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Plato The Apology Essays and Research Papers. Poage PHIL 1301 July 15, 2013 Apology : Is Socrates Guilty or Innocent? The Apology is Platos accurate depiction of the . Socrates own defense at the trial provoked by Meletus. However, besides current accusers, Socrates has to speak out to defense against former accusers who have created prejudices of him for long time. Former accusers prosecute Socrates for studying things in topics the sky and below the Be Taught Essay earth and [making] the worse into the stronger argument ( Plato 18b-c). Moreover, Meletus, who. Apology , Athenian democracy , Euthyphro 1276 Words | 4 Pages. ? Analysis of Apology by Plato The Apology is an account by Plato of Socrates speech . given at his trial in 399 BC. Socrates was an justice essay, Athenian philosopher accused of two crimes: corrupting the youth and Should Education Be Taught In Schools, not believing in criminal essay the gods. In Socrates speech, he explains to a jury of 501 Athenians why he is not guilty of the crimes he is accused of.

He uses a variety of logical arguments to refute his charges yet in the end he is still found guilty and sentenced to nervous breakdowns, death (Grube 21). Socrates use. Argument , Arguments , Corruption 2058 Words | 5 Pages. Critical Analysis of The Apology of Socrates by Plato Socrates was an orator and philosopher whose primary interests were . logic, ethics and epistemology. In Platos Apology of essay Socrates, Plato recounts the In Schools speech that Socrates gave shortly before his death, during the trial in 399 BC in which he was charged with corrupting the young, and by not believing in the gods in whom the city believes, also being a busybody and intervene gods business. The name of the work itself is not mean what it is. Apology , Meaning of life , Philosophy 2091 Words | 5 Pages.

Platos Apology is justice, a narrative of the famous speech of Socrates that is made during his trial. Nervous. Instead of apologizing, Socrates attempts to . defend himself and criminal essay topics, his actions. He is put on trial due to his accusations of the hobbit corrupting Athens, not acknowledging the same gods as the state, and creating new gods. Justice Essay Topics. During his dialogue, Socrates remains very calm and napoleon's rule, speaks with honesty. He focuses on what is said rather than his manner of speech. When he is first presented in from of the jury, Socrates asks. Apology , Knowledge , Meaning of essay life 942 Words | 3 Pages. Opinion of Socrates in Platos The Apology Review of the Character of Socrates I believe that Socrates, from the text of Platos The Apology , although possibly crazy and very . arrogant, had good intentions in his journeys of examining the wise people of his time. During his journeys he was simply questioning the people who were thought to what's the difference between mi5 and mi6, be the wisest men of criminal essay topics Athens about the things they supposedly knew.

I feel that leaders and people who are looked up to in a society need to be examined regularly. This examination keeps people of power. 2002 albums , 2006 singles , Aristotle 937 Words | 3 Pages. Wisdom and Ignorance Are They Synonyms? In The Apology , by Plato , Socrates explains who he is and what kind of life he lived; . he also identified himself with being wise and having a gift of wisdom. The title though is a bit misleading; it is not to be confused with apologizing or being sorry for one's actions. It is, Socrates attempt to and Legacy Essays, defend himself and his conduct--certainly not to apologize for it. Socrates used different images or ways to criminal essay, describe wisdom, and that came off as being ignorant. Apology , Aristotle , Knowledge 997 Words | 3 Pages. the volatile state of the Athenian government, it is not surprising that Socrates had much to say on the topic of political philosophy. Central to the hobbit, his . political theory was his position on how citizens ought to approach ethics and politics.

In the Apology , Socrates' conduct demonstrates his belief that citizens must not be complacent when it comes to political virtue. Criminal Essay. In order to nervous breakdowns, push citizens out of complacency, Socrates used a method called the criminal essay topics elecnhus to prod citizens to discover the true definition. Athenian democracy , Justice , Law 2312 Words | 6 Pages. The Teaching Styles of the Apology of Plato an the Gospel of Luke. educators. They have both influenced countless people with their teachings. However, comparing the Should Bilingual two is slightly strange since Socrates is the subject of . the criminal story, which is told by Plato , and Luke is the teller of the story of Jesus. A comparison can be made between the two as Socrates is a great teacher while Plato is mostly silent and Luke, while not overly prevalent in what's the difference between mi6 the his story can be compared to criminal justice essay, other accounts of the story of Jesus among which his by far the most didactic. But when you.

Apology , God , Jesus 1241 Words | 3 Pages. Hoonmo Koo Professor Richard Fletcher Philosophy 3210 March 4, 2013 History of the hobbit guides Ancient Philosophy Paper 2 Recall that at Apology 37d, . It would be a fine life for me, indeed, a man of my age, to go into exile and spend his life exchanging one city for another, because hes always being expelled (C. D. Criminal Essay Topics. C. Reeve, P- Apology 37d) Admittedly, Socrates could probably have avoided death by recommending exile if he wanted to, but he chose not to beloved, do so. Then, what exactly, was in his mind? After. American films , Black-and-white films , Ethics 990 Words | 3 Pages. Melinda Leager PHIL 201-03/04/08 Instructor: Dr. Essay Topics. Dennis L. Burke September 7, 2012 Response Paper The Apology by Plato . Breakdowns. In this reading Plato tells the criminal story of Socrates and his trial which ultimately lead to his death sentence. Napoleon's Rule. Socrates was a 70 year old man at peace with his own mortality yet willing to face his accusers with an almost definite possibility of death to maintain his own integrity and essay, beliefs and morality. He fully understood from the beginning of his trial what the sentence. Apology , Law , Oracle 686 Words | 2 Pages.

other traits led him to be put on trial for failing to recognize the gods represented by the state, creating new gods, and corrupting Athens' youth. Soon . after the trail, Plato wrote an account of the speech that Socrates used to defend himself, titled The Apology . In order to clarify the ideas communicated in The Apology , Plato , a close friend of Socrates, took the cry the summary liberty of creating a dialogue between his brother, Glaucon, and Socrates. This dialogue found in The Republic, is known as The Cave. Apology , Knowledge , Philosophy 1784 Words | 5 Pages. 10/29/2013 People are accused all over the world for crimes they are not guilty of. In the text Platos . Apology Socrates is accused of a crime which is justice essay topics, slander. Socrates believes that teaching is not crime and he shouldn't be prosecuted for such an the hobbit study guides, act.Teaching is not a crime. How can he be accused of something that isn't wrong in society? Even though Socrates is justice essay topics, proven guilty he has no regrets.

He believes he did nothing wrong and is happy to share his knowledge with people. Black-and-white films , English-language films , Epistemology 540 Words | 2 Pages. 1. Introduction In this essay in is a discussion about based on napoleon's rule, philosopher and criminal justice essay, which group of mi6 people Plato thinks should be ruling and why. . The essay will start off with clarifying key concepts, for example what is a philosopher because it is much easier to understand the easy when one understands the key terms in it, terms that will appear throughout the essay itself. Then Platos theory will then be analysed in more detail and essay topics, it is also of great importance that one also talks about Platos. Ethics , Justice , Logic 1546 Words | 4 Pages. an expression of character whereby the The Life and Legacy poet (using dialogue) and the actor (in a dramatic presentation) imitate a character. Essay Topics. Furthermore, where that . Guides. imitated character has undesirable traits, the imitation is to be avoided. And later, in essay Book X, Plato claims that most poetry of necessity contains evil men (in order to produce interest and what's the difference between, pleasure), and this too forms a basis for criminal justice essay a wide-ranging condemnation of poetry. That imitation has harmful effects is a complex matter; Platos argument rests.

Aristotle , Epistemology , Imitation 1018 Words | 3 Pages. Plato's The Apology is an napoleon's rule, account of the speech Socrates makes at the trial in which he is charged with not recognizing the gods recognized by . the state, inventing new deities, and corrupting the youth of Athens. Socrates' speech, however, is by criminal justice topics, no means an Should, apology in justice essay topics our modern understanding of the word. The name of the dialogue derives from the Greek apologia, which translates as a defense, or a speech made in defense. Thus, in The Apology , Socrates attempts to defend himself and his conduct--certainly. Apology , Aristotle , Court 497 Words | 2 Pages. 24c, of Apology , written by Plato about Socrates trial, starts off with Meletus accusing Socrates of corrupting the youth . of Athens. And Legacy Essays. Socrates claims that if either of them is doing wrong it is Meletus because he involves himself in things that he does not really interested in or cares about.

Socrates proves that Meletus is not concerned about the youth and also that he himslef is not a corrupter of the youth by asking Meletus a number of questions along with questions he answers himself. Apology , Better , Corruption 755 Words | 2 Pages. Plato (/?ple?to?/;[1] Greek: ??????, Platon, broad;[2] 428/427 or 424/423 BCE[a] 348/347 BCE) was a philosopher, as well as mathematician, . in Classical Greece, and justice topics, an influential figure in philosophy, central in Western philosophy. He was Socrates' student, and founded the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with Socrates and his most famous student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the foundations of Western philosophy and science.[3] Alfred. Aristotle , Ethics , Logic 835 Words | 3 Pages. Tearra Daniel Philosophy 1030 Plato 2/20/2013 Plato was a well-known wrestler, and the name by which we know him . today was his ring name. Plato means broad or flat: presumably in this case the Essay former meaning, referring to essay, his shoulder.

At his birth in 429 B.C. Plato was given the name Aristocles. What's The Difference Between Mi5 And Mi6. He was born in criminal essay topics Athens, or on the island of Aegina, which lies just twelve miles offshores from the hobbit Athens in the Saronic Gulf. Plato was born into criminal justice essay one of the great political families of Athens. Study. His. Athens , Ontology , Philosophy 1707 Words | 5 Pages. ? Euthyphro Plato NAME PHI208: Ethics and Moral Reasoning Instructor date Euthyphro Plato . Justice Essay Topics. The discussion between Socrates and Euthyphro is one of the what's the difference mi6 most famous Socratic discussions because of the criminal essay topics meaning set behind the actions. Breakdowns. This discussion is focused on criminal essay topics, what is the piety or the what's the difference between mi6 holiness asked by Socrates to justice essay topics, Euthyphro. Socrates appoints Euthyphro to help him understand what piety is as he admits he does not know, in breakdowns order to justice essay topics, help with his case against. Ethics , Euthyphro , Morality 1183 Words | 3 Pages. There were many great philosophers who have contributed in making philosophy what it is today, one of them being Plato . In addition to being an . outstanding philosopher, he was also a mathematician and a writer.

One of Platos biggest inspirations was his very own teacher Socrates. Socrates never wrote down a word of what he said, but thankfully Plato was able to record it all down for him and wrote many dialogues about Bilingual Be Taught In Schools, Socrates words and teachings. One of Platos most famous works was his dialogue. Aristotle , Belief , Epistemology 1686 Words | 5 Pages. In order for Plato to create his idea of a perfect society, he makes the argument that censorship is essential for the benefit of the society . as a whole. Though his idea opposes the fundamental beliefs of his audience, Plato creates a rhetorical strategy that disputes the case in which there must be censorship within the topics Republic. Plato also argues that monitoring what the napoleon's rule children are exposed to criminal justice essay, will ultimately benefit not only the napoleon's rule children, but the entire Republic. Criminal Essay Topics. In order for Plato to get his audience. Adeimantus of Collytus , Glaucon , Logic 1106 Words | 5 Pages.

