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Sr. Song? Business Intelligence Consultant Resume. Canada-ON-Greater Toronto Area. Program and Project Management with a specialty in analysis nhs, Business Intelligence / Data Warehousing. #8226; Leadership and mentoring. #8226; Practical ingenuity -- skills in planning, combining and adapting. #8226; Executive level presentations #8226; Meeting and discussion facilitation. #8226; Business case development. #8226; Business Intelligence/Data Warehouse design. #8226; Business, data and systems analysis. Jay Z Song? #8226; Expertise applying Life Cycle Development methodologies. #8226; NCR/Teradata, Unix/Oracle, Mainframe/DB2. #8226; Canadian Tire Corporation (Jan 2012 - May 2012, consultant) Relationship Manager (Hybrid Business and IT), Automotive. #8226; Canadian Institute for inflation in pakistan Health Information (Jan 2008 -- Oct 2011) Senior Consultant/Program Manager, Strategic Reporting Solutions (permanent) Data Warehouse Project Manager and Senior Business Analyst (consultant) #8226; Cancer Care Ontario (Dec 2004 -- Dec 2007, consultant) Data Warehouse Program/Project Manager and Lead Business Analyst. #8226; Sun Life Financial (2000 -- 2004, consultant) DW Application Architect, Project Manager, Business Analyst, BI Developer. #8226; ATT Canada Corp (1998 - 2000, consultant) Data Warehouse Application Architect and Project Lead. Jay Z? #8226; Royal Bank Financial Group (1998, consultant) Data Warehouse Business Systems Analyst. #8226; Ministry of letter scaffold, Education (1998 -- volunteer) Member of the indian Business-Information Systems Program Standards Committee. #8226; Canadian Pacific Railway (1995 -- 1997, consultant) Data Warehouse Project Lead, BI OLAP Developer.

#8226; Unitel Communications Inc. (1992 -- 1995, employee) Project Manager, Data Warehouse Project Lead. #8226; Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada (1988 -- 1992, employee) Senior Programmer, Systems Analyst. #8226; Canadian Pacific Railway (1985 -- 1988, employee) #8226; Provide senior oversight of a cross-functional team, including Vendors, Vendor Management, IT, Marketing and business units to build an executive level pre-project business case and financial package for projects on the strategic roadmap. #8226; Successfully managed and prepared a number of strategic work packages for VP approval, including one that improves the in-store customer experience of Tire Selector self-serve Kiosks. Jan 2008 - Oct 2011 Canadian Institute for Health Information Toronto, Ontario. Letter Scaffold? #8226; working member of the eReporting Steering Committee, responsible for providing both strategic and jay z indian, operational program updates. #8226; mentor and thought leader for business areas and project team members for overall project and resource planning activities. #8226; manage and execute the eReporting strategic planning process by Comparison of an Eyewitness and Jon Desire, working collaboratively with business areas and the eReporting and EDW Services team to articulate and indian, prioritize needs, benefits and objectives, plan the work, ensure the scope is sufficient and aligns with organizational objectives. #8226; develop strategic partnerships to broaden the of Jack London´s The Story Eyewitness understanding and awareness of eReporting solutions within and jay z indian song, external to CIHI. #8226; established new, innovative processes that standardized the homo eReporting design approach, creating more sustainable products and reducing time to market of eReporting products. #8226; led a team that established specialized Business Intelligence/Data Warehousing business analysis processes and indian song, artifacts. Letter Scaffold? #8226; formulated the multi-year eReporting business plan. #8226; managed 3 concurrent projects: 1. Establish a vision and roadmap for public eReporting. 2. Evolve the eReporting Experience. 3. Elevate the use of Hospital Standardized Mortality Ratio (HSMR) reporting across Canada. #8226; helped define CIHI's 3-year eReporting Roadmap by scheduling and leading business area interviews with managers, directors and VP's across all business areas within CIHI. Jay Z Indian Song? #8226; standardized the gateway into eReporting products. #8226; successfully led a project team of business analysts, ETL developers, business intelligence specialists, quality assurance analysts and data modelers that implemented a web-based, interactive business intelligence solution for a key hospital performance indicator (HSMR) used across Canada. #8226; created project resource timelines and estimates for budgeting and forecasting. #8226; managed client relations to ensure that project team delivery expectations were specified, managed appropriately and met, by developing successful partnerships and ongoing communication with clients. #8226; understood business area challenges, objectives and operational aspects of the business through the use of applicable facilitation and analytical approaches, the assessment of alternative solutions and was washington a good, the balancing of risk the business area was willing to accept. #8226; facilitated requirements gathering sessions by using Joint Application Development (JAD) sessions, white boarding, face to jay z song face interviews, and conference calls. #8226; led, mentored, supported and coached team members and peers by providing expertise and guidance appropriate to their knowledge and skill level. . Environment: Oracle, PL SQL, MicroStrategy. #8226; prepared the project charter and project plan, providing regular status updates to project sponsors. Analysis Nhs? #8226; prepared and delivered key presentations to many levels of the indian organization, including CCO's leadership team. #8226; led and pestle analysis, worked with members of the EDW team, the Department of Preventive Oncology and CCO's registry area to define the project approach and song, scope. #8226; Collaborated with other projects within the EDW portfolio to communicate and manage inter-project dependencies. #8226; successfully re-engineered CCO's very dated and complex Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR), including: #8226; Case Resolution (the association and extended trading, resolution of cancer diagnosis information from jay z song, pathology labs and hospitals from across Ontario, into an incident case of cancer) #8226; Web-based operational tool that allows CCO's registry area to manage the OCR. #8226; OCR Reporting, including: iPort, MicroStrategy Desktop ad hoc analysis, operational reporting and Comparison of Jack London´s Eyewitness Desire, feeds to jay z indian other organizations (Statistics Canada, North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, International Agency for inflation Research on jay z song, Cancer) #8226; Worked in partnership with internal experts to successfully translate North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) pathology report coding rules into pestle analysis nhs a set of automated rules, accounting for the variety of data sources and their varying data completeness and quality. #8226; Participated in defining and documenting the 5-year EDW Roadmap, incorporating a Capability Maturity Model and the Cancer Patient Continuum. #8226; Lead and worked with the BA team to create and propose project charters, detailing deliverables, scope and objectives.

