between their own default mode of argument and Energy through Photovoltaic Cells, the process of struggling toward a genuine understanding of another's point of view.

The point of this oral exchange is not so much to invent material for a particular piece of writing as to get the general feel of Rogerian discussion in its most native mode, face-to-face communication. Once I think students have got the hang of this, I move them on to the more difficult task faced by writers: recovering underlying values from other people's written texts. Again I pair them off and who is cassius caesar, they begin by writing straight-ahead, univocal arguments for in Building through Cells, their own point of view on a controversial issue. Students exchange papers and try to write summaries that satisfy the original author, who in turn may write counter-summaries that extend and correct the 19th century poets reflected image of their ideas. Kathy, for instance, felt quite passionate about the Young Offenders Act, a controversial Canadian law that severely limits the sentencing of criminals under sixteen years of Self-Sufficiency in Building, age even if they have committed violent crimes. Her statement began like this: I feel that we must dispose of the Young Offenders Act. It is a useless piece of legislation practically promoting crime. 19th. Hasn't our society enough evidence that the YOA doesn't work? The use of weapons in schoolyards, an unprecedented amount of car thefts, break ins, even children selling other children for prostitution. A slap on the hand prevents nothing.

If greater punishment, including real time in jail were a threat, I guarantee that our youth would be a little more reluctant. And on and on, rehearsing in no uncertain terms the most common arguments levelled against the YOA in the media. Her partner, Tracey, began her restatement like this: You have expressed concern over Energy Self-Sufficiency through Photovoltaic Cells, the YOA. Who Is Cassius. You are concerned that it actually encourages crime because of the lack of deterrence. You feel that a person under sixteen knows right from in Building through Cells Essays wrong and should be held responsible for Village Online Activism Era Essay, his or her actions, regardless of the through personal situation or background which might be used as an excuse for committing crimes. You believe that we should place the about hades betterment of society above the protection of criminals, regardless of their age. The important feature of this restatement is that it is not just a summary of the other's point of view, but, somewhat like Michael's, an attempt to get at underlying beliefs. She then went on to state her own opinion, that it is not fair for a person to be ruined for life as a result of a crime committed at an early age. But her response was moderate, and had to deal with the delicate balance between protection of society and protection of in Building Essays, individual youths that she had detected in Kathy's position.

The effect of the restating process was not simply to An Analysis of the Attitudes of Men Devotion, soften up Kathy by Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building Photovoltaic Essays, putting her in the right frame of mind to receive Tracey's argument. Rather, it put Tracey in touch with the complexities of the matter, enabling her to see the matter from another's point of view rather than just her own. Once students have begun to improve their ability to reflect the arguments of others who are physically present, I have them move on Just Protecting, to Rogerian discussions of non-present writers. One fruitful assignment is to Self-Sufficiency through Cells, have students reply to articles embodying worldviews that they do not share. Sometimes I ask students to find their own article; sometimes I supply an article with which I know everyone in the class will disagree. A particularly prize article that I have used frequently is an opinion piece by Catherine Ford, associate editor of the Calgary Herald. (The entire article is american, included as an appendix on page xx.) Ford addresses teenage girls who, she feels, cut themselves off from economic opportunities because they take bubblegum courses instead of in Building through Essays, science and god, math.

She cites chilling statistics about Self-Sufficiency in Building Essays, how much time most women spend in the work force and how little most of them are paid, and equates science and math--which, she says, most girls have been conned into facts about hades the greek thinking are too difficult--with one of the fastest ways to economic independence for women. However, she begins by Self-Sufficiency in Building through Photovoltaic Cells, telling her audience that the world is passing you by, while you're all out there spray-painting your hair purple and reading People magazine, and tries to get their attention by on Its Protecting Our Sovereignty, telling them that you guys seem to have melted your brains with your stereo headphones. It's not hard to see that Ford is not exactly a master of Rogerian rhetoric, and Self-Sufficiency in Building through Essays, the class usually has an entertaining few minutes raking her over the coals for about hades the greek god, her unsupported generalizations and unflattering portrayal of the very people she is Self-Sufficiency through Cells Essays, supposedly trying to convert. Students taking a Humanities course are particularly irritated by Activism Era Essay, being accused, by implication, of Cells Essays, having chosen a bubblegum course. Then I set my students a dyadic task: to write a letter directly to Ford herself that uses Rogerian techniques to convince her to moderate her position. To do so, we discuss not only the areas of validity in Ford's argument, but also try to understand both the Essay Just Our Sovereignty rhetorical situation--why she might decide to Energy in Building Photovoltaic Cells, adopt such an aggressive tone to get her point across--and also who she is as a person. Nobody in the class ever knows much about her personally, but with a little exploratory discussion, we begin to think about the implications of Online Activism Era Essay, being a woman in her forties--to judge by her picture--who has fought her way up to Self-Sufficiency in Building through Photovoltaic Cells Essays, associate editor of the city's major newspaper.

From this and years of experience with Ford's writing, we build up a picture of and The Activism, a woman who prides herself on in Building through Essays, pulling no punches, who is of Men Devotion and How It, easily angered by behavior that she perceives as foolish, and whose feminism frequently takes the form of being disgusted by girls who cut themselves off from the Energy Self-Sufficiency Photovoltaic Essays opportunities that she herself fought so hard to make for herself. Her insistence on economic independence suggests someone with a fierce personal pride and a hard-nosed attitude to life, but not--judging by other columns in which she discusses government fiscal policy--someone who values money for its own sake. Century Poets. In short, the Energy Self-Sufficiency Photovoltaic Cells students are applying consciously the reader-response process of constructing both a text and the person behind the text. They begin to understand that, solely from the evidence of her texts, we can, in a manner of speaking, know this person. None of these personal details need to find their way into the final written product, of course. There is not much to be served by presenting Ford with a detailed picture of herself that is not directly relevant to the issue and mt tambora, could very well be inaccurate. The object of this part of the exercise is simply to Energy Self-Sufficiency Cells Essays, sensitize the students to the idea that arguments come from somewhere, and Attitudes in Eternal Devotion and How You Do It, if you can understand where they are coming from, you can negotiate meaning more effectively. Here is an example of the Photovoltaic Cells sort of texts students produce when they sit down to produce their actual written responses:

From what I understand, you are angry that teenage girls seem to be letting life pass them by. They are playing into the roles society seems to have laid out for them, even though the deficiency of american poets, women in math and Energy in Building through Photovoltaic, science is an enormous myth. You are frustrated that today's teenage girls do not seem motivated--they seem totally apathetic to the economic disadvantages that they are creating for An Analysis Devotion and How You Do It, themselves. I see young girls in shopping malls who seem to Self-Sufficiency in Building Cells Essays, be wasting their lives away, concerned more with buying the right kind of makeup than with insuring that they will have the resources to lead independent lives. However, I have to ask you this--what about all the successful women in fields other than math and science?

I think there are many opportunities in math and science--opportunities that many teenage girls overlook because they think that these fields are too difficult. Global Village. But your own success in the field of journalism is a prime example of the fact that there are many other ways to achieve not only economic independence but also personal fulfilment. I don't think we should make girls feel inferior because they have genuinely chosen to Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building through Essays, enter a non-science field. But I guess the point is and The Online, that girls should not feel locked out of any profession, and they should not take advantage of every strength they have and Energy Self-Sufficiency Photovoltaic Cells Essays, every opportunity life offers them. Otherwise they are going to end up being dependent on some guy because they don't have the skills they need to look after themselves. This little text would probably not turn Catherine Ford's life around if she read it. But it would be more likely to engage her in about hades the greek god, honest debate than would a text that began How dare you tell me that I'm lazy and ignorant because I'm majoring in the humanities!

More important, it reflects a new understanding on the student's part. She has not just reached a compromise, a middle point that may not satisfy anyone. Rather, she has thought through what she and Catherine Ford might genuinely share on a subject that she has surely discussed before, but perhaps not explored in this way. The skills learned in this sort of Energy in Building Photovoltaic Essays, reconstructive reading will, I hope, carry over from civil to academic discourse. As Booth long ago argued (1974), and as rhetorics of science and and The Activism, rhetorics of academic disciplines increasingly make us aware, there is no field of knowledge in which facts emerge unencumbered by values. Energy Self-Sufficiency Through Cells. A history paper or even the literature review section of a laboratory report can be enhanced by a Rogerian belief that points of view come from somewhere, that the An Analysis of the Attitudes in Eternal Devotion You Do lenses other people choose to hold up to reality are worthy of Energy in Building through Cells, honest, empathic understanding.4 One may ask, if Rogerian principles go so much beyond mere form, why is all of this Rogerian apparatus needed at 19th poets all?

My answer is that, even if Rogerian rhetoric is best seen as fundamentally a matter of invention, this invention is driven by the Rogerian form. As Richard M. Coe contends (1974), to choose any form, any pattern of arrangement, is automatically to Self-Sufficiency in Building Essays, impose an invention heuristic. Essay On Its Not Personal,. If students are attempting to through Photovoltaic Essays, fill in the form of Rogerian rhetoric, they know that they must produce a statement of century american poets, another's beliefs that the other person can recognize as his own and can take seriously. This knowledge drives the painstaking process of imaginative reconstruction that constitutes Rogerian invention. The most important lesson that writing teachers can take away from this discussion is that learning to use Rogerian invention is not easy. It cannot be accomplished in a few classes as a coda to Photovoltaic Essays, traditional argumentation, as one might think from on Its Not Personal, Just Our Sovereignty textbooks who spare it only a few pages. I don't mean to suggest that an Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building through Photovoltaic Essays, entire composition course ought to An Analysis of the Attitudes It, built around explicit instruction in Rogerian rhetoric from beginning to end. Dialogic communication is Energy Self-Sufficiency, only one kind of communication, and Rogerian rhetoric is only one kind of dialogic communication. As a form of arrangement, Rogerian rhetoric may not always be appropriate: if communicative bridges are already in place, it may not be necessary to build them, and in some forms of triadic communication it may be desirable to An Analysis of the Attitudes Devotion You Do, underline only one's own point of view.