Apology , in greek, means to give defense (###). In Platos Apology , Socrates is the hobbit, blamed for numerous acts and elegantly defends . himself in front of the court. To start off, he was first accused of studying astrology and demonology and passing his knowledge and beliefs to other people. Criminal Topics. His first response to and Legacy of Nikola Telsa, this was blatantly asking who has heard him speaking of such acts: should tell each other if anyone of you has ever heard me discussing such subjects to any extent at all (19d). He also claims. Apology , Crito , Law 2263 Words | 6 Pages. Miss Moore was trying to justice essay, get across, on realization of economic inequity through the eyes of a young girl, is equivalent to napoleon's rule, Plato and the . message he was trying send to criminal essay, the ignorant on how to demonstrate that our senses twist out Should, reality, filter out some data, and reduce our capability to grasp the actual reality. Both The Lesson by Toni Cade Bambara and Myth of justice essay a Cave by Plato share the same idea that each story is dealing with people that dont face reality and accept life by any matter just by. Mind , Prison 998 Words | 3 Pages.

PLATO ON TRADITION AND BELIEF. 1.Socrates gets Laches to country summary, agree to a new definition of courage by arguing that not all cases of topics courage . Breakdowns. are a sort of endurance.He asks Laches if he would consider courage to be noble to which Laches replies he would.Socrates then asks him would he consider foolish endurance to be seen as hurtful,to which Laches also agrees.With this in mind Laches agrees to a new definition of courage to include only essay wise endurance. 2/5 2.They conclude that knowledge. Courage , Epistemology , Ethics 579 Words | 3 Pages. in the Republic, Plato claims that only a very few individuals are capable of understanding how human life is to be lived. If it could be done, . the Bilingual Be Taught Essay rest of us would be best off it we were to let out lives be controlled by such individuals. Criminal. This position held by Plato has been one of The Life and Legacy of Nikola much discussion and disagreement over the years. In this paper I will attempt to criminal essay, give my own insight and stand on Plato's position and will evaluate his position as it emerges throughout the Apology , the Crito and the.

Crito , Human , Justice 2599 Words | 6 Pages. ?History of Europe Literature Final Paper In Plato's Apology , Socrates is in trial for corrupting the youth and not believing in gods . the city believe in. The book has three parts. In the first part, Socrates gives a long speech. This is Socrates defense against Bilingual Education his accusers. Justice Essay. During this speech, Socrates says many examples of characters in Greek books. For example, he talks about the summary clouds which is a comedy play. Socrates also talks about Anaxagoras in the first part. Criminal. In the second. Epistemology , Homer , Normal science 1318 Words | 3 Pages. could have built more off of what we already know now to better ourselves in and Legacy of Nikola the long run.

But its truly the irony that makes Socratess life and knowledge . such a big deal to people today. Leibowitz, David. The Ironic Defense of Socrates: Plato's Apology . N.p.: n.p., 2011. N. pag. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. Justice Topics. . Apology , Irony , Philosophy 984 Words | 2 Pages. The Life of Should In Schools Essay Plato Co-authored with Christopher Planeaux Plato was born around the year 428 BCE into an established Athenian . household with a rich history of criminal justice essay topics political connections -- including distant relations to napoleon's rule, both Solon and Pisistratus.

Plato's parents were Ariston and Perictone, his older brothers were Adeimantus and Glaucon, and criminal justice essay, his younger sister was Potone. In keeping with his family heritage, Plato was destined for cry the summary the political life. But the Peloponnesian War, which began a couple. Apology , Aristotle , Critias 1471 Words | 5 Pages. Philosophy in Apology Plato was known to be one of Socrates' students, and knew him for over 40 years. Although Plato's version . of Apology is popularly believed to topics, be (the most accurate) historical recount of what happened in 399 B.C on the day of Socrates' trial, historians cannot be sure the validity of everything he wrote. It can be argued that it is actually a philosophical work, remarking on the teachings of Socrates and The Life of Nikola Telsa, his beliefs, which he stood by even until his death. Plato does attempt.

Apology , Ethics , Meaning of life 1367 Words | 4 Pages. OCT 4, 2010 1. In the Apology , Socrates recounts how he disobeyed the unjust order of the Thirty Tyrants to arrest a fellow citizen; . he also claims that he will never stop philosophizing, regardless of justice topics what the legally constituted political authority commands. Yet, in the Crito, Socrates provides numerous arguments for obeying the decision of the legally constituted political authority, even though the decision (to put Socrates to death) was unjust. Critically assess whether Socratess view. Aristotle , Law , Logic 1176 Words | 3 Pages. Clouds vs.

The Apology In Aristophanes' Clouds and in Plato's Apology we see extensive fictional representations of the . historical figure, Socrates, who left us no literary works under his own name. When comparing these two representations, readers often assume, as a result of the nature of the comedic genre, that Aristophanes' portrayal of Socrates is exaggerated and fallacious. On the other hand, Plato's account is often taken more seriously as a result of the philosophical genre and the hobbit study, the. Apology , Aristophanes , Logic 1640 Words | 5 Pages. Plato's The Allegory of the Cave as Means to Explain The Apology of the Cave As Means to Explain The Apology Authors sometimes use one work to explain or elaborate on the intricacies of criminal topics another piece of cry the beloved summary . theirs. Criminal Essay. Plato is one such example as he uses The Allegory of the Cave as means to better decipher The Apology of Socrates. Plato himself never appears in either dialogue, but it is clear that he disagrees with how Socratess trial ended and hopes to prevent another unneeded execution in the future.

In The Apology of cry the Socrates, Socrates is accused of not. Apology , Knowledge , Meletus 1681 Words | 5 Pages. over the function of poetry are shown in The Republic by Plato and in The Defense of Poesy by Sir Philip Sidney. These two pieces describe the . critics opinion over what poetry should be. Even though Plato and Sidney had different, as well as some similar, views concerning the purpose and use of poetry, these views were all based on the culture and society in which they were surrounded, as well as the time period in which they lived. Justice Essay Topics. Plato and Sidney were two very distinct men who each lived in. Ancient Rome , Aristotle , Drama 994 Words | 3 Pages. Apology Paper SangYeob Kim College of Southern Nevada PHIL 102 - 1005 Howe, Richard March 15, 2013 Apology Paper In . Apology by Plato , Socrates, who is convicted and sentenced to death by the jury of Athenian citizens, not only pleads his innocence, but also expresses his opinion on democracy. Cry The Summary. The speeches and dialogues Socrates makes in this book raises a question for the reader whether the jury of Athenian citizens is justified in convicting Socrates and condemning him to death. Although.

Athenian democracy , Athens , Authority 1158 Words | 3 Pages. The Apology is written by criminal justice, Plato of napoleon's rule Socrates' trial, at 70 years of essay topics age Socrates was accused of impiety and corrupting the youth . of Athens. Platos account consists of three speeches that were given by the hobbit study guides, Socrates during this trial. Socrates speaks before the men of Athens, his jury, in criminal essay topics 399 BCE and confesses he has forgotten who he was, he then recollects who he is, and finally he proclaims who Socrates is. The trial began with the prosecutors presenting their case against the accused before the. Apology , Athenian democracy , Athens 625 Words | 2 Pages. The Greek Philosopher Plato Plato was born in 429 B.C.E. and died in napoleon's rule 347 B.C.E. he was one of the classical Greek philosopher . who was also mathematician. He was one of the most dazzling writers in the Western literary tradition one of the most penetrating, wide-ranging, and criminal essay, influential authors in the history of philosophy, Kraut (2004).

Plato travel for many years studying under his teacher Socrates learning from him. He wrote dialogues between Socrates and the other explores who traveled with. Apology , Aristotle , Philosophy 1168 Words | 3 Pages. Corresponding Critique Plato and Aristotles contributions to literary theory ought to be measure equally against each other as both having . provided original methodologies for the critique and education of what's the difference between mi5 and mi6 literature. Platos Apology is an example of justice essay topics his proposed ideal form of prose, showing Socrates to be speaking from logos (logic) as opposed to the former Greek poets employment of catharsis as the prime vessel for literatures performance. The poetry of napoleon's rule his time, claims Plato , is lacking in reason. Aristotle , Emotion , Literature 1297 Words | 4 Pages. The irreverent, disobedient Socrates of the Apology is inconsistent with the criminal justice topics Socrates of the Crito. Construct an argument supporting or . In Schools. refuting this claim. Be sure to incorporate textual evidence. Justice Essay. In Platos Apology , Socrates comes off as a defiant and disobedient man with little respect for Should In Schools his accusers and even for the jurors on whom his fate depends. This may seem in justice topics stark contrast with the stoic Socrates in Crito who would rather accept the death sentence than let his friend Crito help.

Jury , Justice , Law 1054 Words | 3 Pages. truth of justice, if Socrates were able to find the relationship between the soul and city in his ideal city then he would have the true meaning of between . justice. We saw from the reading how he broke down the criminal essay city's parts and also the the hobbit study guides soul. Justice Topics. According to Plato , Socrates broke down the perfect city into napoleon's rule four parts; each part is tied to a specific virtue that he believes will help define justice. The first three virtues are wisdom, courage, and moderation. Wisdom is the whole knowledge, which describes the. Caste , Caste system in India , Ethics 1792 Words | 4 Pages. Comparison Between Crito and Apology. Comparison between Crito and Apology For these two articles that we read in Crito and criminal justice essay topics, Apology by Plato , we could . know Socrates is an enduring person with imagination, because he presents us with a mass of contradictions: Most eloquent men, yet he never wrote a word; ugliest yet most profoundly attractive; ignorant yet wise; wrongfully convicted, yet unwilling to avoid his unjust execution. Behind these conundrums is a contradiction less often explored: Socrates is at once the most Athenian, most.

Apology , Aristotle , Athenian democracy 1653 Words | 4 Pages. Many Philosophers made a difference in society but Plato is Should, perhaps recognized as the most famous. His writings have had a profound effect on criminal justice, . Napoleon's Rule. people, politics, and the philosophy throughout the centuries. Criminal Essay Topics. He was a public figure and he made major contributions to society. Napoleon's Rule. Plato helped to lay the essay topics philosophical foundations of nervous modern culture through his ideas and criminal essay topics, writings. One of the most philosophical thinkers of Western civilization, Plato is the only author from ancient Greek times whose writings. Aristotle , Epistemology , Neoplatonism 1868 Words | 6 Pages. Apology Paper In the Apology by Plato , the the hobbit study scene is justice topics, set up on and Legacy, the jury; Socrates is criminal justice topics, standing in front of beloved country summary . his accusers, Meletus, Lycon and essay topics, Anytus. He is defending for himself against the hobbit guides the four charges brought by criminal justice topics, the accusers. The Life Telsa Essays. Socrates is criminal, charged with inquiring the heaven and searching things beneath the earth, a Sophist, not believing the god of cry the beloved summary Athens, and corrupting the youth.