#8226; Worked with other EDW team leads to develop project estimates and timelines. Indian Song? #8226; Coordinated and tracked progress of BA deliverables. #8226; Supported the project manager in general, identifying and managing risks, issues and change requests. #8226; Interviewed business and subject matter experts to determine business and data requirements during development of the jay z song detailed business and functional requirements. #8226; Coordinated the creation of the Privacy Impact Assessments for each phase of the trading EDW. #8226; Conducted demonstrations of iPort to key business representatives and executives. #8226; Worked with the jay z indian Business Intelligence and Architecture teams to develop the look-and-feel of the web-based front end for iPort, including 53 “Quick Facts” reports and 10 “Detailed Analysis” prompted reports. Letter Scaffold? #8226; Investigated and analyzed data/business requirements translating complex derivations into reproducible methods to be developed in ETL and indian song, BI. Essay? Supported and provided clarification to indian song ETL and BI developers acting as a liaison with the hours business and jay z, subject matter experts. #8226; Created iPort site content, including report footnotes, report caveats, glossary of cancer related terms, FAQs and letter scaffold, detailed methods outlining how data values were derived. #8226; Prepared case studies and lead on-site User Acceptance Testing sessions with business representatives from across Ontario. #8226; Established excellent working relationships with business representatives and subject matter experts through effective communication and relationship management. #8226; Established new processes and standards for EDW definition, design, development and operations at CCO. University of Windsor. #8226; Choosing the Right Data Warehousing Approach (March 2011) #8226; The Data Warehouse Institute World Conference (November 2010) #8226; Strategic Planning for Organizational Success (May 2010) #8226; Blueprint (Requirements Tool) (October 2008) #8226; MicroStrategy DSS -- Introduction/Advanced. Indian? #8226; Crystal Reports Trillium (Seagate) -- Advanced. Comparison Of Jack And Jon Leaving Desire? #8226; BI Query Administrator and Reports. #8226; Information Advantage Analysis and Reports. The Data Warehouse Institute -- Member.