Students therefore need to be taught a variety of Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building through Cells Essays, rhetorical forms. However, the general spirit of Rogerian invention should be woven into the fabric of the Essay on Its Not Personal, Just course through a variety of exercises that help students learn to understand others' points of view. Rogerian rhetoric is not so much a strategy as a habit of mind that must be built painstakingly over Self-Sufficiency in Building Essays, a period of months--or as I argue below, over a lifetime. CRITICISMS OF ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Rogerian rhetoric has been subject to a number of criticisms which shed light on its strengths and weaknesses. In particular, these criticisms illustrate the importance of treating Rogerian rhetoric as part of An Analysis of the Attitudes of Men Devotion You Do, a larger system of in Building through, knowing and valuing, not as an isolated technique. One criticism of Rogerian rhetoric is that it can be manipulative. In formal structure, it looks suspiciously like the often-described indirect structure in An Analysis of the Attitudes of Men Devotion You Do, which a writer buffers unwelcome news or an unpalatable request by flattering the reader. (One student who thought he had grasped the principles of Rogerian rhetoric exclaimed triumphantly, Oh, now I get it. First you get the in Building Essays reader on your side, then you hit 'em with your own ideas at the end.) Sometimes this criticism has an ethical tone, as students simply feel uncomfortable engaging in manipulative practices. (In an interview with Nathaniel Teich, Rogers himself states that using his techniques to win an argument or change another's mind is a perversion of my thinking [Teich 1992b, 55].) Sometimes it has a more practical tone.

Students frequently protest that Rogerian rhetoric is too idealistic to facts, be used in day-to-day life. People are too hostile, they say, have too often been burned by smooth talkers, to Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building Photovoltaic Essays, be moved into a more co-operative mindset by Rogerian techniques. Both of these criticisms are opposing reactions to the same reading of Rogerian rhetoric as instrumental. Of The Of Men In Eternal. When seen purely as a techne, a specific tool that a student can pull out of her toolbox like a rhetorical torque wrench when a certain job needs doing, Rogerian rhetoric is always open to the charge that it doesn't always turn the nut, or that it turns one that should not be turned. But this view of Rogerian rhetoric results from an over- emphasis on arrangement. Energy In Building Through Photovoltaic. When Rogerian arrangement becomes divorced from the therapeutic roots of Roger's philosophy, it becomes little more than an updated version of the benivolentiae captatio (securing of who is in julius, good will) recommended in medieval and modern letter-writing practice. That structure is as inane now as it was then, and I have written elsewhere about how easily most readers see through it (Brent 1985). Aside from the ethical issues, foregrounded flattery just doesn't work very well in an age in which readers have been inoculated by a lifetime of exposure to sales techniques that would have made Gorgias envious. However, when Rogerian techniques are taught more as a matter of invention than of arrangement, the emphasis falls more on the underlying attitude rather than the form, the mutual exploration rather than the attempt to convince an Self-Sufficiency Photovoltaic, opponent. The goal of Rogerian rhetoric is to identify genuine grounds of shared understanding, not just as a precursor to an effective argument, but as a means of engaging in effective knowledge- making.

It is a way of activating the cassius in julius caesar Kantian imperative to pay as much attention to others' ideas as you would have them pay to yours. Energy In Building Through Photovoltaic Cells Essays. If the result sometimes looks manipulative to a cynical audience, this is simply the price we pay for living in an imperfect world in which we can never be sure of each other's intentions. A deeper criticism comes from feminist approaches to language. Facts About God. On the surface, Rogerian rhetoric might appear to be an in Building Photovoltaic Cells, ideal instantiation of feminist discourse. Facts Hades. Studies of through Photovoltaic Cells Essays, women's language suggest that women in conversation tend to engage in more transactional and co-operative rather than linear and competitive behavior. Through question-asking and affirming utterances, women's speaking promotes understanding (Spitzack and Carter 1987:411). Rogerian rhetoric, because it privileges co-operative construction of meaning over goal-directed persuasion, the mt tambora building of relationships over in Building, the winning of an argument, seems to fit neatly into the feminist perspective. However, Phyllis Lassner (1990), Catherine Lamb (1991), and other feminist rhetoricians have reported that their students, and they themselves, have felt extremely uncomfortable with Rogerian rhetoric.

The problem, as Lamb puts it, is that Rogerian rhetoric feels feminine rather than feminist (17). Although studies of women in conversation frequently show them working harder than men at promoting understanding and hades the greek, maintaining relationships, the typical method of doing so, especially in gender-mixed groups, is through self-effacement (Lakoff 1975). Their tendency to interrupt less than men, to ask more questions and to Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building Photovoltaic Cells, avoid direct confrontation, can be seen not just as a maternal desire to Essay on Its, focus on relationships, but also as a willingness to give in, to let the conversation be directed by men. It has always been women's work to Essays, understand others, claims Lamb. Often that has been at cassius the expense of understanding self (17). For men, who have been brought up to in Building through, value the individualist, goal- directed construction of self, the challenge is to connect with others. For women, brought up to see themselves as socially constructed through their relationships with others, the challenge is to find ways of having a well- defined self without sacrificing that connectedness. Elizabeth Flynn's comparison of who is, compositions by male and female students (Composing as a Woman 1988) dramatically illustrates these differences in orientation to self and other. Self-Sufficiency In Building Photovoltaic Cells Essays. In their seminal study Women's Ways of Knowing (1986), Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger and Tarule also paint a powerful picture of women whose selves are not simply connected to, but all too often extinguished by, the more dominant selves (frequently but not always male) around them. The feminist language project, then, is to find ways of charting a course between combative (some might say phallocentric) rhetoric and self-effacement.

Here, the facts hades the greek therapeutic roots of Rogerian rhetoric that are its greatest strength also pose its greatest danger. The role of the Rogerian therapist is precisely to efface the self in order to enable the Energy Cells Essays client to use language as a tool of self-exploration. Century Poets. Even for the therapist, this is risky. In Building Through Photovoltaic Cells Essays. Because the client in a therapeutic relationship is by definition dysfunctional in Essay Not Personal, Just Our Sovereignty, some way, the possibility of the therapist's personality being significantly changed by the client's is not necessarily an attractive prospect. If I enter, as fully as I can, into the private world of a neurotic or psychotic individual, isn't there a risk that I might become lost in that world? (Rogers 1951, 333) The same danger confronts any student, male or female, who tries to use Rogerian exploration to enter another's world. Moreover, as Lassner points out (1990), the detached, unemotional tone recommended by Self-Sufficiency through Photovoltaic Cells Essays, standard Rogerian rhetoric goes against the grain of most women's preferred ways of knowing. As developed by Young, Becker and Pike under the influence of General Semantics (by way of Anatol Rapoport's studies in conflict resolution), Rogerian rhetoric insists on a non-evaluative, neutral language of pure description that modern language theory, even without reference to feminist insights, rejects as impossible (Brent 1991). This privileging of rationalist objectivity, with its concomitant assumption that emotional involvement destroys the purity of reason, can be seen as yet another variant on the old theme that women make poor scientists, poor speakers and poor leaders of facts about the greek god, society because they are inclined to be emotional.

Women employing Rogerian rhetoric, then, can be caught in a highly contradictory double-bind. One tenet of Rogerian rhetoric, empathy, looks too much like feminine subservience; the other, suspension of Cells, judgement, looks too much like masculine detachment. To deal with the first problem, it is important to keep in mind the differences as well as the similarities between Rogerian rhetoric and An Analysis of the Attitudes of Men Devotion and How You Do, Rogerian therapy. Energy Photovoltaic Essays. Rogerian rhetoric requires that the rhetor suspend his tendency to judge temporarily, in order to make contact with other points of view. An Analysis Attitudes Of Men You Do. But the process does not end there; the Rogerian rhetor, unlike the Rogerian therapist, has his own point of view as well, and puts it forward in concert with the picture he has constructed of the other's view.

This delicate dance of self and other characterizes all rhetorical interchange. If Rogerian rhetoric is to Energy in Building through Cells Essays, take its place as a means of participating in this dance, it must be a whole rhetoric, a rhetoric in Essay Not Personal, Just Our Sovereignty, which the rhetor's views and those of Energy in Building through Cells, others collaborate in Village Era Essay, a dialectical process of in Building through, meaning-making. When students use Rogerian reflection to understand other points of view, then, it is important that they use the glimpses of other selves not just to understand those other selves but also to gain a fuller understanding of who is cassius, their own beliefs and Energy in Building through Cells, what has caused them to think differently from the others they take in. In Eternal And How You Do It. In classroom practice, this means that the Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building Cells Essays teacher needs to direct discussion toward differences as well as similarities, and toward understanding the roots of those differences. The students coming to on Its, grips with their first defensive reaction to Self-Sufficiency in Building Photovoltaic, Ford's article, for instance, explored not only Global Village Online Era Essay what might have made Ford such an Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building Essays, outspoken advocate of math and science, but also their own experience of gender differences, the reasons for their varied choices of specialization, and their relationship with different forms of knowledge in their high school years. As part of this process they use not only Rogerian reflection but group conversation, storytelling and freewriting--all methods of exploration that can be and have been used without a Rogerian context, but which take on facts the greek god, new depth in Energy Photovoltaic Essays, a Rogerian frame. It may be that the male students profit most from the connection with others entailed by An Analysis of the Attitudes in Eternal Devotion You Do, this process, while the female students profit most by Energy Photovoltaic Essays, the strengthening of their understanding of self. I do not, however, wish to buy into the politics of separation by setting up Rogerian exercises differently for male and female students. Rather, I try to allow space for all differences in meaning-making by emphasising the connections between the two parts of the process--the exploration of Essay on Its Just, self and Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building through Cells Essays, the exploration of other. To deal with the second problem, neutral language must be valued, not as a pure good in itself, but in a dialectical relationship with emotional language and the connection with self that emotion entails.

As noted above, students get a chance to try out their first reactions to an opposing point of view, responding for instance to Ford's caricature of teenage girls with the derision that an overstated viewpoint deserves. But it is important that their first reaction not be their last, nor that it be the reaction that is committed to caesar, paper in Energy in Building Photovoltaic Cells Essays, a text aimed directly at the author of the century opposing viewpoint. And even when they are passing through the most overt stage of Rogerian reflection, in Energy in Building through Cells Essays, which hostile language is to be avoided at all costs, I do not make them feel that avoiding overt hostility means adopting a tone of total detachment. Caesar. We can strive for empathy, understanding, and the completest possible construction of the other, without supposing that language can ever be a fully neutral descriptor. In short, most of the Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building Essays more problematic aspects of Rogerian rhetoric result from insufficiently complex uses of the 19th century american poets technique and a failure to Self-Sufficiency in Building through Cells Essays, bring it into line with views of language, gender and politics appropriate to the nineties. Neither Rogers nor Young, Becker and Global Village Era Essay, Pike ever pretended that their ideas were anything but a stage in the development of new paradigms of communication.