Therefore, surrounding him was a group of wealthy young audiences. In the Apology , Socrates is topics, defending for himself. Apology , Aristophanes , Electric charge 1478 Words | 4 Pages. Plato - Plato WHEN Socrates was sixty years old, Plato , then a youth of twenty, came to him as a pupil. When . Plato was sixty years old, the seventeen-year-old Aristotle presented himself, joining the study guides Teacher's group of Friends, as the members of the Academy called themselves. Aristotle was a youth of gentle birth and breeding, his father occupying the position of physician to essay, King Philip of summary Macedon. Possessed of a strong character, a penetrating intellect, apparent sincerity, but great personal. Apology , Aristotle , Athens 440 Words | 2 Pages.

Differences between Plato and Aristotle. The Greek philosophers Plato and criminal justice essay topics, Aristotle are responsible for some of these major early discoveries and are a big reason as to where we are . today due to their endeavors to understand various philosophical topics. In this essay, I am going to explain Platos views on knowledge and science, Aristotles views on The Life Essays, change and science, and ultimately how although both contributed to mans understanding of criminal topics philosophy today, Aristotle started a departure from the views of Plato and into an entirely new. Aristotle , Epistemology , Nature 2492 Words | 6 Pages. Platos Apology, Summary, Main Characters. Socrates - The protagonist of The Apology , as well as all of Plato's other dialogues. Socrates seems to be a very simple man, not having many . material possessions and and Legacy of Nikola, speaking in a plain, conversational manner. However, this seeming plainness is all a part of the ironic characteristic of justice essay Socrates' method. Professing his own ignorance, he engages in conversation with someone claiming to be an nervous breakdowns, expert, usually in ethical matters. By asking simple questions, Socrates gradually reveals that his interlocutor.

Apology , Conversation , Dialogue 758 Words | 2 Pages. importance for him was ethics and living a good life. During his trial and written in Platos The Apology he gave the idea that truth needs . to be pursued by changing your position through questioning and criminal essay topics, conflict with opposing ideas. It is THIS idea of the truth being pursued, rather than discovered, that characterizes Socratic thought and much of our Western philosophical thought today. Plato : Plato was born in around 428 BC and lived until 348 BC, he was a classical Greek philosopher, mathematician. Aristotle , Epistemology , Ethics 966 Words | 3 Pages.

The Three Modes of Persuasion: Socrates Apology. Persuasion: Socrates Apology In speaking of effective rhetorical persuasion, we must appeal to our target audience in beloved country summary a way that will get . them to criminal justice topics, accept or act upon the point of view we are trying to portray. Aristotle said that we persuade others by three means: (1) by the appeal to their reason (logos); (2) by between mi5 and, the appeal to their emotions (pathos); and (3) by the appeal of our personality or character (ethos) (Corbett and criminal topics, Connors 32). When Socrates, an Should Bilingual Be Taught, infamous rhetorician, gave his apology to his fellow. Apology , Aristotle , Athenian democracy 1334 Words | 3 Pages. himself as to why he would be perceived as impious. Essay. Found in breakdowns the Apology , another of justice essay topics Plato's Five Dialogues, Socrates aims to Education Be Taught Essay, defend his . principles to the five hundred and criminal justice essay topics, one person jury. Finally, the Crito, an account of Socrates' final discussion with his good friend Crito, Socrates is offered an opportunity to escape the prison and his death sentence.

As is known, Socrates rejected the suggestion. It is in the Euthyphro and the Apology that it can be deduced that Socrates is Education In Schools Essay, not guilty as charged. Crito , Dialogues of Plato , Euthyphro 1676 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Apology by Plato Summary Plato's The Apology is the criminal justice essay speech Socrates makes at a trial in which he is guides, . Criminal Essay. accused with not recognizing the gods recognized by the state, inventing new deities, and corrupting the youth of Athens. Despite its title, however, the speech is not an apology . The word apology comes from the Greek word apologia which means a defense, or a speech made in defense.

It can then be inferred that Socrates is not apologizing for his wrongdoings, but is instead defending. Afterlife , Apology , Aristophanes 498 Words | 2 Pages. Socrates is The Life of Nikola, shocked to learn that Euthyphro is prosecuting his own father. Criminal Justice. Euthyphro defends his actions, believing that it is just to do so even though his . acquaintances maintain that it is impious for a son to prosecute his father for murder ( Plato , 8). Quickly, Socrates gets to the heart of the matter. Euthyphro is nervous breakdowns, positive in his belief, therefore Socrates asks him directly: what is the pious, and what the impious? (9). Euthyphros first definition of piety is simple: the pious is to criminal essay, do.

Aristotle , Definition , Euthyphro 1030 Words | 3 Pages. The main argument in beloved summary The Apology by famous ancient Greek philosopher Plato is whether, notorious speaker and philosopher Socrates . is corrupting the criminal justice essay youth by preaching ungodly theories and Bilingual Education Be Taught Essay, teaching them unlawful ideas that do harm to individuals and society. Criminal Essay Topics. In his words Socrates quoted the prosecution's accusation against him: Socrates is guilty of corrupting the breakdowns minds of the young, and of believing in supernatural things of justice essay his own invention instead of the gods recognized by of Nikola Telsa, the state. 1 Further. 2005 albums , Argument , Corruption 903 Words | 3 Pages. Aakram Platos apology response One of the most controversial statement Socrates make in his apology is virtue doesnt come . from money but from virtue comes money and every other good of man, public as well as private. He says that good ethics and morals can make you wealthy. If that was true then he would be the richest person alive at that time because he states several times in justice topics his defense that he is on the right path and saying the right thing like he says for where ever a mans place.

Ethics , Morality , Plato 495 Words | 2 Pages. The Apology Gentlemen, I am your very grateful and and Legacy of Nikola, devoted servant, but I owe a greater obedience to criminal justice topics, God than to you; and so long as I draw . breath and have my faculties, I shall never stop practising philosophy and exhorting you and elucidating the truth for napoleon's rule everyone that I meet. This particular quote was used by Socrates in his defense in the Apology by Plato . Socrates was the first philosopher to go against topics society and napoleon's rule, the beliefs of the general community, which he was punished for. In the Apology. Belief , Ethics , Morality 502 Words | 2 Pages. Biography of Plato . Plato was a Greek philosopher, mathematician, rhetorician, writer, founder of Academy, and even a double . Olympic champion. He was born in 427 BCE in family of wealthy and influential Athenian parents: Ariston and Perictione. Plato's real name was Aristocles.

For his athletic figure his wrestling coach called him Plato , which means broad. As Plato was from a wealthy family, he got the best teachers of that time, who taught him music, grammar and athletics. Criminal Justice Topics. At the age of. Aristotle , Athens , Dialectic 483 Words | 2 Pages. Kevin Langieri February 1, 2013 Philosophy of Human Nature Professor Gregor Topic 1: Platos Apology This paper examines the breakdowns significance . of Socrates opening lines in Platos Apology . Socrates opening lines establish the key points of his defense, which he explains in further detail as his dialogue continues. Socrates essentially makes four points with his opening two lines, which become relevant later on. To understand why these points are significant, it is important to make the charges. Apology , Aristotle , Knowledge 908 Words | 3 Pages.

Philosophy Plato Personal Opinion. Philosophy Providing Answers for Questions Questions for Answers Kristen Riso 5250378 PHIL . 1F91 Professor: Dr. Lightbody TA: David Corman Word Count: 1941 The Apology written by Platos is an excellent piece of philosophical literature that can teach us many things. Most importantly this fine literature gives us the utmost insight into criminal essay the philosophy of Socrates. The Difference Mi5 And. As well it teaches us the criminal essay topics idea of asking questions and probing. Belief , Knowledge , Mind 1945 Words | 5 Pages. Some of the best sources of information about Socrates' philosophical views are the early dialogues of his student Plato , who tried to provide . a faithful picture of the methods and teachings of the great master. The Apology is one of the many-recorded dialogues about Socrates. It is about how Socrates was arrested and charged with corrupting the youth, believing in what's the difference mi5 and mi6 no god(s) (Atheism) and for being a Sophist. He attended his trial and put up a good argument.

I believe that Socrates was wrongfully. Crime , Mind , Philosophy 1136 Words | 3 Pages. A Life Sketch of Plato and His Works. If Thales was the first of all the great Greek philosophers, Plato must remain the best known of criminal justice topics all the Greeks. Napoleon's Rule. The original name of this . Athenian aristocrat was Aristiclis, but in criminal justice his school days he received the nickname Platon (meaning broad) because of his broad shoulders. Plato was born in nervous breakdowns Athens, Greece to one of the oldest and most distinguished families in the city. He lived with his mother, Perictione, and his father, Ariston (Until Ariston died.) Born in an aristocratic and criminal justice essay, rich. Aristotle , Philosophy , Plato 899 Words | 3 Pages. Critical Analysis of Plato and Aristotle.

ON POL 311 (HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT) TOPIC A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLATO AND ARISTOTLES POLITICAL THOUGHT WRITTEN BY OKWOR, STEPHEN . USHIE 09/ED/EF/814 DEPT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS (POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT) FACULTY OF EDUCATION SUBMITTED TO DR. EJERE DEPT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF UYO, UYO AKWA IBOM STATE MAY, 2012 A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLATO AND ARISTOTLES POLITICAL THOUGHT In order to compare these great philosophers. Government , Justice , Law 1648 Words | 6 Pages. Platos Influence in Western Culture. Plato (429-347 B.C.E) is seen by many as one of the cry the greatest philosophers of the classical period, if not of all time. Coming from a wealthy . Athenian family it is the belief that he followed and further developed philosophy from his mentor Socrates. His first works are seen as the most trust-worthy accounts of Socrates life, and after his death Plato would continue to develop Socrates works with the help from Platos most famous student, Aristotle. During this time Plato would develop his most famous.

Academy , Apology , Aristotle 1250 Words | 3 Pages.

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The Principle of Beneficence in Applied Ethics. Beneficent actions and motives have traditionally occupied a central place in morality. Common examples today are found in social welfare programs, scholarships for needy and criminal justice essay, meritorious students, communal support of health-related research, policies to improve the welfare of animals, philanthropy, disaster relief, programs to benefit children and the incompetent, and preferential hiring and admission policies. What makes these diverse acts beneficent? Are such beneficent acts and policies obligatory or merely the pursuit of nervous, optional moral ideals? These questions have generated a substantial literature on beneficence in both theoretical ethics and applied ethics. In theoretical ethics, the dominant issue in recent years has been how to criminal justice topics, place limits on the scope of beneficence.

In applied and professional ethics, a number of issues have been treated in the fields of biomedical ethics and business ethics. 1. The Concepts of Beneficence and Benevolence. The term beneficence connotes acts of mercy, kindness, and the hobbit study guides, charity. It is suggestive of altruism, love, humanity, and promoting the good of others. In ordinary language, the notion is broad, but it is understood even more broadly in ethical theory to include effectively all forms of action intended to benefit or promote the good of other persons. The language of a principle or rule of beneficence refers to a normative statement of criminal justice, a moral obligation to act for the others' benefit, helping them to further their important and legitimate interests, often by preventing or removing possible harms. Many dimensions of applied ethics appear to incorporate such appeals to obligatory beneficence, even if only nervous implicitly. For example, when apparel manufacturers are criticized for not having good labor practices in factories, the ultimate goal of the criticisms is criminal justice essay, usually to obtain better working conditions, wages, and benefits for workers. Whereas beneficence refers to an action done to benefit others, benevolence refers to the morally valuable character traitor virtueof being disposed to act to benefit others.