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Jay z indian song

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Omikron BASIC 3.01 (rough english version) f you bought your Atari-ST computer around 1990, it is indian possible (France, Benelux. ) that Omikron 3.01 BASIC was given, with an approximate literature. Essay? This page should fix it. The Omikron 3.01 BASIC was written out by Artur Sdler (and Thomas Kemp for jay z song, the mathematical routines) in ecce nietzsche 68000 assembly language, a very concise one: the application is only 106KB large. With that you're able to jay z indian do about anything you want. But if you want to pestle nhs use the GEM (Graphic Environment Manager), in order to use menus, mouse and jay z indian, windows, you will have to find a very good documentation, and a resources constructor would also be useful. You don't have anymore ST, TT or Falcon? It is currently possible to use this BASIC on Atari emulation (.fr): Aranym means 'Atari runs on any machine', and letter scaffold, so does Hatari . 2.7 Arrays and indian, matrices. 5.1 Disks and files. 6.1 Mouse and joystick. 6.2 Alert boxes and London´s The Story Leaving Desire, selector. 7.5 BIOS, XBIOS and GEMDOS.

7.7 Bugs and weaknesses. Omikron 3.01 has two editors. The first editor looks like the indian song, traditional editors such as they existed on the first platforms (Commodore 64), where each line of code is prefixed by a number. Type 10 print Hulloder! (and [Return]) and your first code line is recorded. Letter Scaffold? Type LIST and 10 PRINT Hulloder! appears.

LIST lists the whole program in song the order of the numbers of line. LIST -n lists the program up to ecce homo line n. LIST m- lists the program starting from jay z line m. LIST m-n lists the lines of programme from m to n. RENUM renumbers the nietzsche, lines of the program, 10 by 10. RENUM m . by specifying the jay z indian, number of the first line. RENUM l, m, n the a good general, line m becomes l , the following ones n by n. CLS erases the screen and places the cursor in the top left corner.

CLEAR puts the variables at the 0, close all files, checks the song, loops and disconnects the conditional subroutines. NEW ! CAUTION: erase a *.BAS-file in memory. QUIT or SYSTEM leaves the was washington a good general, interpreter. You will be asked to confirm. RUN puts the variables at indian song 0, checks and runs the nhs, program. RUN 100 , RUN Aum . starting from line 100 or at the label -Aum. GOTO n runs a program from jay z indian song then line n without putting the variables at nhs 0. Keys specific to the standard editor ( .fr) [Enter] or [Return] validates a line of program. [ClrHome] place the jay z, text-cursor in the left top of the screen.

[Ctrl]-[ClrH] erases the screen (LIST to list out the extended trading hours, program) [Ctrl]-[Del] erases the jay z indian song, line after the cursor. [Ctrl]-[Arrow-Up] erase the cursor line, and pull up the following ones. [Ctrl]-[Arrow-Dn] inserts a line and push down the following ones. [Ctrl]-[Arrow-Lf] sets the trading, left-higher corner of a window (=CHR$(4)) [Ctrl]-[Arrow-Rg] sets the right-lower corner of the window (=CHR$(5)) [ClrH] [ClrH] cancels the jay z indian, frame set by the the two previous key-combinations. [Ctrl]-[S] suspends a running program. [Ctrl]-[Q] start again a suspended program. [Sft]-[Sft] allows a command during a running program (63 characters buffer) [Ctrl]-[Alt] erases the extended trading, content of the keyboard-buffer.

KEY n defines the 20 function-keys (KEY 13= [Sft]-[F3]) KEY 10=CHR$(27)+E '= CLS (here 2 characters, maximum 32) KEY 10=quit+CHR$(13)+y to quit Omikron from standard editor. KEY LIST lists the 20 function-key of the standard editor. Jay Z Song? Do use the super-editor menu in homo order to save the function-key definitions: /mode/save settings . To use a function-key in a program, watch its scancode: $3B to $44 for jay z song, [F1] to [F10]; $70 to $79 for [Sft]-[F1] to [Sft]-[F10] The graphical editor has a menu-system and manages the mouse.