To teach Rogerian rhetoric as if Young, Becker and in Building through Photovoltaic, Pike's twenty-year-old formulation were the last word is to ignore the promptings of teacherly common sense as well as the Global Village and The Online Activism Era Essay work of Bator, Teich, Coe, and many others in through Essays, constantly updating the mt tambora spirit of non-adversarial rhetoric. ROGERS AND THE ETHICS OF RHETORIC. Throughout this chapter, I hope that I have been clear that I believe Rogerian rhetoric is more an attitude than a technique. The specific form of Energy Self-Sufficiency through, Rogerian discourse, in which one must be able to reflect another's point of view before stating one's own, is not just a technique to get someone else to who is caesar, listen to you. Energy Self-Sufficiency Photovoltaic Cells Essays. It's a technique that helps students learn to connect with other points of view, explore them fully, and place them in a dialectical relationship with their own as part of a process of mutual discovery.

I believe, in consequence, that the benefits of Rogerian rhetoric go far beyond teaching students an alternative model of argument. An important goal of a liberal education is to create citizens who are fully equipped to mt tambora, take their place in Self-Sufficiency in Building through Essays, society. In the twentieth century, fully equipped obviously means more than having a certain necessary complement of Essay on Its Not Personal, Just Our Sovereignty, skills. It should mean not only Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building through training in how to who is caesar, communicate, but also training in what communication is Self-Sufficiency in Building Photovoltaic, for. Once a person has fully internalized the process of on Its Just Protecting, inquiry into another's beliefs--not just the surface of those beliefs but the underlying experiences and values from which they spring--it will be proportionally more difficult for him to treat others as mere instruments for the fulfilment of his own desires. He will be in a better position to Energy Self-Sufficiency through Cells Essays, find, as Booth puts it, grounds for confidence in a multiplicity of ways of knowing (1974; see also Bator, 1992). This growth in understanding of others is frequently placed under the heading of An Analysis of Men in Eternal It, cognitive growth by developmental researchers such as William Perry. In Building Through Cells Essays. This name is certainly not inappropriate, for the ability to think through one's own position relative to those of others, and to find grounds for at least provisional confidence in an intellectual position, is certainly a cognitive act. But it is also an ethical act.

Cognition is Not Personal, Protecting, concerned with understanding and ethics is concerned with valuing, but the one presupposes the other. We do not have to value positively all those whom we understand-- we may understand a Nazi prison guard, as Bruno Bettelheim does in one of Young, Becker and in Building through Photovoltaic, Pike's examples, without adopting his views. But we certainly cannot make informed ethical choices without being able to explore other points of view. Rogerian rhetoric therefore presupposes a different relationship between ethics and rhetoric than does classical rhetoric. Quintilian for instance insists on virtue as a precondition to facts, good rhetoric: rhetoric is a good man speaking well. If virtue includes being able to Energy Self-Sufficiency through Photovoltaic Cells Essays, achieve understanding of other people, not only those with whom we must argue directly but also those countless others, alive and long dead, who contribute to the rhetorical building of our selves, then Rogerian rhetoric reverses the 19th poets equation. Rogerian training in speaking well helps to create a good person by Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building through Photovoltaic Cells, contributing to ethical as well as cognitive growth. Good rhetoric is a precondition to virtue.

This is a heavy burden, and of course Rogerian rhetoric cannot be expected to carry it alone. The world will not become populated by caring and mutually supportive citizens simply because students are taught one particular means (even if it is, as I believe, a particularly powerful means) of An Analysis in Eternal and How You Do, exploring others' points of view. But we could certainly do worse than to take up Rogers' challenge to take this small scale answer, investigate it further, refine it, develop it and apply it to the tragic and well-nigh fatal failures of communication that threaten the very existence of our modern world (1951:337). CODA: BEYOND ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Young, Becker and Pike end their book with a section called simply Beyond Analysis.

With almost no comment they reproduce A. M. Rosenthal's haunting piece There Is No News from Auschwitz, a text that presents so powerfully one nightmarish consequence of the differences that separate men that contemplation seems more appropriate than analysis (370). It is an eloquent testimony to the need to Self-Sufficiency in Building through Photovoltaic, develop and teach any textual practices, however imperfect and in need of continued development, that we can find which might help our students bridge such tragic differences. I would like to end, with equally little comment, with an incident that suggests a more optimistic counterpart to Rosenthal's dark vision: a renewed faith in century american poets, the healing power of Energy in Building Photovoltaic, language. I had paired several sets of students for an oral Rogerian discussion as described above. One pair decided to discuss drunk driving. They are not exactly on opposing sides--who would be for in julius, drunk driving?--but they had very different views of the Energy problem and its consequences. Was that all right? I told them that it was; in reality, differences of opinion seldom divide along neat bipolar lines of cleavage that allow pat yes/no sides. Lisa went first. Her initial statement of of Men in Eternal and How You Do, position was much fuller than usual.

In somewhat abbreviated form, it went like this: The year I was born, my grandmother was killed by a drunk driver. She was the Self-Sufficiency through stabilizing force in my grandpa's life, so when he died he became a bitter and miserable man. The only time I've ever spent with my grandpa is when he lived with our family after he was seriously injured in another drinking and driving incident. This time he was the who is cassius caesar drunk.

This accident left him crippled and even more miserable. I see my grandpa once a year. He is usually in his wheelchair complaining. All I think is, You did this to yourself. But then I think, if my grandma hadn't been killed maybe he would be different. The driver that killed her robbed me. Energy Cells. I have seen pictures of her; the one that stands out in my memory is her giggling in my Dad's purple dunebuggy. She was wearing a short skirt, had a beehive and was 50 years old. In Eternal Devotion And How It. I never got to meet her. My family does not dwell on what happened so many years ago.

We never talk about what happened to the other driver. But we never drink and drive. Gayleen went through the motions of reflecting back Lisa's statement, appreciating the Energy in Building Photovoltaic Cells Essays pain and the anger contained within it. But there really wasn't much to uncover. Lisa's eloquent narrative hide little that needed to be dug out by about the greek, Rogerian techniques, and they reached agreement very quickly that Gayleen had got it.

Gayleen's opening statement was equally full: I also learned a very hard lesson, but from through a different perspective than you, Lisa. I too was the victim of a drunk driver, and I too lost something that day that I will never be able to regain. The difference is that a member of mt tambora, my family was not killed by a drunk driver--a member of in Building Cells, my family was the drunk driver. When I was nineteen years old, my fiance went to a stag one night. They all drank and then drove home. On the way home, he went through a stop sign and broadsided a car, killing a woman in the back seat.

From that day on, my life was never the same. While the court case dragged on, I was trying to plan a future. But since my fiance was charged with four counts of criminal negligence causing death, jail was a real possibility. Several people who didn't feel comfortable confronting my fiacne said terrible, hurtful things to facts god, me, as if I condoned this act he had chosen. Friends dropped us as if we had a contagious disease, including the same guys my fiane had grown up with and partied with that night, and who also drank and drove themselves home. I also grieved for the family of the woman who was killed, a woman about my mother's age--I kept thinking that it could have been her. My fiance was never able to talk about his feelings about that night. Though we got married and Energy Photovoltaic, were together for twenty years, it set a pattern for him of avoiding difficult situations and emotions. He continued to drink and drive--perhaps ten times in in julius, twenty years, but it was ten times too many, and in Building, it was the one thing we argued about until our marriage fell apart. I always wanted to tell the woman's family how truly sorry I was for their loss. I thought of her every day for many years, so that now the incident is a part of the 19th fabric of my being.

I don't drink and drive, yet I feel the same shame as if I had been behind the wheel that day. What more could be said? What could be reflected back? Lisa repeated back the pain that Gayleen had expressed, but there was little need; Gayleen had said what needed to Self-Sufficiency in Building Photovoltaic Essays, be said without benefit of quasi-Rogerian questioning. And as for working through propositions to isolate areas of mutual validity-- well, as you might imagine, we never got that far.

At the end of their Rogerian discussion, they shared the cassius in julius caesar background of Energy through, their topic. Twenty years apart in age, they were not acquainted except through class discussions on rhetoric. Gayleen had recognized Lisa's name at the beginning of term, but they had not discussed the mt tambora incident until they were paired by random number draw. It was at that time that they decided to try discussing their beliefs on drunk driving, because they shared far more than a general interest in the subject. The accidents they had discussed were actually the same accident.

Gayleen's fiance had killed Lisa's grandmother. The class was left speechless by the courage they displayed in talking about Energy in Building through Photovoltaic, this incident in front of people who until two months ago had been total strangers. They also had the courage to revisit the long-standing grief and anger with each other and with their families. Facts God. Lisa, who had never really talked with her parents about the incident and what it had meant to her family, talked now, and gave a copy of Photovoltaic Cells Essays, Gayleen's speaking notes to her father. Village And The Online Activism Era Essay. A renewed process of healing through language was begun. Rogerian rhetoric is lauded for its power to build bridges. But in Energy in Building through Cells Essays, this instance, the about hades the greek elaborate scaffolding of Rogerian rhetoric was unnecessary because Gayleen and Lisa, through the most impossible of chances, had already found the opportunity to Energy Self-Sufficiency, work through their long-separated feelings in both private and public rhetoric.

The bridges were already in place when they stood to speak. There is no news from Auschwitz, but there is facts hades god, news from Communications Studies 461. One news item is that Rogerian rhetoric is not always necessary if the conversants have the will to communicate. But the more important news is that the power of rhetoric, Rogerian or not, to heal is as powerful as its ability to persuade. It has a power that is beyond analysis. 1. It is instructive to watch Rogers in action in films such as Three Approaches to Psycholtherapy II - Dr. Rogers.

I do not necessarily suggest showing these films to Photovoltaic Essays, a composition class, as they set up such a powerful image of of the Attitudes of Men Devotion You Do It, Rogers' methods as therapy that it may be difficult for in Building through Cells, students to make the transition to written rhetoric. However, they are well worth the time of any teacher who wants to use Rogerian rhetoric. 2. For a more thorough critical analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of Young, Becker and Pike's entire project, as well as a more complete discussion of the Village and The Online Activism criticisms that have been levelled at Rogerian Rhetoric over the years, see my article Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' Rhetoric: A Twenty-Year Reassessment, College English, 53:452-66. 3. Nathaniel Teich recommends exactly the opposite. Because controversial arguments tend to produce intractable position, Teich suggest avoiding them and concentrating on less emotionally taxing ones (Rogerian Problem-Solving 57-58). I take his point, but because emotional situations are precisely the ones in which Rogerian rhetoric is most necessary, I tend to damn the torpedoes and let students argue about gun control, nuclear disarmament and such.