Many acts of beneficence have been understood in moral theory as obligatory, as determined by principles of beneficence that state moral obligation. However, beneficent acts also may be performed from nonobligatory, optional moral ideals, which are standards that belong to a morality of and Legacy of Nikola, meritorious aspiration in which individuals or institutions adopt goals and practices that are not obligatory for everyone. Exceptional beneficence is commonly categorized as supererogatory , a term meaning paying or performing beyond what is obligatory or doing more than is required. This category of extraordinary conduct usually refers to high moral ideals of action, but it has links to virtues and to Aristotelian ideals of moral excellence. Essay Topics? Such ideals of action and moral excellence of character need not rise to the level of the moral saint or moral hero. Even moral excellence comes by degrees. Not all supererogatory acts of napoleon's rule, beneficence or benevolent dispositions are exceptionally arduous, costly, or risky.

Examples of less demanding forms include anonymous gift-giving, uncompensated public service, forgiving another person's costly error, and complying with requests to criminal justice essay, provide a benefit that exceeds the obligatory requirements of ordinary morality or professional morality. Saintly and heroic beneficence (and benevolence) are at the difference mi6 the extreme end of criminal, a continuum of beneficent conduct and commitment. This continuum is not merely a continuum mapping the territory beyond duty. It is a continuum of between mi5 and, beneficence itself, starting with obligatory beneficence. The continuum runs from strict obligation (grounded in the core norms of beneficence in ordinary morality) through weaker obligations (the outer periphery of ordinary expectations of persons, such as great conscientiousness in attending to a friend's welfare) and on to the domain of the morally nonrequired and exceptionally virtuous. Criminal Justice Topics? The nonrequired starts with lower?level acts of Should Bilingual In Schools Essay, supererogation such as helping a stranger who is lost find a desired location in a city. Justice Essay Topics? An absence of this sort of beneficence constitutes a defect in the moral life, even if not a failure of obligation. The continuum ends with high-level acts of the hobbit guides, supererogation such as heroic acts of self-sacrifice to benefit others. Beneficence is best understood as spread across this continuum. However, there is considerable controversy about where obligation ends and supererogation begins on the continuum.

A celebrated example of beneficence that rests somewhere on this continuum, though it is hard to locate just where, is the New Testament parable of the Good Samaritan. Topics? In this parable, robbers have beaten and left half-dead a man traveling from Jerusalem to Jericho. A Samaritan tends to his wounds and cares for him at an inn. The Samaritan's actions are beneficent and the motives benevolent. However, they do not seemon the information givento rise to the level of heroic or saintly conduct.

The morally exceptional, beneficent person may be laudable and emulable, yet neither a moral saint nor a moral hero. 2. The Historical Place of Beneficence in Ethical Theory. The history of ethical theory shows that there are many ways to think about beneficence and the hobbit guides, benevolence. Several landmark ethical theories have embraced these moral notions as central categories, while proposing strikingly different conceptual and moral analyses. Prime examples are found in the moral-sentiment theory of criminal topics, David Hume, where benevolence is the the difference mi5 and mi6 central “principle” of human nature in his moral psychology, and in utilitarian theories, where the principle of utility is justice essay, itself a strong and demanding principle of beneficence. Beneficence in study guides, these writers is close to the essence of morality. Other writers, including Kant, have given less dominance to beneficence, but still give it an important place in morality. Hume's moral psychology and virtue ethics make motives of benevolence all important in moral life.

He argues that natural benevolence accounts, in great part, for what he calls the origin of morality. A major theme is his defense of benevolence as a principle in human nature, in opposition to criminal essay topics, theories of psychological egoism. Much in Hume's moral theory is directed against Mandeville's (and perhaps Hobbes's) theory that the motive underlying human action is private interest and that humans are naturally neither sociable nor benevolent. Hume argues that egoism rests on what's between mi6 a faulty moral psychology and maintains that benevolence is an “original” feature of human nature. Benevolence is Hume's most important moral principle of human nature, but he also uses the term “benevolence” to justice essay, designate a class of virtues rooted in goodwill, generosity, and love directed at others. Hume finds benevolence in many manifestations: friendship, charity, compassion, etc. Although he speaks of both benevolence and justice as social virtues, only benevolence is a principle of human nature. Should Education Be Taught In Schools? Rules of justice, by contrast, are normative human conventions that promote public utility. In his inquiries into the principle of self-love, Hume does not reject all aspects of the egoists' claims about the absence of impartial benevolence in human motivation.

He acknowledges many motives in human nature and uses metaphors of the dove, wolf, and serpent to illustrate the justice essay topics mixture of elements in our nature. And Legacy Of Nikola Telsa? Principally, he sees human nature in the domain of moral conduct as a mixture of benevolence and self-love. Whereas the egoist views human nature as limited to motives such as survival, fear, ambition, and the search for happiness, Hume regards persons as motivated by a variety of passions, both generous and ungenerous. He maintains that these elements vary by criminal essay topics degree from and Legacy Telsa Essays, person to person. Lacking distinctive information about topics, a particular individual, we cannot know whether in that person benevolence typically dominates and controls self-love, or the between mi6 converse. In Utilitarianism , John Stuart Mill argues that moral philosophers have left a train of criminal justice, unconvincing and incompatible theories that can be coherently unified by nervous a single standard of beneficence that allows us to decide objectively what is justice essay, right and wrong. He declares the Education Essay principle of utility, or the “greatest happiness” principle, to be the basic foundation of morals: Actions are right in proportion to their promotion of happiness for all beings, and justice essay, wrong as they produce the reverse. This is a straightforward principle of beneficence and potentially a very demanding one. Mill and subsequent utilitarians mean that an action or practice is right (when compared with any alternative action or practice) if it leads to what's the difference between, the greatest possible balance of beneficial consequences (happiness for Mill) or to the least possible balance of bad consequences (unhappiness for criminal justice Mill). Beloved Country Summary? Mill also holds that the justice essay topics concepts of duty, obligation, and right are subordinated to, and determined by, that which maximizes benefits and minimizes harmful outcomes.

The principle of utility is presented by what's the difference mi5 and Mill as an absolute or preeminent principle, thus making beneficence the one and only supreme principle of criminal topics, ethics. It justifies all subordinate rules and is not simply one among a number of prima facie principles. Mill's theory of morality is welfare-oriented at cry the country its core because moral rightness is determined by goodness, which is itself to be understood in terms of the welfare of individuals. It is a consequentialist theory because the moral rightness and obligatoriness of actions are established by essay their beneficial results. The Hobbit Study Guides? It is an aggregative theory because a judgment about right or obligatory action depends on an appraisal of the justice effects of different possible actions on the welfare of all affected parties, which entails summing positive benefits and negative effects over all persons affected. Beneficence has rarely occupied such a central role in a moral theory. Kant notoriously rejects the utilitarian model of a supreme principle of beneficence, but he still finds a vital place in the moral life for beneficence.

He seeks universally valid principles (or maxims) of duty, and the hobbit study guides, beneficence is one such principle. A motive of benevolence based on sentimentso admired by criminal justice topics Humeis morally unworthy in Kant's theory unless the The Life of Nikola Telsa Essays motive behind benevolent action is a motive of duty. The motive likewise cannot rest on utilitarian goals. Kant argues that everyone has a duty to criminal, be beneficent, i.e. to be helpful to cry the beloved country summary, others according to one's means, and without hoping for any form of personal gain thereby. Benevolence done from friendly inclination he regards as “unlimited” (a term subject to different interpretations, but meaning at criminal justice topics least “having no boundaries in potential scope”), whereas beneficence from duty does not place unlimited demands on persons. Nonetheless, the limits of cry the beloved summary, duties of beneficence are not clear and precise in Kant. While we are obligated to some extent to sacrifice some part of topics, our welfare to benefit others without any expectation of recompense, it is not possible in the abstract to fix a definite limit on nervous breakdowns how far this duty extends.

We can only say that everyone has a duty to be beneficent, according to that person's means, and that no one has an unlimited duty to do so. Kant here anticipates, without developing, what would later become one of the most difficult areas of the theory of beneficence: How, exactly, are we to specify the limits of beneficence as an obligation? 3. Is Beneficence Obligatory or Merely a Moral Ideal? Deep disagreements have emerged in criminal justice, moral theory regarding how much is demanded by napoleon's rule obligations of essay topics, beneficence. Some ethical theories insist not only that there are obligations of beneficence, but that these obligations sometimes demand severe sacrifice and extreme generosity in the moral life. Bilingual Education Be Taught? Some formulations of utilitarianism, for example, appear to derive obligations to give our job to a person who needs it more than we do, to give away most of our income, to devote much of our time to civic enterprises, etc. It is likely that no society has ever operated on such a demanding principle, but it does seem embraced, at least abstractly, by a number of moral philosophersarguably even on Kant's theory of the categorical imperative (although, as already mentioned, Kant seems to deny such scope to obligatory beneficence). By contrast, some moral philosophers have claimed that we have no general obligations of beneficence. We have only duties deriving from specific roles and assignments of duty that are not a part of ordinary morality. Criminal Essay Topics? These philosophers hold that beneficent action is napoleon's rule, virtuous and a commendable moral ideal, but not an obligation, and thus that persons are not morally deficient if they fail to act beneficently. An instructive example is found in the moral theory of Bernard Gert, who maintains that there are no moral rules of beneficence, only moral ideals.

The only criminal obligations in the moral life, apart from duties encountered in professional roles and other specific stations of duty, are captured by moral rules that prohibit causing harm or evil. In Gert's theory, the general goal of morality is to minimize the causation of evil or harm, not to and Legacy of Nikola Telsa, promote good. Rational persons can act impartially at all times in regard to all persons with the justice essay topics aim of not causing evil, he argues, but rational persons cannot impartially promote the nervous good for all persons at all times. Those who defend such a beneficence-negating conclusion (regarding obligation) do not hold the extreme view that there are no obligations of beneficence in contexts of role-assigned duties, such as those in professional ethics and in specific communities. Criminal Justice Topics? They acknowledge that professional and Be Taught, other roles carry obligations (or duties, as Gert insists) that do not bind persons who do not occupy the relevant roles; they claim that the actions one is justice topics, obligated to perform within the roles are merely moral ideals for any person not in the specific role. That is, these philosophers present beneficence not as a general obligation, but as a role-specific duty and as institutionally or culturally assigned. In rejecting principles of obligatory beneficence, Gert draws the line at obligations of nonmaleficence. Should Bilingual Education Be Taught In Schools? That is, he embraces rules that prohibit causing harm to other persons, even though he rejects all principles or rules that require helping other persons, which includes acting to criminal justice topics, prevent harm to them. Thus, he accepts moral rules such as “Don't kill,” “Don't cause pain or suffering to others,” “Don't incapacitate others,” “Don't deprive others of the goods of life,” and what's between mi5 and mi6, the like. His theory therefore makes nonmaleficence central to the nature and theory of moral obligation while denying that beneficence has any place in the theory of obligation.

However, the mainstream of moral philosophy has been to essay topics, make both not-harming and helping to be obligations, while preserving the distinction between the two. The Hobbit Study Guides? This literature can be confusing, because some writers treat obligations of nonmaleficence as a species of obligations of criminal essay, beneficence, although the and Legacy two notions are very different. Rules of beneficence are typically more demanding than rules of nonmaleficence, and rules of nonmaleficence are negative prohibitions of action that must be followed impartially and that provide moral reasons for legal prohibitions of certain forms of conduct. By contrast, rules of beneficence state positive requirements of action, need not always be followed impartially, and rarely, if ever, provide moral reasons that support legal punishment when agents fail to abide by the rules. The contrast between nonmaleficence and beneficence notwithstanding, ordinary morality suggests that there are some rules of criminal, beneficence that we are obligated to follow impartially, such as those requiring that we make efforts to rescue strangers under conditions of minimal risk. Even some legal punishments for failure to rescue strangers may be justifiable.

Significant controversies have arisen in both law and moral philosophy about how to formulate and defend such requirements, but one more or less classic idea has been to beloved country summary, argue that a person P has an criminal essay topics obligation of study guides, beneficence to help another whenever the criminal justice other is at risk of Education Be Taught Essay, significant loss of or damage to some basic interest; P's action is necessary (singly or collaboratively) to prevent this loss or damage; P's action (singly or collaboratively) is likely to prevent the justice essay topics loss or damage; and P's action does not present significant risks, costs, or burdens to P while the benefits that the other person can be expected to gain outweigh any burden that P is likely to incur. 4. The Problem of Over-Demanding Beneficence. Some philosophers defend extremely demanding and far-reaching principles of the difference between mi5 and mi6, obligatory beneficence. Peter Singer's theory is the most widely discussed example. In his early work, Singer distinguished between preventing evil and promoting good and contended that persons in affluent nations are morally obligated to prevent something bad or evil from happening if it is in their power to do so without having to sacrifice anything of comparable importance. In the face of justice, preventable disease and poverty, for example, we ought to donate time and napoleon's rule, resources toward their eradication until we reach a level at which, by criminal topics giving more, we would cause as much suffering to ourselves as we would relieve through our gift. Study Guides? Singer leaves it open what counts as being of comparable importance and as being an appropriate level of sacrifice, but his argument implies that morality sometimes requires us to invest heavily in criminal justice topics, rescuing needy persons in the global population, not merely at the level of local communities and political states. This claim implies that morality sometimes requires us to make enormous sacrifices. It would appear that the demand is placed not only on individuals with disposable incomes, but on all reasonably well-off persons, foundations, governments, corporations, etc. All of of Nikola Telsa, these parties have moral obligations to refrain from spending resources on nonessential items and to use the available resources or savings to lend assistance to those in urgent need. Frills, fashion, luxuries, and the like are never to justice topics, determine expenditures, and one is to breakdowns, give to the needy up to the point that one (or one's dependent) would be impoverished.

Singer has not regarded such conduct as an enormous moral sacrifice, but only criminal justice topics as the discharge of a basic obligation of beneficence. Singer's proposals have struck many as overly demanding, impracticable, and a significant departure from the demands of ordinary morality. This assessment has generated a number of criticisms, as well as defenses, of demanding principles of beneficence such as the one proposed by Singer. Critics continue today to argue that a principle of Be Taught, beneficence that requires persons, governments, and corporations to seriously disrupt their projects and criminal essay topics, plans in order to benefit the poor and underprivileged exceeds the limits of ordinary moral obligations and between mi6, have no plausible grounding in moral theory. Topics? They argue that the line between the obligatory and nervous, the supererogatory has been unjustifiably erased by such a principle. In effect, the claim is that an aspirational moral ideal has redrawn the lines of criminal justice, real moral obligation. Singer has attempted to reformulate his position so that his theory of beneficence does not set an overly demanding standard. He maintains that no clear justification exists for mi5 and mi6 the claim that obligations of ordinary morality do not contain a demanding principle of beneficence, in particular a harm-prevention principle. He apparently would explain the lack of topics, concern often shown for poverty relief as a failure to draw the correct implications from the very principles of beneficence that ordinary morality embraces.

Later in Education In Schools Essay, his series of publications on the subject Singer attempted to topics, take account of objections that his principle sets an unduly high standard. He has not given up his strong principle of beneficence, but he has suggested that it might be morally wise and most productive to publicly advocate a lower standardthat is, a weakened principle of beneficence. He therefore proposed a more guarded formulation of the principle, arguing that we should strive for donations of a round percentage of cry the beloved country summary, income, such as 10 per cent, which amounts to more than a token donation and yet also is not so high as to make us miserable or turn us into moral saints. This standard, Singer proclaimed, is the minimum that we ought to do to conform to obligations of beneficence. Controversy continues today about how to analyze and evaluate the commitments of a principle of topics, beneficence, including how to formulate limits that reduce required burdens on agents' life plans and make meeting the obligations of beneficence a realistic possibility. Various writers have noted that even after many persons have donated generous portions of their income, they could still donate more while living decent lives; and, according to cry the beloved country, a strong principle of beneficence, they should donate more. Establishing the theoretical and practical limits of donation and sacrifice is clearly very challenging, and perhaps an impossible ideal. However, it does not follow that we should give up a principle of beneficence. Justice Essay? It only follows that establishing the moral limits of the demands of beneficence is profoundly difficult. Liam Murphy has proposed to fix the limits of individual beneficence to meet global problems of need by using a cooperative principle of fairness in which, in any given circumstance, it must first be determined what each reasonably affluent person must do to contribute a fair share to an optimal outcome.

An individual is only required to aid others beneficently at the level that would produce the best consequences if all in society were to give their fair share. One is not required to do more even if others fail in their fair-share obligations of beneficence. Unlike act-consequentialism, this theory does not demand more of agents when expected compliance by others decreases. Murphy's cooperative principle is intuitively attractive, but it may not have the necessary moral punch to address issues such as global poverty. Murphy seems right to suggest that large-scale problems requiring beneficence should be conceived as cooperative projects, but his limit on individual obligations seems unlikely to have a practical effect of increasing international aid and the like beyond present commitments and napoleon's rule, levels.

If, as is to be expected in justice, virtually all situations of beloved country summary, global poverty, others fail to comply with their fair-share obligations of beneficence as set out in this theory, it is not clear why each person's obligation is set only by the original calculation of a single fair share. This is not to say that Singer's approach is superior. The more demanding a principle is, the less likely are people to justice essay topics, comply with its demands. Also, at an intuitive level, Murphy seems right that an individual's obligations of beneficence should not increase to fill gaps merely because others are failing to meet their obligations. In his Uehiro Lectures on beloved country Global Poverty, Singer defended his arguments about beneficence including the public advocacy thesis (see the Other Internet Resources). Here a difference of emphasis emerged in his theory, together with a somewhat sympathetic response to Murphy. Singer seems concerned with which social conditions will motivate people to give, rather than with attempting to determine obligations of beneficence with precision. Singer responds to criminal justice, critics such as Murphy by conceding that perhaps the limit of what we should publicly advocate as a level of giving is no more than a person's fair share of what is needed to relieve poverty and the like. Unless we draw the line here, we might not be able to motivate people to give at all. A fair share is a lower threshold of one's obligations than the obligations Singer originally envisaged, but more realistic.

The emphasis on motivation is cry the beloved, presumably intended to give is a more subtle and convincing approach to the nature and limits of beneficence. Wherever the line of precise limits of justice topics, obligatory beneficence is drawn, the line is likely to be revisionary by drawing a sharper boundary on our obligations than exists in ordinary morality. Singer's proposals, unlike Murphy's, seem to represent a revision of ordinary morality's requirements of beneficence, despite the the difference between faint presence in the history of Western morality of religious obligations of tithing. A variety of proposals regarding the limits of criminal justice essay, beneficence have been made by philosophers, but no agreement on even a general principle exists. Accordingly, many now doubt that ethical theory or practical deliberation is equipped to establish precise conditions and limits of obligations of napoleon's rule, beneficence. 5. Liberty-Limiting Beneficence: The Problem of Benefit Paternalism. A still much-discussed issue about beneficence descends historically from Mill's On Liberty , where Mill inquired into the nature and limits of justifiable social control over the individual. Criminal Essay Topics? He argues that the measure of a person's libertyor personal autonomyis the measure of the person's independence from influences that control the person's preferences, thoughts, and behavior. Various principles commonly assumed to the hobbit study guides, be moral principles have been advanced to justify the limitation of individual liberties. Criminal Justice Essay? Joel Feinberg, who was philosophically close to various of Mill's views, called these principles “liberty-limiting principles.” Mill defended the what's between view that only justice essay topics one principle validly limits liberty.

Feinberg called it the harm principle : A person's liberty (or autonomy) is justifiably restricted to prevent harm to others caused by nervous breakdowns that person. Mill and Feinberg agreed that the justice essay principle of napoleon's rule, paternalism , which renders acceptable certain attempts to criminal essay topics, benefit another person when the Should Essay other does not prefer to receive the benefit, is not a morally acceptable liberty-limiting principle. The term paternalism has its roots in the notion of paternal administrationgovernment as by a father to administer in the way a beneficent father raises his children. The analogy with the father presupposes two features of the paternal role: that the criminal father acts beneficently (that is, in breakdowns, accordance with the interests of his children) and that he makes all or at least some of the decisions relating to his children's welfare, rather than leaving them free to make those decisions. On this model, “paternalism” may be defined as the intentional overriding of one person's known preferences or choices by another person, where the person who overrides justifies the action by the goal of criminal topics, substantially benefiting or avoiding harm to the person whose preferences or choices are overridden. (Both “benefiting” and “avoiding harm” can here, though not always, be understood as forms of The Life and Legacy of Nikola Telsa Essays, beneficence.) An act of paternalism, then, overrides moral obligations to respect autonomous choice on essay topics grounds of beneficence. Philosophers divide sharply over between mi6 whether some restricted form of essay, paternalism can be justified and, if so, on what basis. One plausible beneficence-based justification of country, paternalistic actions places benefits on a scale with autonomy interests and balances the two: As a person's interests in autonomy increase and essay topics, the benefits for that person decrease, the guides justification of criminal justice topics, paternalistic action becomes less cogent; conversely, as the benefits for a person increase and that person's interests in autonomy decrease, the the hobbit study justification of paternalistic action becomes more plausible.

Thus, preventing minor harms or providing minor benefits while deeply disrespecting autonomy lacks plausible justification; but actions that prevent major harms or provide major benefits while only trivially disrespecting autonomy have a highly plausible paternalistic rationale. Though no consensus exists over the justification of criminal justice essay topics, paternalism, virtually no one thinks that benefit paternalism can be justified unless at least the following conditions are satisfied: A person is at risk of what's the difference between mi6, a significant and preventable harm or loss of a benefit. The paternalistic action has a strong likelihood of preventing the essay harm or obtaining the benefit. The projected benefits of the paternalistic action outweigh its risks. The least autonomy-restrictive alternative that will secure the Bilingual Be Taught benefits and reduce the risks is adopted. Debates about justice essay, benefit paternalism have also emerged in public policy contexts.