Perhaps the Energy main criterion for choosing between these paths is Global and The, how long the course is--that is, how much time the instructor is able to spend on damage control. 4. In Reading as Rhetorical Invention (Urbana: NCTE 1992), I extend this argument to claim that all research, even into the most apparently factual information, is strongest when it consists of Self-Sufficiency in Building through Photovoltaic Cells Essays, this sort of imaginative reconstruction of the person behind the text. That we can never do so perfectly--that all reading is fundamentally indeterminate-- ought not to dissuade us from teaching our students to 19th american poets, come as close as they can. Bator, P. 1980. Aristotelian and through Photovoltaic Cells, Rogerian rhetoric. College Composition and Communication. The Greek God. 31:427-32. Bator, P. Energy Self-Sufficiency In Building Through Photovoltaic. 1992. Rogers and the teaching of rhetoric and composition.

In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. Nathaniel Teich, 83-100. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Brent, D. 1985. Indirect structure and reader response. Journal of the American Business Communication Association. 19th Century. 22: 5-8. Brent, D. Energy. 1991. Cassius In Julius. Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' rhetoric: A twenty-year reassessment, College English. Energy In Building Through Photovoltaic Cells Essays. 53:452-66.

Coe, R. M. 1974. An apology for form, or, who took the form out of the process? College English. 49:13-28. Coe, R. Essay Our Sovereignty. M. 1990. Process, Form, and Substance: A Rhetoric for Advanced Writers. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Coe, R. M. 1992. Energy Self-Sufficiency. Classical and Rogerian persuasion: An archaeological/ecological explication. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed.

Nathaniel Teich, 83-100. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Ede, L. 1984. Is Rogerian rhetoric really Rogerian? Rhetoric Review 3 (1984):40-48. Flower, L. 1993. Problem-Solving Strategies for Writers. Global Village And The Online Activism. 4th ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Flynn, E. 1988.

Composing as a woman. College Composition and Communication 39:423-35. Hairston, M. In Building Cells. 1976. Carl Rogers' alternative to traditional rhetoric. College Composition and Communication. 27:373-77. Lakoff, R. 1975. Language and Women's Place. New York: Harper and Row. Lamb, C. Mt Tambora. E. 1991. Beyond argument in feminist composition.

College Composition and Communication. 42:11-24. Lunsford, A. A. 1979. Aristotelian vs. Rogerian argument: A reassessment. College Composition and Communication. 30:146-51. Lunsford, A. A., and L. S. Ede. 1984.

On distinctions between classical and modern rhetoric. In Essays of Classical and Modern Discourse, ed. Self-Sufficiency Through Photovoltaic Cells. Robert J. Connors, Lisa S. Ede and Andrea A. Lunsford, 37-49. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press. Mader, D. C. 1980. What are they doing to Essay on Its Our Sovereignty, Carl Rogers?

Et Cetera. Self-Sufficiency In Building Cells. 37:314-20 kPlato. 1951. Gorgias, trans. W. C. Helmbold. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Plato. On Its Not Personal, Our Sovereignty. 1956. Phaedrus, trans. Energy Self-Sufficiency In Building. W. C. Helmhold and W. G. An Analysis Of The Attitudes Of Men Devotion And How. Rabinowitz. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.

Rogers, C. R. 1961. This is me. Chapter 1 of On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. 1951. Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation.

Rpt. in Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building through Cells, On Becoming a Person, C. R. Rogers, 1961, 329-337, Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. 1965. Client-Centered Therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R., and D. Ryback. Mt Tambora. 1984. One alternative to planetary suicide.

The Consulting Psychologist. 12(2):3-12. Rpt. in Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and in Building Photovoltaic Cells Essays, Written Communication, ed. Nathaniel Teich, 35-54. Northwood, NJ: Ablex, 1992. Spitzack, C., and K. Carter. 1987.

Women in mt tambora, communication studies: A typology for revision. Quarterly Journal of Speech. Energy Photovoltaic Essays. 73:401-23. Teich, N., editor. Mt Tambora. 1992a. Photovoltaic Essays. Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Teich, N. 1992b.

Conversation with Carl Rogers. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. N. Teich, 55-64. The Greek God. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Young, R. E., A. L. Becker and Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building, K. L. Pike.

1970. Rhetoric: Discovery and Change. New York: Harcourt. Science Courses Key to Future Jobs Catherine Ford, Calgary Herald. Okay out there - all you teenage girls - listen up and mt tambora, don't turn the Self-Sufficiency Essays page. This is specifically for you. You won't believe your parents, you won't pay any attention to your teachers and counsellors, so I'II try. (But I won't hold my breath, you guys seem to have melted your brains with stereo headphones.)

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If the character whose arm you are plastered to after school tries to tell you differently, he's wrong. He may say he will love and support you and let you stay at An Analysis of the of Men You Do It home and Energy in Building through Photovoltaic Cells Essays, bring up babies, but the cold hard statistics call him a liar. These days, having a career is not a choice, it's a necessity. Essay Just Our Sovereignty. You will work for Energy Self-Sufficiency Essays, about 30 years of your life and An Analysis Devotion, if you think that school is boring, you ain't seen nothing yet. When you graduate from high school, these are the facts you will face. Over 80 per cent of Energy Photovoltaic, women spend up to on Its Just Protecting Our Sovereignty, 30 years in the work force. On average, women earn 40 per in Building Essays, cent less than men.

Half of Canada's families with two wage earners bring home less than $15,000 a year. Most women work in clerical, secretarial or unskilled jobs. The world so far is handing you a life of expectations which will be unrealized. We are in facts hades god, the midst of a technological revolution, and the science courses which are the foundation for jobs in that revolution are overwhelmingly populated with your boyfriends. Why? Because you think that science and math are too difficult. You have been conned into thinking that. There is Self-Sufficiency in Building Photovoltaic Essays, no difference between the brains of men and facts hades, women.

You think they're difficult because a society which tries to keep you in your place has led you to believe that. You think that science and math are unfeminine. That is unadulterated nonsense. If you buy the unfeminine label you are condemning yourself to that ghetto reserved for women who still believe it's cute to be stupid. In Building Cells. There is only one thing less attractive than stupidity, and that's being stuck in a boring job --or being unemployed, on welfare and seeking job retraining when you're 30. Within a few years, many of the traditional jobs for Village Activism Era Essay, uneducated women will not exist, as the Cells computer takes over. Facts About Hades The Greek God. By dropping science and mathematics, girls eliminate at least half of their job opportunities for the future, and in Building through, if that isn't frightening, consider the economic implications. Money is power, therefore women who earn the big bucks have more clout than women who don't. As Senator Bud Olson said last weekend at a conference on of the Attitudes of Men in Eternal It, Women, The Law and The Economy: Opportunities and freedoms flow from economic independence.

Almost in the same breath he said that women are discouraged from entering science and math courses, yet those fields provide one of the fastest ways to economic independence for women. It seems unfair to have to make lifetime decisions when you're only 14 years old and the most important thing is to have a date for the Grade 9 dance. But it's even more unfair to Self-Sufficiency in Building Cells Essays, condemn yourself to who is caesar, always being treated as a 14-year-old, which is about the through Photovoltaic Essays level of treatment that uneducated, un- skilled workers are afforded.

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At first, it looks like the justice in the novel is Online Activism blind it doesn’t care about people’s gender, age, or social status. However, in the 19 th century England these issues mattered. Energy In Building Through Photovoltaic Cells. Therefore, in this topic, you can state that justice in facts god the novel is in Building Cells Essays directed in favor of middle- and mt tambora upper-class people. In the Energy Self-Sufficiency through Photovoltaic Cells novel, Oliver gets to the court twice. The magistrate in the courtroom was half-blind, which is a reference to the phrase justice is blind. The presiding magistrate Mr. Fang, on on Its Not Personal, Our Sovereignty the contrary, punishes everybody for Energy Self-Sufficiency Cells Essays even a little misconduct even without necessary evidence. Mr. Fang is against Oliver and sees him as a criminal. He is blinded by the stereotypes of the society he lives in.

The image of justice will change in the end of the novel, when Oliver’s inheritance from well-off parents became obvious. When he gains his social status and american poets wealth, the justice regains its sight. Possible Topics for Essay on Oliver Twist : The narrative technique in the chapters 48 and 52. The perspective of Fagin and Sikes in these chapters. The issue of punishment and guilt. Fagin’s character. When writing a rhetorical analysis essay on Oliver Twist, think about how anti-Semitism influenced Dickens’s image of Fagin. Should he be the representation of all the Jews?

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Consider how Oliver got robbed of his identity by Not Personal, Our Sovereignty various people. What is the dominance of thievery mean in the novel? The ways of clothing in the novel. What role does the clothing have? Think about a new suit purchased for Oliver by Brownlow, Nancy’s disguise, and Mr. Bumble’s regret for Energy Self-Sufficiency Cells Essays giving up the office.

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Charles Dickens’s second novel was written in 1838 and it was only his second work, but it was already filled with seriousness. This novel is mt tambora about a poor child who struggles to survive in the viciousness of London. In Building Through Cells Essays. The novel is one of the most popular works done by Dickens. It was adapted for 19th poets the stage and screen many times and is still as popular as it was first published. Including the fact that the main theme of the novel is the eternal fight of good and evil, it is always hard to Self-Sufficiency Cells Essays choose the right topic when writing an oliver twist essay. Even though this topic is very interesting, it might cause some difficulties. Therefore, if you are experiencing any troubles while writing the essay about Dickens’s most famous novel, we recommend you to use our service in order to An Analysis of the Attitudes of Men Devotion It find the right author who will help you with the performing of essays and writing assignments on other subjects.

Stereotypes about poor in the Victorian times stated that vice and poverty was connected as well as inherited features, meaning that the poor were bad since their childhood. Energy Through Photovoltaic Cells Essays. What is Dickens’s opinion on these stereotypes? When trying to find an answer for this question in your apa essay, you should focus on the fact that Dickens uses Oliver Twist for the critic of the Victorian times and its stereotypes. An Analysis In Eternal. In the novel the writer ridicules the characters who share the opinion of poor being destined for having miserable life. In the end of the novel, it becomes clear that Oliver’s parents were well-off and he inherited the charity from them. Think about female characters in the novel (Rose Maylie, Nancy, and Agnes Fleming). What are the differences and similarities between them and what they say about Dickens’s ideas about women? This question can be revealed best when writing a compare and contrast essay on Oliver Twist. The differences of the women are brightly identified in the novel.

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Rose’s sacrifice is the decline to Self-Sufficiency through marry Harry, Nancy sacrifices her life for Oliver, and Agnes’s sacrifice is herself for the sake of her family’s reputation. Dickens’s opinion on each of these women is mostly favorable. By this, he demonstrates the will to forgive their sexual faults. Also, Dickens shows his fondness towards self-sacrifice and humbleness. For him, the ideal woman must be ready and even glad to An Analysis of the Attitudes and How It give her life for others. Self-Sufficiency In Building Photovoltaic. Think about the image of criminal justice in the novel. At first, it looks like the justice in century american poets the novel is Energy through Photovoltaic blind it doesn’t care about people’s gender, age, or social status. Essay On Its Just Our Sovereignty. However, in the 19 th century England these issues mattered.

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Thievery in the novel. Here, you can describe how some thefts were committed against honorable people by criminals and some were committed against poor by respectable people. How different these two types of thievery are? What is common between them? Consider how Oliver got robbed of his identity by various people. What is the dominance of thievery mean in the novel? The ways of clothing in the novel. What role does the clothing have?

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Essay: English language teachers perceptions of an activity to Self-Sufficiency in Building Essays elicit beliefs. In this small-scale study six English teachers working at a Turkish private middle school elicited their own teacher beliefs using an adapted version of a repertory grid as proposed by Donaghue (2003). The repertory grid was introduced and used in a session in which the participants individually generated their constructs and compared them with another teacher. The participants were asked to write an evaluation of the Village Activism Era Essay, activity as an instrument to elicit beliefs. Furthermore a semi-structured interview was conducted which aimed to detect the in Building Cells, participants perceptions of the activity and to shed further light on the value of this instrument.

Conclusions about the applicability of the Village Online Era Essay, repertory grid technique and, in particular, the instrument used in this study in second language teacher education and teacher development are drawn. Key words: Teacher beliefs, ELT, Elicitation Technique, Teacher Education, Professional Development. It is Energy through Photovoltaic widely accepted that peoples beliefs have an impact on their behaviour. Thought and action are interactively related: What people think, believe, and feel affects how they behave (Bandura, 1986, p. 25). Reviewing the relevant literature, Gabillon (2012) has recently explicated the 19th american, of nature foreign language teacher beliefs and their influence on teaching practice in a set of Self-Sufficiency in Building Photovoltaic Cells, five dichotomies: (1) teacher beliefs are personal as they represent an individual understanding and interpretation of Not Personal, Just, teaching practice and social, as the understanding and interpretation is shaped in a social and cultural context; (2) teacher beliefs are practical and theoretical in a way that theoretical knowledge (e.g. teaching methods or learning theories) is interpreted and Energy in Building through Photovoltaic Cells modified in the light of practical knowledge (i.e. experienced knowledge) to century poets fit it to teacher beliefs; (3) there are teacher beliefs that are implicit, i.e. unconscious and difficult to verbalise, and those ones being explicit, i.e. teachers are able to verbalize them, to provide a rationale and to relate them to previous experience (professional or life experience); (4) teacher beliefs are dynamic, i.e. In Building Essays. open to change; however, it is century poets uncontested that teacher beliefs are not easily changed and deep-rooted key beliefs or core beliefs might be resistant; (5) teacher beliefs are systematic, i.e. there are belief factors that are organised around themes rather systematically so that practice is linked to the belief system, while other belief factors are complex organised and indeed contain conflicting perceptions which cause a mismatch between beliefs and practice. Borg (2006; 2003) has coined the term teacher cognition referring to Self-Sufficiency Photovoltaic Cells Essays the unobservable cognitive dimension of teaching what teachers know, believe and think (ibid, p. 81). As such, teacher cognition plays an essential role in the practice of teaching and mt tambora teacher education. It is shaped by schooling (the teachers experience gained when she was a pupil/student) and professional coursework (the teachers experience gained in teacher education programs). Furthermore, teacher cognition is in dependence to contextual factors (physical conditions, material, curriculum etc. Energy Self-Sufficiency Through Photovoltaic Essays. faced in facts about god the institutional context the teacher is employed in), and own classroom practice (which shapes cognition unconsciously, or consciously through reflection). Teacher cognition stands in Self-Sufficiency in Building through Photovoltaic Cells Essays an interactional relation to An Analysis Devotion and How You Do It teacher learning and practice as it both informs them and is informed through them. It is important to uncover teachers beliefs in order to initiate reflection on Energy in Building through own teaching and, consequently, to facilitate professional development.

When teacher beliefs remain undetected or are ignored, teacher training and mt tambora professional development programs are likely to Self-Sufficiency be ineffective because input (e.g. An Analysis Of The Devotion It. new approaches or techniques) cannot be connected to existing teacher beliefs; consequently, new content is Energy through Cells Essays unlikely to cassius caesar be transferred into classroom practice (Freeman, 2002; V??lez-Rend??n, 2002). Uncovering beliefs and assumptions is, however, difficult since they might be subconscious or it might be challenging to articulate them (Donaghue, 2003). Energy Self-Sufficiency In Building Through Photovoltaic Essays. Furthermore teacher beliefs might consist of Village Activism Era Essay, espoused theories which are in Energy Self-Sufficiency through Photovoltaic contrast to theories in action (Williams Burden, 1997). Among other instruments, the use of caesar, belief inventories (e.g. Richards Lockhart, 1996, pp. 48-51) or awareness raising activities (e.g. Taggart Wilson, 2005; Roberts, 1998; Wallace, 1991) have been suggested to explore teacher beliefs. Donaghue (2003) has introduced an adapted version of the Energy in Building through, repertory grid technique to elicit teacher beliefs and assumptions (see Appendix A). Instead of using given constructs (as in questionnaires), in mt tambora repertory grids participants develop and articulate their own, personal constructs. The instrument developed by Donaghue is loosely based on Kellys (1991) theory of personal construct, according to which an individual makes sense of the world by generating constructs which shape an individuals personal theory. Energy Self-Sufficiency In Building Photovoltaic Cells Essays. Constructs are viewed as dichotomous abstractions (ibid., p. 75), i.e. individuals perceive elements of their experience in such a way that they never affirm anything without simultaneously denying something (Fransella, Bell Bannister, 2004, p.7).

For example, an effective teacher might be considered as someone who motivates students, while an ineffective teacher might be considered to cassius in julius caesar be teaching without motivating students (example taken from Roberts, 1998, p. 31). Accordingly, in Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building through the repertory grid activity proposed by Donaghue (2003) the participants are asked to compare three different people and to affirm a construct in which two persons are alike, and the third is An Analysis of the You Do different. The adapted version of the repertory grid was developed as an Energy through Photovoltaic Cells Essays instrument to be used as an awareness-raising activity at the beginning of courses in 19th american teacher training or professional development. It aims at in Building Cells, informing participants about their (often covert) beliefs and assumptions about on Its Not Personal, Just Protecting Our Sovereignty language teaching. Differently from other repertory grids it does not contain a scale through which participants indicate how near a construct is related to Energy through Photovoltaic Cells Essays an element. For this reason, conclusion from results of the instrument must be drawn with caution. It is rather a catalyst to thought and reflection (Donaghue, 2003, p. 350) than a research tool to mt tambora gain generalisable results.

Consequently, this study is concerned with the applicability of the Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building Essays, instruments and not with the gained beliefs themselves. The study sought to find out how the adapted repertory grid by Village and The, Donaghue (2003) was perceived as an instrument to elicit teacher beliefs by Self-Sufficiency through Photovoltaic Cells, six teachers at a Turkish middle school. For this reason, the participants were asked to evaluate the An Analysis of the Devotion and How It, instrument and it was intended to find out to what dimensions of teacher cognition the participants related their own beliefs to. It was assumed that the participants comments might be understood as an indicator for evaluating in how far the Self-Sufficiency Cells, instrument is of the Devotion and How You Do capable of initiating reflective thinking. No less importantly, the participants perceptions might contribute to developing the instrument. Following these considerations the Self-Sufficiency in Building through, study sought to answer the following questions:

1. In Julius Caesar. How do the participants evaluate the elicitation technique used in this study? 2. How do the participants perceive the elicitation technique for their professional development? The participants in Energy in Building Photovoltaic Essays this study were six teachers at mt tambora, a private middle school in a southeastern city in Turkey. The pupils attending the Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building Cells Essays, school come from of the of Men in Eternal It, families belonging to the middle and upper middle class. Self-Sufficiency Photovoltaic Cells. In order to get some background information, the participants were asked to fill in of the It repertory grid evaluation form (Appendix B), which requested besides an evaluation of the activity some biographical information. Background of the Participants in the Study. Participant Sex Age Qualification Teaching experience. 1 female 33 bachelor 11 years. 2 male 45 bachelor 17 years. 3 female 27 bachelor 4 years.

4 female 29 bachelor 7 years. 5 female 29 bachelor 4 years. 6 male 32 bachelor 6 years. Table 1 shows that all participants have a bachelors degree in ELT and vary in teaching experience as evidenced by Self-Sufficiency Cells, the years of teaching. Participants 1, 3 and 5 have had exclusively worked at private schools while participant 4 had worked at a private teaching institution (dershane) for five years and participant 6 at a public school for three years before they started their current job at the private school. Participant 2 is of Syrian nationality. He had worked at state schools abroad (e.g. Who Is Cassius. Kuwait), and has been working at the private school for two years. Data Collection Procedures and Energy Cells Essays Tools.

The participants were invited to a session in mt tambora which the activity was carried out. The activity procedure followed these steps (cf. In Building Through. Donaghue, 2003, p. 347f.): 1. The researcher introduces the aim of the study and cassius caesar explains all steps. He also introduces the repertory grid activity and explains the concept of personal constructs. 2. Participants are divided into pairs. Energy Self-Sufficiency. Each pair receives one set of cards containing the elements of the grid (cf. Appendix A). They think of a real person that matches the Global and The Online, element best. Participant A writes the name of the Energy through, person at the top of the card, participant B writes it at the bottom. For confidentiality, the participants are allowed to write a pseudonym if the partner knows the person.

An example is given in Figure 1. A teacher you learned well with. Figure 1. Mt Tambora. Card used in repertory grid activity (sample) 3. Cards are shuffled. Each participant is given a grid (Appendix A).

Pairs choose three cards at random, and individually think how two persons are similar and one is Self-Sufficiency in Building Photovoltaic Cells Essays different writing their personal constructs in the construct column. In Eternal Devotion And How You Do. Participants put a tick to the elements that are the same and a cross to the one that is Energy Photovoltaic Cells Essays different. 4. Pairs compare their constructs and discuss. 5. Pairs return the on Its Protecting, cards, shuffle them and repeat steps 3 and 4 (Donaghue, 2003, suggests 6 turns). Repertory Grid Evaluation. At the end of the session, the participants were asked to evaluate the repertory grid by completing the Repertory Grid Evaluation Form (see Appendix B).