Often health policies have the goal of avoiding a harm or providing a benefit in a population in which most affected parties are not consulted. Some percentage of the population will not support the policy, for example, because they are given no choice in the matter, whereas others will approve the policy. In effect, the policy is intended to benefit all members of a population without consulting the preferences of individuals affectedall the while foreseeing that many individuals will reject the beloved summary imposed control that the policy exerts over their lives. So-called neopaternalists have argued for government policies intended to protect or benefit individuals through shaping or steering their choices without, in fact, altogether disallowing or coercing those choices. Some recommend policies that pursue values that an intended beneficiary already, at criminal justice topics least implicitly, holds but cannot realize because of breakdowns, limited capacities, limited resources or limited self-control.

In this context, the justice essay individual's own stated preferences, choices, and actions are deemed unreasonable in light of of Nikola, other standards the person is regarded as embracing. This conception faces the problem that what an informed and criminal justice essay topics, competent person chooses to do is what's the difference between mi5 and, generally the best evidence we have of his or her values. For example, if a deeply religious man fails to essay topics, follow the dietary restrictions of his religion, although he is in the abstract strongly committed to all aspects of the religion, his departures from dietary laws may be the best evidence we have of his true values on the particular matter of dietary restrictions. Should? Because it seems correctshort of counterevidence in particular casesthat competent informed choice is the best evidence of a person's values, a justified paternalism must, among other things, have adequate evidence that this assumption is misguided in any given case. 6. Beneficence in Biomedical Ethics. Since the late 1970s, principles of beneficence have been a mainstay of the literature of biomedical ethics. Persons engaged in medical practice, research, and public health appreciate that risks of harm presented by interventions must often be weighed against criminal possible benefits for patients, subjects, and the public. Their professional obligations are deeply informed by their commitments to prevent or reduce harm and to produce a positive balance of goods over inflicted harms. Beneficence has played a major role in a central conceptual issue about the nature and goals of medicine as a social practice. If the breakdowns end of medicine is healing, a goal of beneficence, then arguably medicine is fundamentally a beneficent undertaking.

If so, beneficence grounds and determines the criminal justice essay professional obligations and virtues of the physician. Authors such as Edmund Pellegrino write as if beneficence is the sole foundational principle of professional medical ethics. In this theory, medical beneficence is oriented exclusively to the end of healing and napoleon's rule, not to any other form of benefit. The category of medical benefits does not, for Pellegrino, include items such as providing fertility controls (unless for the prevention and essay, maintenance of study, health and bodily integrity), performing purely cosmetic surgery, or actively helping a patient to topics, effect a merciful death by the active hastening of death. This characterization of the between ends of medicine allows Pellegrino to criminal justice essay, limit severely what counts as a medical benefit for napoleon's rule patients: Benefit in medicine is limited to healing and related activities such as caring for and preventing injury or disease.

This thesis is controversial. Criminal Justice Topics? Even if healing and the like are interpreted broadly, medicine does not seem to have such precise boundaries to many other writers. If beneficence is a general moral principle and if physicians are positioned to supply many forms of the hobbit guides, benefit, there is no manifest reason why physicians' hands are tied to the single benefit of healing, even in their role as medical professionals. The range of benefits that might be considered relevant seems broader and criminal topics, could include prescribing pharmaceutical products or devices that prevent fertility (where there is no healing-related purpose), providing purely cosmetic surgery for aesthetic (by contrast to reconstructive) reasons, helping patients write realistic living wills, complying with terminally ill patients' requests for physician-assistance in the difference mi5 and mi6, dying by hastening death, and the like. If these are bona fide medical benefits, then how far does the justice range of benefits extend? If a physician runs a company that manufactures powered wheel chairs for the elderly, does this activity supply a medical benefit? When physicians consult with an insurance company about cost-effective treatments that save their patients money, is this activity a beneficent component of the practice of medicine? Controversy over the ends of medicine requires decisions about the hobbit, what is to count as the practice of medicine and, derivatively, what counts as medical beneficence. Controversy appears not only in the literature of biomedical ethics, but also in some split decisions of the U. S. Supreme Courtmost notably in Gonzales v. Oregon , a case dealing with physician-hastened death. The majority decision in this case asserts that there is justice, no consensus among health care professionals about the beloved summary precise boundaries of the legitimate practice of medicine , a legal notion similar to the medical-ethics notion of the proper ends of medicine.

The court notes that there is reasonable disagreement in the community of criminal essay, physicians regarding the appropriate process for determining the boundaries of the difference mi5 and, medical practice and that there is disagreement about the extent to essay topics, which the government should be involved in drawing boundaries when physicians themselves disagree. This court opinion allows that, depending on state law, a physician may legitimately assist in various ways to help bring about the death of a terminally ill patient who has explicitly and napoleon's rule, competently requested this assistance from the physician. 6.2 Harms and Benefits in Health Care. A health professional's conception of both harm to and benefit for a patient can differ sharply from that of the patient, but the health professional's understandings of criminal, benefits also often depend on the patient's view of what constitutes a benefit or a worthwhile risk. Different patients take different views about what constitutes a harm and a benefit, and when each view is reasonable it is Should Education, morally unacceptable to maintain that the notions of medical benefit and harm are objectively independent of the patient's judgment. Physician-hastened death by request of the essay topics patient controversially characterized as physician-assisted suicideis again a prominent example of this problem.

Physicians and nurses have long worried that patients who forgo life-sustaining treatment with the napoleon's rule intention of dying are killing themselves and that health professionals are assisting in their suicide. These worries have recently receded in significance in biomedical ethics, because there is now a consensus in law and ethics that it is never a moral violation to criminal justice essay, withhold or withdraw a medical treatment that has been validly refused. This consensus began to be developed with the case of Karen Ann Quinlan in 1976 and eventually was formed around U. S. Supreme Court decisions, especially the Cruzan Case of 1990. The writings of numerous philosophers and lawyers contributed to between mi5 and mi6, the formation of this consensus. A clear part of the consensus is that it is a moral violation not to withhold or withdraw a validly refused treatment. Criminal? If death is the difference between, hastened in this way by a physician's omission or action, there can be no moral objection to what has been done, and a physician's cooperation can rightly be viewed as merciful and benevolent.

However, this problem has been replaced by justice topics another: Is it harmful or beneficial to help a competent patient who has requested a hastened death? In addition to vexed questions about the purported distinction between killing and nervous, letting die, the issue presses the question of what counts as a benefit and what counts as a harm. Criminal Justice? Is requested death in the face of miserable suffering a benefit for some patients while a harm for other patients? When is it a benefit, and when a harm? Is the answer to of Nikola, this question determined by the method used to bring about death--for example, withdrawal of criminal justice essay topics, treatment by contrast to use of lethal medication? 6.3 Social Beneficence and The Life and Legacy of Nikola Telsa Essays, Public Policy. A number of justice essay, controversial issues in biomedical ethics concern how public policy could, and should, change if obligations of social beneficence were given more strength in mi6, policy formulation than they have traditionally been afforded. The foundations of public policy regarding organ procurement provide an instructive example.

Established legal and policy precedents in many countries require express consent by a decedent before death or by the family after death. A near absolute right of autonomy to decide about the disposition of organs and tissues has been the prevailing norm. However, this approach impairs the efficient collection of needed tissues and organs, and many people die as a result of the shortage of organs. The scarcity of organs and tissues and the inefficiency of the criminal essay system have prompted a spate of proposals for reform of the current system of procurement, with the goal of creating more space for social beneficence. One policy proposal with a notably strong social-beneficence commitment is the routine retrieval of organs and tissues.

In this system of procurement, a community is permitted to, and encouraged to, routinely collect organs and tissues from the deceased, unless the dead person had previously registered his or her objection to the system with the Should state. The routine retrieval of tissues and criminal justice, organs from the deceased is and Legacy of Nikola, unjustified on traditional grounds of respect for autonomy. Criminal Essay Topics? However, advocates of the policy of routine retrieval argue that members of breakdowns, a community have an obligation to provide other persons with objects of lifesaving value when no cost to themselves is required. That is, the justification is in beneficence, not respect for autonomy. The debate will continue for many years about whether beneficence or respect for autonomy should prevail in public policy governing organ retrieval. Advocates of the current system argue that individual and family rights of consent should retain dominance. Advocates of routine retrieval argue that traditional social priorities involving beneficence in conflict with autonomy have been wrongly structured.

Most contributors to the literature on the subject agree that the present situation of low-level organ-procurement is morally unsatisfactory and in need of some measure of reform. 6.4 Social Beneficence and Social Justice. Some of the most important issues in the ethics of health and health care today are widely classified as issues of criminal justice essay topics, social justice. However, at the hands of many writers, social justice is notably similar to social beneficence. The underlying moral problem in the difference between mi6, global ethics is criminal essay topics, how to structure both the global order and national systems that affect health so that burdens are avoided, benefits are provided, and then both are fairly distributed using a threshold condition of equitable levels of health and access to breakdowns, health care. Criminal Essay Topics? Globalization has brought a realization that problems of protecting health and providing beneficial services are international in nature and and Legacy Essays, that their alleviation will require a restructuring of the global system. John Rawls's A Theory of Justice has been an enormously influential work in discussions of these problems in justice topics, biomedical ethics. Rawls argues that a social arrangement forming a political state is a communal effort to advance the good of all in cry the beloved country, the society. Criminal Essay Topics? His starting assumptions are layered with beneficent, egalitarian goals of making the unequal situation of the naturally disadvantaged members of society both better and more equal.

His recognition of a positive societal obligation to eliminate or reduce barriers that prevent fair opportunity and that correct or compensate for various disadvantages has implications for discussions of both beneficence and justice in health care, although Rawls himself never pursued these health issues. Rawls's theory has influenced many writers on moral problems of health and biomedical ethics, including Norman Daniels, Thomas Pogge, Martha Nussbaum, and Madison Powers and Ruth Faden. One of Daniels' main questions is “How can we meet health needs fairly under reasonable limits to resources committed to the task?” The “fairly” part of this formulation may be justice-based, but the notion of mi5 and mi6, “reasonable limits to resources” is closely tied to the problems of the limits of beneficence mentioned previously. Daniels argues that because health is affected by criminal topics many social factors, theories of justice should not center entirely on access to nervous, health care, but also on the need to reduce health inequalities by improving social conditions that affect the health of societies, such as having clean water, adequate nutrition, and general sanitation. Pogge views the well-being of the worst-off members of global society as the essay topics proper starting point for a practical theory of justice, but his theory can also be expressed as an argument from social beneficence. Study? Pogge has been concerned with the sweep of global poverty and its impact on health and welfarean interest almost identical to the theories of Singer and Powers and Faden. The consequences of extreme poverty for criminal essay health are well-documented, and these consequences inform Pogge's and Powers and Faden's theories of the hobbit guides, both basic well-being and justice.

Among other things, these theories assess the degree to which institutional structures can be expected to fulfill the mandates of the theory. They demand that persons have access to basic goods of housing, food, and health care. Recently, so-called “capabilities theory” has, at the hands of some writers, merged concerns of justice, justice and beneficence. This type of theory focuses on Bilingual In Schools distributions intended to enable persons to reach certain functional levels essential for a flourishing life that is protected by social institutions, The idea is to criminal justice essay, start with an understanding of health and individual well-being and then to connect that account to basic capabilities for achieving levels of Should Bilingual In Schools Essay, functioning essential to well-beingthrough, for example, proper nutrition and access to health care. Some core capabilities are bodily health, ability to play, ability to affiliate socially, freedom of movement, and justice, adequate educational level. Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum are advocates of nervous, a capabilities theory. Some writers closely connected to bioethics and health policy have moved beyond capabilities theory with a twist toward beneficence and well-being.

Powers and Faden provide a theory closely connected to global health policy. They start with a basic premise: Social justice is concerned with human well-beingnot only health, but what they call six distinct, core dimensions of well-being. The six are health, personal security, reasoning, respect, attachment, and self-determination. Criminal Justice? Each of these dimensions is an independent concern of justice. While this list of six dimensions is in some respects similar to Nussbaum'sfor example, “attachment” resembles what Nussbaum calls “affiliation” Powers and Faden reject the and Legacy of Nikola Telsa language of capabilities as misleading and wide of the target of a theory of justice. Theirs is a list of criminal essay, essential core dimensions of well-being, not core capabilities. Being healthy, being secure, and Should Bilingual Education In Schools Essay, being respected are desirable states of being, not merely capabilities or functionings. For example, we want not merely the capability to criminal justice essay, be well-nourished, but to be well-nourished. Justice is study guides, concerned with the criminal justice essay achievement of well-being, not merely achieving the capabilities to pursue it. In this account, the justice of societies and of the global order can be judged by how well they effect these well-being dimensions in their political structures and Bilingual Be Taught In Schools Essay, social practices.

The job of justice is to secure a sufficient level of each dimension for each person and to criminal justice essay, alleviate the social structures that cause the corresponding forms of ill-being. This theory of well-being and its place in moral theory and social policy could also be expressed in terms of the role of social beneficence. Business ethics is a second area of between mi5 and, applied ethics in which questions about beneficence have emerged as central. Hume's immediate successor in criminal justice essay, sentiment theory, Adam Smith, held a important view about the role and place of benevolence that has influenced a number of writers in business ethics. Smith argued that the wealth of nations and breakdowns, the well-being of their citizens are dependent upon essay social cooperationfundamentally, political and the difference between mi6, economic cooperationbut that this realm is justice essay topics, not dependent on the benevolence of moral relations. Smith proposes that it would be vain for us to cry the summary, expect benevolence in market societies. Essay? In commercial transactions the what's mi5 and only successful strategy in motivating persons is to appeal to personal advantage: Never expect benevolence from a butcher, brewer, or baker; expect from them only a regard to their own interest. Market societies operate not by topics concerns of humanity and The Life Essays, benevolence, but from self-love. Several problems in business ethics are attempts to come to grips with Smith's view. Discussions of the criminal topics role of the corporation in society and the very purpose of a corporation as a social institution are examples. It is not disputed that the purpose of a for-profit corporation is to make a profit for stockholders, but there is an beloved country summary intense debate about criminal essay, whether maximizing stockholder profits is the sole legitimate purpose of corporationsas Milton Friedman and others have arguedand whether truly beneficent corporate conduct is justifiable.

This question is study, normative, but there is criminal justice, also the question of moral psychology raised by Smith: Is it reasonable to expect benevolent acts from the business community? Does beneficence have any place in the world of business as we know it? Corporate social programs often appear to the hobbit, involve a mixture of limited beneficence and essay, self-interested goals such as developing and sustaining relationships with customers. An example is found in public utilities' programs to help customers pay for electricity, gas, oil, phone service, and the like. These programs often decrease rather than increase corporate profits. They are, in effect, a form of corporate philanthropy. The programs locate and attempt to remedy the root causes of bill nonpayment, which typically involve financial distress. The programs also seek to the difference between mi5 and, rescue people in the community who are in unfortunate circumstances because of industrial injury, the ill health of a spouse or child, drug dependency, and criminal justice essay topics, the like. The company may even pay for consumer advocates, who are social workers trained to deal with customers and their problems. These programs, by design, make life better for various members of the cry the community who have suffered misfortune.

They may not be entirely motivated by benevolence, however, because they may also be designed to achieve a positive public image as well as to receive payment for overdue bills. Some firms have charitable programs that seem to be cases of pure beneficencethat is, not ones admixed with forms of outreach that will help the company. Money is taken directly out of profits, with no expected return of benefits. Justice? It has been questioned, however, whether programs of even this description are instances of pure benevolence. In the precedent U. S. case of napoleon's rule, A. P. Smith Manufacturing v. Barlow (1953), a judge determined that a beneficent charitable donation to essay, Princeton University by the hobbit the A. P. Smith Co. was a legitimate act of beneficence by responsible corporate officers. However, the essay topics judge acknowledged that such beneficence may not be pure beneficence, but rather an Should Bilingual Be Taught In Schools Essay act taken in the interest of the corporation by criminal justice topics building its public image and esteem. In effect, the judge suggests that such a gift, while beneficent, may not derive from entirely benevolent motives. If beneficent acts by Should Bilingual Education Essay corporations are nothing more than clever ways to criminal justice topics, maximize profits, then these actions seem to what's the difference between mi5 and, satisfy Friedman's conception. Whatever the truth about businesses' motives, a separate question is whether businesses have obligations of beneficent action. Stakeholder theory is an example of an approach that answers in the affirmative.

In the classical profit-to-stockholder view, stockholders' interests were supreme, but what about the interests of other stakeholders, particularly those whose efforts are necessary for a firm's survival and justice essay topics, flourishing? Who deserves to Should Bilingual Essay, benefit? A stakeholder is any individual or group that can affect or benefit, or be affected by or benefited by, a business organization. Stakeholders include customers, employees, suppliers, communities, consultants, and stockholders. Stakeholder theory is commonly regarded as a theory of corporate responsibilitythe theory that managers of a firm have obligations to a specified group of stakeholders.

Many of these obligations are ones of beneficence, especially with regard to criminal essay, employees and other stockholders. Stockholder theory, by contrast, is the theory that managers have obligationsconceived as fiduciary dutiesonly to the hobbit guides, stockholder interests. In contemporary business ethics it is now widely held that corporate responsibility requires some form of stakeholder perspective, but this perspective has not been adequately developed, because there may be additional obligations of beneficence to contribute to social awareness and public policy even when the affected community is not truly a stakeholder. But do corporations have obligations of beneficence to justice, some larger community? Many corporations have answered yes to this question. In a statement of cry the beloved country summary, “The Johnson and Johnson Way,” the Johnson and Johnson Company credo, it is justice essay topics, said that Johnson and Johnson is responsible to breakdowns, the communities in which it thrives, and indeed to the world community. The company asserts an criminal justice obligation to Should Bilingual Education, be good citizens, including offering the criminal justice topics support of charities, the The Life Telsa Essays encouragement of civic progress, the bettering of public health, and the improvement of education. Johnson and Johnson and many other companies assert that they have obligations to these ends, but to many writers in business ethics this claim of obligations is criminal topics, either misguided or overstated. They regard such moral demands as moral ideals or institutional commitments, especially if they reach out to the world community. Paternalism is often found in the practices of business and in government regulation of business. For example, many businesses require employees to deduct money from Education In Schools Essay, their salary for a retirement account; they may also deduct salary money to pay for a life insurance policy.

If employees do not want these “benefits,” they are not free to reject them. Paternalism is here assumed to criminal topics, be an appropriate liberty-limiting principle. Another commonplace example comes from the nervous breakdowns construction industry and the chemical industry. If an employee wishes not to wear a particular suit, mask, or other protective device, the company (also the government) will compel it anyway, often (though not always) for paternalistic reasons. An ongoing example of paternalism is the restriction for paternalistic reasons (there might be other reasons as well) of various pictures, literature, or informationoften violent depictionson the internet, in bookstores, and in video stores. Customers may wish to purchase or receive information about these products, but paternalism thwarts their preferences. Arguments are put forward maintaining that those exposed to violent conduct will harm themselves by such exposurefor example, pornography might reinforce their emotional problems or render them incapable of love and other distinctively human relationships. A classic problem of paternalism in criminal justice essay topics, business ethics derives from the principle of of Nikola Telsa, caveat emptor Latin for “let the criminal justice essay buyer beware.” This property-law-derived principle is breakdowns, a general principle governing sales: A buyer is responsible for determining any unfitness in a product and is not due any form of criminal essay topics, refund or exchange unless the seller has actively concealed the unfitness. The buyer is free to make the purchase or not make it. The Life And Legacy Of Nikola? Paternalistic restrictions on purchasing have the objective that buyers not harm themselves or not fail to criminal, receive benefits that they otherwise might not receive.

For example, the control and napoleon's rule, inspection of pharmaceutical products and topics, controlled substancesthrough government policies and licensed pharmacieshas often been justified by napoleon's rule appeal to criminal justice essay topics, paternalism. Many believe that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the U.S. is fundamentally a paternalistic agency that operates to protect the nervous breakdowns public even while some members of the public do not approve of the protections afforded. As the marketplace for criminal justice essay topics products has grown complex and the products more sophisticated, buyers have become more dependent upon salespersons to know their products and to tell the truth about them. An enduring question in nervous, business ethics is whether a salesperson's role should be viewed as that of paternalistic protector of the interests of the buyer. Suppose, for example, that a consumer wants a sprinkler system in his yard to water his grove of criminal justice topics, evergreens. He loves the guides sound and look of sprinklers. Justice Essay Topics? However, these sprinklers are worthless for nervous breakdowns appropriate watering of the roots of his evergreens: The owner needs drip-hose for his large collection of pine, spruce, cedar, and cypress. Should a salesperson insist on selling only drip-hose, refusing to sell sprinkler heads; or should the salesperson acquiesce to the customer's strong preference for sprinklers? Traditionally salespersons have not viewed their obligations of criminal essay, beneficence in this way, but perhaps paternalistic beneficence would be a commendable change of practice? Adler, Matthew D., 2012, Well-Being and Fair Distribution: Beyond Cost-Benefit Analysis , New York: Oxford University Press. Arneson, Richard J., 2004, “Moral Limits on the Demands of Beneficence?” in The Ethics of Assistance , Deen K. Chatterjee (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Beauchamp, Tom L., and Childress, James F., 2013, Principles of Biomedical Ethics , 7 th edition, New York: Oxford University Press, Chapter 6. Braybrooke, David, 2003, “A Progressive Approach to Personal Responsibility for the difference between mi5 and mi6 Global Beneficence,” The Monist , 86: 30122. Cullity, Garrett, 2007, “Beneficence.” In R. E. Ashcroft, A. Dawson, H. Draper, and criminal essay, J. R. McMillan (eds.), Principles of Health Care Ethics (2nd ed.), pp. 1926, Chichester, West Sussex, UK; Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. , 2004, The Moral Demands of Affluence , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Daniels, Norman, 2006, “Equity and Population Health: Toward a Broader Bioethics Agenda.” Hastings Center Report , 36: 2235. , 1998, “Is There a Right to Health Care and, if so, What does it Encompass?,” in The Life Essays, Helga Kuhse and Peter Singer (eds.), A Companion to Bioethics , Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, pp. 31628. Donaldson, Thomas J., and Preston, L. E., 1995, “The Stakeholder Theory of the Corporation: Concepts, Evidence, and Implications,” Academy of justice essay topics, Management Review , 20: 6591.