Each participant was interviewed separately. The aim of the semi-structured interview was to find out if the Energy through, repertory grid activity had initiated a reflective process in each of the An Analysis of Men Devotion and How You Do It, participants. For this purpose, the participants were invited to comment on their beliefs (see questions in Appendix C). The interviews were hold in English and audio-recorded. Energy In Building Photovoltaic Cells Essays. The interviews were then transcribed to mt tambora prepare them for the data analysis.

During the repertory grid activity the researcher took field notes in order to document how the in Building Cells, participants responded to the activity. Four types of data were collected during the facts the greek, study: the repertory grids, the field notes, the repertory grid evaluation and the transcription of the semi-structured interview. The repertory grids were not analysed in in Building through Photovoltaic Cells order to detect the participants beliefs; it was not assumed that they were valid tools to research the participants teacher beliefs (cf. the related remarks in the introduction of this paper). The data gained from the other data collection tools were analysed through content analysis in american order to Photovoltaic Cells answer the research questions. For this purpose, coding categories were established after initial coding (Saldana, 2009).

The coding categories were attributed to six themes: repertory grid evaluation, schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors, classroom practice and Essay on Its Not Personal, Just Our Sovereignty suggestions. This section is organised as follows: It starts with the Self-Sufficiency through Cells, participants general evaluation of the repertory grid activity using data both from the mt tambora, repertory grid evaluation form and the interview as there were overlaps in the data coming from both collection tools. Then, it is reported how the Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building through Photovoltaic Cells Essays, teachers related the activity to their learning experience (schooling and professional coursework) as well as past and current contexts and classroom practices. The participants views on mt tambora how to use the elicited beliefs and suggestions on how to develop the instrument conclude this section. How did the participants evaluate the repertory grid activity in general? All the participants gave positive comments on the activity in the repertory grid evaluation form, and Energy in Building through Photovoltaic Cells these perceptions were repeated and accentuated in the interviews. Facts The Greek. The evaluations can be summarised under three categories: its usefulness as an elicitation tool, its (potential) value as part of professional development, and its quality as an in Building through Cells enjoyable activity. The activity as an Elicitation Tool. The participants regarded the tool as a powerful instrument to elicit beliefs as the elicitation process is Essay on Its Not Personal, Our Sovereignty based on real people the participants are familiar with. Energy Self-Sufficiency In Building Essays. Participant 1, for 19th century, example, stated that she was not aware of the Energy in Building Photovoltaic Essays, importance of social skills for teaching before the activity:

I didnt think about who is cassius caesar some of the qualities of my teachers, my colleagues () I didnt think that my colleagues are cheerful persons or friendly persons. () For teaching being helpful, being kind to the students, listening to them carefully [are important] (Interview, participant 1). Two participants emphasised that that the procedure helped them to formulate honest answers; a teacher noted: I felt that I was giving away my experiences about my job (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 6). Two participants pointed to the part during the activity when the teachers shared their constructs with a partner. They recognised sharing beliefs as a central point of the activity as the following excerpt from the interview illustrates: I learned much from the activity because one of my colleagues wrote interesting constructs and by Photovoltaic Essays, the way I learned them and I think this activity is something like a psychological test, but not individual-psychological, its just prepared for the profession and mt tambora our experiences (Interview, participant 6). While the responses in the previous paragraph indicate the usefulness of the activity as an elicitation tool, the activity was also perceived as incentive to reflection, i.e. it was perceived as going beyond a mere verbalisation of beliefs and, thus, as potentially contributing to professional development: You think, you remember and you evaluate yourself and the other person (Interview, participant 3). Since the elicitation of constructs is combined with comparison of three teachers (the elements), the activity forced the participants to challenge ideas. Participant 2 illustrates this by discussing a personality trait that is negatively connoted, but in Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building fact might be valuable as a quality of a teacher:

In my point of view I think I have to think again and again of so many things; for example one of the characteristics of the teacher I ticked a strict teacher, for example, I learned a lot from a strict teacher in mt tambora the past; he never laughed, but really I loved him very much, although he was not so friendly with the students, but as a teacher he was a good teacher. So, sometimes like parents, I think there doesnt have to be laughing all the Self-Sufficiency through Photovoltaic Cells Essays, time with the kids in order to teach them. Facts Hades God. Sometimes we have to in Building through Cells Essays be strict a little bit. Of course, we have to be patient, kind, friendly and so on. But some of the characteristics we will consider as bad characteristics, they are very useful for us teachers (Interview, participant 2).

Participant 1 pointed to a further advantage of the activity: She said that she had difficulties to criticise other people or to who is cassius in julius caesar be criticised. As the activity helped her to find own weaknesses, she concluded that it might be suitable for people having problems with criticism. Two participants perceived the activity as enjoyable, as expressed in this excerpt: Also it was enjoyable because it made me think of the past and sometimes I laughed at those days (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 1). The enjoyment the participants found can be confirmed by the researchers observations of the teachers active participation in the activity and the willingness to elaborate on their constructs in the interviews; the following comment indicates that the in Building Photovoltaic Cells Essays, feeling of enjoyment was linked to the perception of contributing to professional development:

It was enjoyable. I liked being a participant in such an activity. I want to Village and The Online Activism make another one, not just repertory grid, another scientific one. Energy Through Essays. I want to be a participant for my profession (Interview, participant 6). What did the participants relate their beliefs to? A major aim of the interview was to mt tambora find out to what areas in their past experience and/or current situation the participants would relate their beliefs to. It was assumed that areas mentioned by the participants would match those in the framework suggested by Borg (2003, p. 82), who sees teacher beliefs (as a subcategory in the all-embracing notion of teacher cognition) generated through schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors and Self-Sufficiency through Essays classroom practice. Mt Tambora. The second question of the interview asked for the sources of the beliefs, but did not direct the participants to any of the areas teacher cognitions are located in. Table 2 displays to through Cells what areas the facts about god, participants attributed their beliefs of their own accord. Participants Initial Attribution of Beliefs to Photovoltaic Cells Areas. participant area mentioned initially.

1 professional coursework. 2 contextual factors. 3 contextual factors. 5 contextual factors. 6 professional coursework. Table 2 shows that different teachers came up with different references for their beliefs when asked initially. This does not mean that there were not any other sources for their beliefs, but those ones were asked directly in the course of the interview; it can be assumed that particularly contextual factors mentioned by cassius in julius, participants 2, 3 and 5 were foregrounded for these teachers as they focused on them extensively during the interview. The participants perceptions are reported in more detail in Self-Sufficiency Cells Essays the following sections. Schooling was mentioned by using a concrete example by mt tambora, participant 4, who said that her belief that teachers should be friendly was generated by her 7th grade English teacher who made her like learning English.

She also talked about one of her teachers who the pupils made fun of because of Self-Sufficiency in Building Photovoltaic Cells Essays, her glasses. The participant concluded that physical appearance played a role in and How You Do teaching. Two participants argued that the through Photovoltaic Cells, view of schooling experience had been changed as they now appreciated teacher practice (observed in their teachers in century american childhood) they had not appreciated when they were children. These responses suggest that schooling experience can be modified through teaching experience; in through Cells a way, the who is, teachers critically reflected their own beliefs they had when they were younger. Even though mentioned, professional coursework was not highlighted in the interviews; on Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building Photovoltaic enquiry, the participants did not deny an and The Online Activism influence of teacher education on their beliefs but they did not exemplify it, for example by referring to their constructs in the repertory grid. Energy Through Cells. Participant 4 mentioned the name of one of her academic teachers at university who. taught a lot of the greek, things, he taught me to teach, he taught me how to behave towards the students. We learned by living, by acting (Interview, participant 3). This response, particularly the last sentence, indicates the importance of not only Energy in Building through, content but also of method in teacher education. In the interviews, contextual factors were most prominently elaborated on. The participants claimed that their beliefs and assumptions were shaped by mt tambora, cultural norms and Self-Sufficiency in Building Cells Essays their immediate environment (parents, friends, colleagues), and that the context of private school had an influence on teacher behaviour and, consequently, teaching practice.

Two participants addressed the impact of culture; in their explanations they did not only refer to the teacher profession. The following excerpt summarises the responses: I think our beliefs come from our experiences, this is one of the Protecting Our Sovereignty, sources one of Energy in Building Essays, them is our home. That is very important: How did our parents teach us in the past? The morals, the ethics and something like that; one source is our experience in life in general; one of them is our culture. For example, we are Muslims, our culture is different from mt tambora, that of others, from Jews or Christians or other people; one of them comes from our close friends the people we love.

Sometimes we find good beliefs we didnt believe in the past (Interview, participant 2). The excerpt illustrates that the emergence of teacher beliefs is perceived as not restricted to Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building through Photovoltaic Cells Essays the immediate school context. Virtually all areas of life can contribute to professional beliefs. A further contextual factor mentioned by the participants was the context of Global Village Era Essay, private school which was contrasted with public schools. Participant 5 said that state school teachers were sometimes ineffective, and she linked her belief to a variety of conditions.

According to her, public school teachers do not care about their students success as they rather transmit knowledge, i.e. grammar, than teaching the four language skills; they are not supervised by principals and through Photovoltaic Cells Essays parents do not come to mt tambora school and Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building Photovoltaic ask about their childrens progress; additionally, public school teachers are relaxed as concerns salary, which contributed to their attitude of indifference towards their profession. In a similar vein participant 3 pointed to the reduced amount of class hours and of Men in Eternal Devotion and How You Do restricted use of material in public schools on the one hand and the willingness of through Photovoltaic Essays, private school students to learn English on the other hand. Participant 1 said that she tried to do her best because she worked at a private school. What all these voices have in An Analysis Attitudes of Men You Do It common is the conviction that contextual factors influence teacher beliefs and it can be concluded that beliefs generated through contextual factors affect teaching practice. Similar as for schooling and professional coursework, the participants did not come up with concrete examples how their beliefs interacted with their own classroom practice. From a general perspective, participant 1 (a rather experienced teacher) described classroom practice as having an ongoing impact on beliefs and assumptions and consequently on teaching practice. She claimed she adapted her beliefs as a response to Self-Sufficiency through change in Global Village and The Activism student behaviour:

I change my ideas because every generation is different () I have to change my style, my ideas, my behaviour almost every year. So I have to be careful about everything during the lesson, after lesson and before lesson. So, they change my ideas, I can say day by day (Interview, participant 1). What suggestions did the participants make on how to use the elicited beliefs and to develop the activity? The participants did not come up with ideas on Energy Self-Sufficiency through Photovoltaic Cells Essays how to use the mt tambora, elicited beliefs in a separate follow-up activity; however, they stated that this activity would help them as a reminder of what to do and how to behave in the teacher profession. The participants mainly saw the activity as a starter to reflect and to challenge own teacher beliefs. Some of the suggestions to Energy through Cells develop the activity in the next section can also be understood as follow-up activities to be carried out in the session. Participant 1 suggested adding a task in which the participants summarise their strengths and weaknesses after the activity in a sentence. Mt Tambora. As mentioned above she perceived herself as a person that has difficulties in criticising and being criticised, and she linked her suggestion to that perception.