Egonsson, Dan, 1999, “Local Solidarity,” Ethical Theory and Moral Practice , 2: 14958. Feinberg, Joel, 1988, The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law , 4 volumes, New York: Oxford University Press. Fishkin, James A, 1982, The Limits of Obligation , New Haven: Yale University Press. Freeman, R. Nervous Breakdowns? Edward, 1984, Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach , Boston: Pitman. Gert, Bernard, 2005, Morality , New York: Oxford University Press. Gert, Bernard, Charles M. Culver, and K. Danner Clouser, 2006, Bioethics: A Systematic Approach , New York: Oxford University Press.

Gert, Bernard, 2008, “The Definition of Morality,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Justice Essay Topics? Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/morality-definition/. Griffin, James, 1986, Well-Being , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Napoleon's Rule? Hume, David, 1751, An Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals , Tom L. Beauchamp (ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. Hurley, Paul, 2003, “Fairness and Beneficence,” Ethics , 113: 841864. Criminal Justice Essay Topics? Kant, Immanuel, Ethical Philosophy , second edition, James W. Ellington (trans.), Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1994. Levine, Robert J., 2005, “The National Commission's Ethical Principles with Special Attention to Beneficence”. In J. F. Childress, E. M. Meslin, and H. T. Shapiro (Eds.), Belmont Revisited: Ethical Principles for Research with Human Subjects , pp. Should Bilingual Be Taught Essay? 126135, Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Criminal Justice Topics? Livnat, Yuval, 2004, “On the Nature of breakdowns, Benevolence,” Journal of Social Philosophy , 35: 304317. Mack, Eric, 2002, “Equality, Benevolence, and Responsiveness to Agent-Relative Value,” Social Philosophy and Policy , 19: 314341. Mill, John Stuart, Utilitarianism and On Liberty , in the Collected Works of John Stuart Mill , Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1969.

Miller, Richard W., 2004, “Beneficence, Duty, and Distance,” Philosophy Public Affairs , 32: 35783. Murphy, Liam B., 1993, “The Demands of Beneficence,” Philosophy and Public Affairs , 22: 26792. , 2000, Moral Demands in Nonideal Theory , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Narveson, Jan, 2003, “We Don't Owe Them a Thing! A Tough-Minded but Soft-Hearted View of criminal justice, Aid to breakdowns, the Faraway Needy,” The Monist , 86: 41933. Nussbaum, Martha C., and Amartya Sen (eds.), 1993, The Quality of Life , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Pellegrino, Edmund, and criminal justice essay topics, David Thomasma, 1988, For the Patient's Good: The Restoration of Beneficence in Health Care , New York: Oxford University Press. Pellegrino, Edmund, 1994, “The Four Principles and The Doctor-Patient Relationship: The Need For A Better Linkage,” in Principles of Health Care Ethics , Raanan Gillon (ed.), 1 st ed.

London: John Wiley Sons. The Hobbit Study? Pogge, Thomas W. (ed.), 2007, Freedom from Poverty as a Human Right: Who Owes What to the Very Poor? , Oxford: Oxford University Press. (ed.), 2001, Global Justice , London: Blackwell Publishers. , 2005, “Human Rights and Global Health: A Research Program.” Metaphilosophy , 36: 182209. , 2002, World Poverty and Human Rights , Cambridge: Polity Press. Powers, Madison, and Ruth R. Justice Topics? Faden, 2006, Social Justice: The Moral Foundations of Public Health and Health Policy , New York: Oxford University Press. Richardson, Henry S., 2012, Moral Entanglements: The Ancillary-Care Obligations of Medical Researchers , New York: Oxford University Press. What's Mi6? Sen, Amartya, 1992, Inequality Reexamined , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Singer, Peter, 1972, “Famine, Affluence, and Morality,” Philosophy and Public Affairs , 1: 22943. , 1993, Practical Ethics , 2d edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 2009, The Life You Can Save: Acting Now to End World Poverty , New York: Random House. Slote, Michael A., 1977, “The Morality of Wealth,” in World Hunger and Moral Obligation , W. Aiken and H. Criminal Justice Essay Topics? LaFollette (eds.), Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, pp. 12447. Smith, Adam, 1776, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations , Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976. Thaler, Richard H., and Cass R. Napoleon's Rule? Sunstein, 2003, “Libertarian Paternalism,” American Economics Review , 93: 17579 U. Criminal? S. Supreme Court, 2006, Gonzales v. Oregon , 546 U.S. 243. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free.

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an essaye The remainder of criminal justice essay topics, this essay writing tutorial is based on a short sample #039;divorce essay#039; (about 1,000 words). To complete all of the associated tasks, it is easiest if you have the sample essay in front of you. Should In Schools? A major change that has occurred in the Western family is an increased incidence in divorce. Whereas in the past, divorce was a relatively rare occurrence, in recent times it has become quite commonplace. This change is borne out clearly in criminal justice census figures. For example thirty years ago in Australia, only one marriage in ten ended in divorce; nowadays the figure is more than one in three (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1996: p.45). A consequence of this change has been a substantial increase in the number of single parent families and the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1997). An important issue for sociologists, and indeed for nervous breakdowns all of society, is why these changes in marital patterns have occurred. In this essay I will seek to critically examine a number of sociological explanations for the #039;divorce phenomenon#039; and also consider the social policy implications that each explanation carries with it. It will be argued that the best explanations are to be found within a broad socio-economic framework. Justice Topics? One type of explanation for rising divorce has focused on changes in laws relating to marriage.

For example, Bilton, Bonnett and Jones (1987) argue that increased rates of cry the beloved country summary, divorce do not necessarily indicate that families are now more unstable. It is possible, they claim, that there has always been a degree of marital instability. They suggest that changes in the law have been significant, because they have provided unhappily married couples with #039;access to a legal solution to pre-existent marital problems#039; (p.301). Bilton et al. therefore believe that changes in divorce rates can be best explained in terms of changes in the legal system. The problem with this type of explanation however, is that it does not consider why these laws have changed in the first place. It could be argued that reforms to family law, as well as the increased rate of essay, divorce that has accompanied them, are the product of more fundamental changes in society. Nervous Breakdowns? Another type of explanation is one that focuses precisely on these broad societal changes. Justice Essay? For example, Nicky Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995) argues that increases in divorce and marital breakdown are the result of napoleon's rule, economic changes that have affected the family. One example of these changes is the raised material aspirations of families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on both spouses to criminal, become wage earners. Women as a result have been forced to become both homemakers and economic providers.

According to Hart, the contradiction of these two roles has lead to conflict and this is the main cause of marital breakdown. Education Be Taught? It would appear that Hart#039;s explanation cannot account for all cases of divorce - for example, marital breakdown is liable to occur in families where only the husband is essay topics, working. Nevertheless, her approach, which is to relate changes in what's family relations to broader social forces, would seem to criminal justice essay, be more probing than one that looks only at cry the beloved country legislative change. The two explanations described above have very different implications for social policy, especially in relation to how the problem of justice essay topics, increasing marital instability might be dealt with. Bilton et al. (1995) offer a legal explanation and hence would see the what's the difference mi5 and mi6 solutions also being determined in this domain. If rises in divorce are thought to be the consequence of liberal divorce laws, the obvious way to stem this rise is to make them less obtainable. This approach, one imagines, would lead to a reduction in divorce statistics; however, it cannot really be held up as a genuine solution to the problems of marital stress and criminal justice essay breakdown in society.

Indeed it would seem to be a solution directed more at napoleon's rule symptoms than addressing fundamental causes. Criminal Topics? Furthermore, the experience of social workers, working in the area of family welfare suggests that restricting a couple#039;s access to divorce would in some cases serve only to exacerbate existing marital problems (Johnson, 1981). In those cases where violence is involved, the consequences could be tragic. Apart from all this, returning to more restrictive divorce laws seems to napoleon's rule, be a solution little favoured by Australians. (Harrison, 1990). Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995), writing from a Marxist-feminist position, traces marital conflict to justice essay topics, changes in breakdowns the capitalist economic system and their resultant effect on the roles of men and women. It is difficult to know however, how such an analysis might be translated into practical social policies.

This is topics, because the Hart program would appear to require in the first place a radical restructuring of the economic system. Whilst this may be desirable for study guides some, it is not achievable in the present political climate. Hart is right however, to suggest that much marital conflict can be linked in topics some way to the economic circumstances of families. This is borne out in many statistical surveys which show consistently that rates of divorce are higher among socially disadvantaged families (McDonald, 1993). This situation suggests then that social policies need to be geared to providing support and security for these types of families. It is little cause for optimism however, that in recent years governments of all persuasions have shown an increasing reluctance to fund social welfare programs of this kind. The Life And Legacy? It is difficult to justice essay topics, offer a comprehensive explanation for the growing trend of Should Education Be Taught, marital breakdown; and it is even more difficult to find solutions that might ameliorate the problems created by it. Clearly though, as I have argued in criminal this essay, the most useful answers are to be found not within a narrow legal framework, but within a broader socio-economic one. Of Nikola Telsa? Finally, it is worth pointing out that, whilst we may appear to be living in a time of increased family instability, research suggests that historically, instability may have been the norm rather than the exception. As Bell and Zajdow (1997) point out, in the past, single parent and step families were more common than is assumed - although the justice essay topics disruptive influence then was not divorce, but the premature death of one or both parents.

This situation suggests that in studying the modern family, one needs to employ a historical perspective, including the possibility of looking to the past in searching for ways of dealing with problems in the present. Australian Bureau of Statistics (1996). Divorces, Australia . Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service. Cry The? Bell, R. and G. Zajdow (1997) Family and household. In R. Jureidini, S. Kenny and criminal essay M. Poole (eds). Sociology: Australian Connections . St Leonards.

NSW: Allen and Unwin. Bilton, T., K. Nervous? Bonnett and P. Essay Topics? Jones (1987). Introductory Sociology , 2nd edition. London: MacMillan. Haralambos, M. (1995). Sociology: Themes and Perspectives , 3rd edition. London: Bell and Hyman. Breakdowns? Harrison, M. (1995). Grounds for divorce.

Family Matters . No 42 pp 34-35. Johnson, V. (1981). The Last Resort: A Women#039;s Refuge . Ringwood: Penguin. Essay? Kilmartin, C. (1997). Children divorce and one-parent families. Family Matters . No. 48. ( Available On-line ) McDonald, P. (1993). Family Trends and Structure in Australia . The Difference Mi5 And? Australian Family Briefings No 3. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies. Problems?

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