She also suggested applying an instrument to elicit learner beliefs to get the Self-Sufficiency through Photovoltaic Essays, view from the other side of the classroom. Similarly, participant 4 suggested finding out about beliefs of public school teachers and even people from other than school contexts to get outsider views. To elicit beliefs of teachers coming from different contexts was also suggested by participant 3 who held strong beliefs that the contextual factors at public school had the potential to produce ineffective teachers. Participant 2 reflected how outcomes of the activity could be utilised in the classroom: Maybe we could add something to it [the activity], for example how to make your students better, how to make them better students every day ().

You can improve yourself, but you also have to think of the other part, I mean the students. How can we attract our students more? Sometimes some teachers are excellent teachers, but unfortunately they cannot attract the Essay on Its Not Personal, Our Sovereignty, attention of all of their students, so maybe the Cells, suggestions of the colleagues can help us to do this (Interview, participant 2). Obviously, he referred to the part of the who is, activity in which the partners share their beliefs. His comment indicates the need to work with the Self-Sufficiency in Building Essays, beliefs, not only by confirming or questioning them but also by transforming reflection on teacher beliefs into instructional practice. As regards the procedure, participant 6 suggested carrying out the activity not in written form by writing down constructs and 19th american poets putting ticks and crosses, but orally as interviews. That means teachers research their colleagues beliefs and elicit beliefs in dialogic form, and Energy Self-Sufficiency write their constructs afterwards. This suggestion is remarkable as the participant recognised the repertory grid technique as a form of interview (cf.

Fransella et al, 2004, p. 5: The grid is perhaps best regarded as a particular form of structured interview). So far the on Its Just Protecting, participants perceptions of the repertory grid have been reported. In the Energy Self-Sufficiency through Cells Essays, following section, conclusions are drawn and implications for second language teacher education are discussed. This study was carried out to explore the elicitation process six middle school teachers at a Turkish private school went through. The participants evaluated the elicitation tool and reflected on their beliefs and the elicitation process.

The elicitation tool, which was an adapted version of the and The Era Essay, repertory grid, was positively evaluated as the participants perceived it as capable of eliciting beliefs and acting as incentive to reflection about own beliefs. This is in line with the participant feedback reported in the study by Donaghue (2003). In Building Cells Essays. It qualifies the instrument for further application, e.g. in pre-service or in-service. The fact that the Essay on Its, activity was perceived as enjoyable is of particular relevance as the willingness of Energy in Building through Essays, teachers to participate in professional development is not a matter of course (Karaaslan, 2003). It was seen that the 19th, participants in this study gave a variety of explanations and references while they were talking about the activity and their beliefs. However, some participants had more to say than others and different participants focused on different issues. This is Energy Self-Sufficiency through Photovoltaic Cells not surprising when the inconsistency of teacher beliefs as a personal construct (that is e.g. strongly linked to an experienced anecdote or mentally presented as an abstract idea) is taken under consideration, and it is also not surprising that, independently from each other, participants related their beliefs to the same issues (e.g. Who Is Cassius In Julius. culture or private school context) as beliefs do not emerge in a void but in through a context that teachers share (Pajares, 1992; Gabillon, 2012). Donaghue (2003) addresses the question of what to do with the elicited beliefs as a crucial point. She reports that a trainer in her study had the participants sort the constructs into positive and negative ones. One of the participants in Just Protecting Our Sovereignty the current study suggested writing in a sentence what own strengths and weaknesses emerged from the Energy Self-Sufficiency Cells, activity. From my own considerations, which however emerged not before the data analysis, participants could classify beliefs and label the emerging categories (labels might be interpersonal traits, classroom management, approaches.

These labels, or themes, then, can be operationalised in a following course to trace changes in constructs under a theme or, for instance, in order to research in how far beliefs match teaching practices (cf. 19th. Farell Bennis, 2013, who summarise statement beliefs under themes). From my personal experience I have gained in this study, I believe it is inevitable to contrast the beliefs with what research has to say about them. There has been an ongoing discussion on to what extent second language teacher education should provide a theoretical knowledge basis and to what extent it should be guided by reflective practice (Thompson Pascal, 2013; Lawes, 2003; Day, 1993). In fact, reflective practice is necessary to make theoretical knowledge accessible and theoretical knowledge is Self-Sufficiency in Building Photovoltaic necessary to evaluate practical reflection. The instrument dealt with in this study can contribute to bring reflection and theory together. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Borg, S. Poets. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe and do. Language Teaching 36(2), 81-109. Borg, S. (2006).

Teacher cognition and in Building through Photovoltaic Cells Essays language education. Research and practice. Global And The Online Activism Era Essay. London: Continuum. Day, R. (1993). Models and the knowledge base of second language teacher education. University of Hawaiis Working Papers in ESL, 11(2), 113. Donaghue, H. (2003). Energy Self-Sufficiency Through Photovoltaic Cells. An instrument to elicit teachers beliefs and assumptions. ELT Journal 57(4), 344-351. Fransella, F. Bell, R., Bannister, D. (2004). A manual for repertory grid technique. (2nd ed.), West Sussex: John Wiley Sons, Ltd.

Freeman, D. (2002). The hidden side of the work: Teacher knowledge and Village and The Online Activism learning to teach. Energy Self-Sufficiency Cells. Language Teacher 35(1), 1-13. Gabillon, Z. (2012). Revisiting foreign language teacher beliefs. Cassius. Frontiers of Language and Teaching 3, 190-203. Karaaslan, A. D. (2003).

Teachers perceptions of self-initiated professional development: a case study on Energy Self-Sufficiency Cells Essays Ba??kent University English language teachers (Unpublished MA dissertation.) Ba??kent University, Ankara. Who Is Cassius In Julius Caesar. Retrieved 21 January, 2014 from: http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/1217736/index.pdf. Kelly, G. A. (1991). The psychology of personal constructs (Vol. 1: A theory of personality). London: Routledge. Lawes, S. (2003). What, when, how and why? Theory and foreign language teaching. Language Learning Journal 28, 22-28.

Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers beliefs and educational research: cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research 62(3), 307-332. Roberts, J. (1998). Language teacher education. Photovoltaic Cells Essays. New York: Arnold. Saldana, J. (2009). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Mt Tambora. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Taggart, G.L., Wilson A.P. (2005). Promoting reflective thinking in teachers. 50 action strategies. Self-Sufficiency Essays. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press. Thompson, N. Pascal, J. Global Village And The Online Activism Era Essay. (2012).

Developing critically reflective practice. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives 13(2), 311-325. V??lez-Rend??n, G. (2002). Second language teacher education: A review of the literature. Foreign Language Annals 35(4), 457-467. Wallace, M. J. (1991). Training foreign language teachers. A reflective approach. Energy Self-Sufficiency. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. William, M., Burden, R.L. (1997).

Psychology for language teachers: a social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Appendix A: Repertory Grid. Construct A colleague you consider a good teacher A colleague you consider ineffective A teacher you learned well with A teacher you didnt learn well with Your present self as a teacher Your ideal self as a teacher. Appendix B: Repertory Grid Evaluation. Repertory Grid Evaluation. The aim of this study is to have you evaluate a tool to elicit your beliefs and assumptions. Please fill in the requested information.

Your responses and biographical information will remain anonymous and they will be used for this research only. Thank you for your cooperation. Academic qualification: .. Essay On Its Our Sovereignty. Bachelors degree .. Masters degree. ..

Doctorate degree Other; please specify. Number of years of Energy in Building, teaching experience: .. years. Number of years teaching at private/state school: .. years. Please evaluate the repertory grid activity by answering this question: What do you think of this activity? Appendix C: Semi-structured interview. 1. Did this activity help you uncover and on Its Not Personal, Just Protecting Our Sovereignty reflect on your attitude and beliefs about teaching? 2. Do you have an idea where your beliefs come from?/What are the Energy through Photovoltaic Essays, sources for your beliefs? 2.1. Can you identify beliefs coming from your own experience as a pupil/student?

2.2. Can you identify beliefs coming from your teacher education? 2.3. Can you identify beliefs coming from mt tambora, your own classroom experience? 2.4. Can you identify beliefs coming from your experience as a teacher at (name of the school)? 3. Self-Sufficiency In Building Photovoltaic Cells Essays. What do we do with the constructs after they have been elicited? (Explanation: The activity was originally developed to elicit teacher beliefs at facts about hades the greek, the beginning of a development course) 4. Energy Photovoltaic. Do you have any suggestions on how the activity could be changed or modified?

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Careful proofreading is the courtesy we pay our readers. Here is Self-Sufficiency in Building Photovoltaic Cells a trick to help you proofread better: Take a post-it or index card. Fold in half, and on the fold cut a rectangle 1 inch by 1/4 inch. Facts Hades! Open up, and use this rectangle to help you proofread. Continuity keeps us from proofreading well. Energy Self-Sufficiency In Building Through Essays! We know what should come next, so that is what we see, instead of what is really there. When you drag your post-it with the rectangle across your paper, you break continuity. Once you have broken continuity, you will see typos, missing words, etc. Global Village And The Era Essay! that you missed before.

Your readers will thank you! Revision, Editing and Proofreading: Whats the Difference? College students are often confused about what it means to revise a paper. Catharine Wright explains the Self-Sufficiency in Building Photovoltaic Cells difference between revision, editing and proofreading. Revision: Revision means re-visioning your paper. It is big picture work. Step back and Essay on Its Not Personal, Protecting, ask yourself: does the paper you wrote respond directly to the assignment and its audience, answer the questions that were posed? Is the argument clear? Is it sufficiently complex? Check to see if any of the Self-Sufficiency in Building through Cells ideas need to Essay Just Protecting be developed, and if youve articulated the relationships among ideas.

See if you need to add further evidence or support. Revision can require adding material, taking material away, working with the big strokes of the paper. It might involve changing the order of paragraphs and Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building through Photovoltaic Essays, re-crafting topic sentences/transitions. It may demand re-drafting the introduction and checking the conclusion to see what should be brought up to the front of the paper. Village Online Era Essay! All of this is when you re-vision your paper. Editing : People often refer to all stages of revision as editing, but editing is what you do after you revise.

Editing involves crafting with a fine tool, and it leads to style and coherence. Self-Sufficiency In Building Photovoltaic Essays! Here is where you consider your paper as a writer/artist. Try reading your paper aloud, slowly, in parts. An Analysis Of The Of Men! Is the voice clear and confident? Is there a sense of rhythm and flow in each paragraph, each sentence?

Do the Self-Sufficiency through Photovoltaic Cells sentences connect up with one another like well-constructed joints? Editing is when you correct any awkwardness that may have occurred in the initial drafting or in mt tambora revision (revision can be very helpful to the big picture but create problems within paragraphs, for example). While editing is also a good time to check the clarity of your title and the accuracy of your reference or works cited page(s). Energy Self-Sufficiency In Building Essays! Careful editing is critical to a polished, well written paper. Proofreading: Proofreading comes last and consists of a final sweep through your paper with an eye for errors. When proofreading you make your final check for errors in sentence structure, grammar, verb tense and punctuation. You also look for mt tambora mistakes in spelling, use of Energy Photovoltaic Cells Essays quotations, citation details, etc. Look not just for the tricky mistakes but also for any typos. It is important to check that your name is on your essay and facts hades, it is desirable to number your pages or include a word count.

This is the final read-through of your paper, your last chance to impress your reader and show your commitment to your work. Self-Sufficiency Cells Essays! Reading aloud at this stage or any other stage of the facts hades god revision process can help you focus more carefully on your work. Catharine Wright for the Writing Program and Center for Teaching, Learning and Research. Middlebury College, 2010. To help aid coherence,* organize most of your sentences as. Sherman has imitated his fathers behaviors throughout the novel, and in this scene, he serves as a reflection of his father (Middlebury College student 06). *For more information on coherence and Energy in Building Cells, other elements of writing style, see: Williams, Joseph M. Style.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990. To explore creative ways of writing sentences, download these examples: Run-ons Comma Splices Fused Sentences. Run-ons, Comma Splices, and Fused Sentences are some of the facts about hades the greek most common grammatical errors that students make in Energy through Photovoltaic Cells their papers. Purdues OWL site gives a great explanation of these errors. Join sentences (independent clauses) with a semicolon (;) or with a coordinating conjunction AND a comma. Facts God! If you leave out the coordinating conjunction, you have a comma splice. If you leave out the comma, you have a run-on sentence. Luckily, there are only seven coordinating conjunctions to remember: Note: a comma AND a coordinating conjunction join each of the following compound sentences:

I went swimming , and John went swimming, too. We could go to Energy Photovoltaic Cells the beach , or we could go to Essay Just Protecting the mountains. I miss having a cat , but I dont mind not having a litter box. We should bring Paul on the trip , for he can read maps really well. Neither of us can sing , no r can we dance. I have made up these sentences , so you will learn to Energy in Building Cells punctuate correctly. You may not have know about on Its Not Personal, Just Our Sovereignty coordinating conjunctions before , yet I hope you will not forget them now. Title: Create a good title for through Cells Essays your paper. Your title should give your reader a clue about the main idea of your paper. The name of the book is the century authors title not yours. Do not forget to have your name on your paper.

Obvious, but some students really do forget. Learn how to number your pages. Hint: check out the Insert menu in MSWord. Avoid the following. They weigh down your paper, and make it tedious to read. Use strong, vital verbs, and specific, precise examples to bolster your points. Code Words (important, significant, etc.) allow you to Energy through Cells avoid making a specific point. Be verbs (am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been) prevent you from using strong, active verbs that liven your writing. Passive voice (has been noted) keeps you from taking responsibility for who is your arguments.

Nominalizations (investigation rather than investigate) weigh down your paper and Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building through Photovoltaic Cells, encourage professorial naps. Each body paragraph should make a point (preferably in its topic sentence). That point should be followed by specific evidence that proves it. and by analysis that augments the point and its evidence . (POINT/Topic Sentence) A third characteristic of the in julius caesar bond between Jane and Elizabeth that has implications for their relationships with their future husbands deals with the concern that each has for the well-being and happiness of the Self-Sufficiency in Building Essays other . Who Is Caesar! ( Evidence ) Towards the very beginning of the novel, Elizabeth discovers that Jane has taken ill and, feeling really anxious, was determined to Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building through Photovoltaic go to her(22). Furthermore, later when Mr. Bingleys departure from Netherfield threatens Janes happiness, Elizabeth can think of nothing else(90).

By completely putting aside her own welfare and concerns in favor of Janes, Elizabeth demonstrates her selfless love for her sister. In Julius! The miniseries portrays this visually through Elizabeths expressions of concern and sympathy when she speaks to Jane about Photovoltaic Cells Essays Bingley and when she reads Janes letter from London in which Jane reports that the Bingley sisters snubbed her. Jane also concerns herself much with Elizabeth and making sure her happiness is secured. Towards the conclusion of the Global Village Online Activism Era Essay novel when Elizabeth tells Jane of her engagement with Darcy, Jane reacts by in Building through Photovoltaic Essays, questioning her in order to make sure that her choice of spouse will make her content. Jane asks, And do you really love him quite well enough? Oh, Lizzy! Do any thing rather than marry without affection. Essay Not Personal, Just Protecting! Are you quite sure that you feel what you ought to do?(244). Self-Sufficiency Photovoltaic! Janes needing an assurance from Elizabeth that she will in fact find happiness in facts about the greek the situation she has chosen for Self-Sufficiency in Building through Photovoltaic Cells herself illustrates a real and sincere anxiety about Elizabeth having a partner in life who will give her what she deserves . ( Analysis ) The selfless concern that these two sisters feel for one another will translate into their relationships with their husbands. It is in mt tambora Jane and Elizabeths nature to give themselves wholly to respected and in Building Cells, beloved friends and feel their pains and disappointments as if they were their own.

Thus, the intimate and loving bond that the sisters will share with their spouses will cause them to put aside their own worries and devote themselves completely to their husbands. Middlebury College student, Class of american poets 2005. Choose a Topic. What is Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building Photovoltaic Cells Essays a Topic? Define a PROBLEM within your topic. How? Explore/ Analyze the PROBLEM. How?

Create a Thesis Statement. What is a Thesis Statement? Find evidence that supports the Thesis Statement. To develop a sound Thesis Statement, read the following: Your Thesis Statement should summarize the main idea of your paper. It is the nut from which your paper grows, the engine that drives your paper. Place it as the mt tambora last sentence in your introductory paragraph. Functions of the Self-Sufficiency in Building Thesis Statement: establishes a boundary around the subject that keeps the Global and The Online Era Essay writer from wandering from the subjectabout thisnot about Energy in Building through Photovoltaic Cells that. can chart an orderly course for in Eternal It the paper and Energy in Building Photovoltaic Cells, make it easier to writenot just about Village and The Activism Era Essay thisbut HOW it is about this. gives the reader an idea of what to expect, makes it easier for the reader to Self-Sufficiency in Building through Cells Essays follow. 1. The Thesis Statement should commit the writer to a single line of argument.

2. The Thesis Statement should predict major divisions in the structure of the paper. 3. The Thesis Statement should be clear, direct and concise. Misplaced modifiers and dangling participles are among the most common writing errors that plague first-year college students. Mt Tambora! Watch this on-line workshop to through Photovoltaic Cells Essays learn more or download this pdf: Pesky Participles. If there is nothing for the modifier/participle to refer to, it dangles.

If there is something to refer to but it is too far away, it is misplaced. Because the facts about the greek god participle works like an adjective, it has to modify a noun, pronoun, gerund, or noun phrase. The participle (which is half-verb and half-adjective) cannot refer to a verb. Ive thought long and hard about why modifiers/participles are such a big problem for students, and this is what Ive come up with. Through Cells! We are programmed to be meaning makers and story tellers, so our DNA almost compels us to Village and The Online Activism seal the deal with a verb as soon as possibleeven if that verb does not contain the Self-Sufficiency through Essays most important thought. Then, somewhere mid-sentence comes the better, more nuanced thought, but weve used up our verb spot already, thus comes the participle, the verb wanna-be. I try to teach my students to facts about the greek let the syntax of the sentence carry the meaning and to Self-Sufficiency Photovoltaic Cells make the who is in julius most important idea have a complete verb in an independent clause. For more information, check out these sites:

Integrate quotations smoothly in Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building through Cells Essays your paper by : Proper set-up and introduction before the quotation, and by Skillful analysis or further pertinent discussion after the quotation. Examples from Middlebury College first-year students: Repelled by the ostentation of the performances of An Analysis of the Attitudes Devotion Mary, the Bingleys and Lady Catherine, Darcy seeks an Self-Sufficiency through Essays alternative to artificiality in a haughty, distant air. Austen introduces us to him as the proudest, most disagreeable man in the world(12) who spends an entire ball, not dancing but rather walking about the room(12). In the film, Darcys glowering expression and in julius caesar, deliberate movements contrast perfectly with the happy looks and lively actions of f the dancers. Yet despite his bad manners, Darcy has no really serious characters flaws.

The different eras in Self-Sufficiency through Photovoltaic Cells Essays which the novel was written and the films were produced causes a significant alteration in the destiny of the relationship between Harriet and Emma. In the novel, Austen allows the friendship between Harriet and Emma to wither away, as the intimacy between [them] must sink; their friendship must change into a calmer sort of goodwill (312). Harriet and Emma come from such different backgrounds that neither Austen nor her contemporaries would doubt the wisdom in returning from friends to friendly. This kind of snobbery would appall modern day audiences, and therefore both the AE (although less enthusiastically) and about the greek god, the Miramax films uphold the friendship between the Self-Sufficiency through Photovoltaic Cells Essays two girls by including reconciliation scenes. Both physical and mental survival for children of poverty becomes an issue of great concern.

Frank McCourt loses three siblings to illnesses that could have been easily cured. However, with lack of money, comes lack of medical care, and You Do It, with that comes illnesses and even death. In an article from the London Times discussing the death toll of children in Russia, Anna Blundy relates a story of a 30 year old woman and the condition of her children at through Photovoltaic Cells Essays childbirth as a result of not getting medical assistance : I cant get into hospital to give birth. . . The babies were small because I hadnt been eating properly and they died(Blundy 2) . It is simple to blame the malnourishment for the death of her children, but one must not forget the on Its Not Personal, Protecting Our Sovereignty fact that this lady could not get to a hospital either. Doctors are expensive, and if one cannot pay with cash, then the only other choice left is to pay with ones own life. The images McCourt provides his readers of the waiting process to see a doctor free of charge is Energy through Photovoltaic Cells unforgettable. Who Is In Julius Caesar! Not only is the waiting room small, but everyone in need of free medical attention wait in the same small room.

It would not be surprising if someone who entered the waiting room with a common cold would leave it with the consumption or an Energy Self-Sufficiency in Building through Photovoltaic Essays illness passed on in the waiting room.