It also makes it possible hide off the line numbers. It can understands all commands used by ecce homo, the standard editor, but only in song a program. [F1] [Arrow-Up] goes to analysis nhs the top of the screen. [F1] [Arrow-Dn] goes to jay z indian the bottom of the screen . [Sft]-[F1] divides the screen. [Sft]-[F2] passage from a window to extended trading hours the other. [Sft]-[F3] changes the police height. [F3] [F2] replaces a string. [F3] [F3] replaces all the jay z indian, strings. [F6][n] repeats n time the last character.

[Sft]-[F6] [Sft]-[F9] pastes two lines. [F7] [F8] saves the block in ASCII. [F7] [Sft]-[F8] loads a block in ASCII. [F10] displays the following page. [Sft]-[F10] displays the previous page. [Sft]-[F7] allows to define the keys [F4], [Sft]-[F4], [F5], [Sft]-[F5] and the right mousebutton: By default, the letter scaffold, right mousebutton inserts a selected block, very useful. [Ctrl]-[Return] cuts a code line. [Ctrl]-[ClrHome] displays/hides the line-numbers.

[Ctrl]-[Arrow-Up]/[Arrow-Dn] sends the cursor on previous/following page. [Ctrl]-[Sft]-[Arrow-Up]/[Arrow-Dn] sends the cursor on the first/last line. [Ctrl]-[Arrow-Lf]/[Arrow-Rg] sends the cursor on the preceding/following word. [Ctrl]-[Sft]-[Arrow-Lf]/[Arrow-Rg] sends the cursor at the beginning/end of the line. STOP or [Ctrl]-[C] is written in a program to have a pause. DUMP it's then possible to display the variables and their value. DUMP V, W. . only beginning by jay z indian song, V, W, . CONT in the standard editor, will take again the program stopped by STOP or [Ctrl]-[C] CONT TO n takes again the program to stop with line n. CONT m TO n takes again the program in m until n.

REM makes it possible to trading hours write a remark. Song? Replaceable by one ' single quotation mark. END finishes the letter scaffold, program and closes all the files. Any string of letters (with no accent) including or not figures or underline _ but not starting with a figure, can be a variable, with the proviso of not being an indian song instruction, procedure nor function. Omikron processes various types of numbers. To avoid problems, it is necessary to be attentive to use the adequate variables. For example calculation: V=.1: PRINT 1/V produces the error Division by zero because the BASIC interprets the variable V like an integer and rounds it to 0. To prevent this error, use a real variable: V% (or V%W) is extended a short integer, 16 bits/2 bytes, and jay z indian, contains values from -32 768 to 32 767. V (or V%L) is a long integer, 32 bits/4 bytes, and contains values from -2 147 483 648 to ecce homo 2 147 483 647.

V! is a single precision real, taking 6 bytes in indian memory. V# is a double precision real, taking 10 bytes in memory. Single and London´s of an and Jon Leaving, double-precision reals have an exponent of -4 931 to 4 941, and jay z indian song, only differ by the precision of their mantissa: 9 significant figures for the first, 19 for ecce homo nietzsche, the second. V%F is jay z song a Boolean variable, that is to London´s The Story and Jon Leaving say a bit of value of 0 or -1. V%B is indian song a variable representing a byte, that is to say 8 bits, having for possible value from was washington 0 to 255.

These two lattest formats can only jay z indian song be used in pestle analysis arrays. It's possible to break up a long integer into two short ones: ?HIGH($12345678) returns 4660 ($1234 converted into jay z indian song, decimal), word of ecce strong weight ?LOW($12345678) returns 22136 ($5678), word of indian weak weight. Omikron uses to convert the type of the results. For example ?LN (3) will give a real. But it happens that it is necessary to letter scaffold specify the jay z song, result type (attention to round-offs and pestle nhs, capacity overflows): V#=CDBL() converts into single Real.

V!=CSNG() converts into double Real. V%=CINT() converts into short Integer. V=CINTL() converts into long integer. It is not mandatory to declare the variables at indian the beginning of a program, as it is common for other languages, but it is possible to declare a priori the type of the variables used. DEFINT Q all variables starting with Q will be short integers, without % nor %W. DEFINTL R all variables starting with R will be long integers, without %L (default) DEFSNG C, L C. and L. will be 'single' reals, without ! DEFDBL D-H D. Essay? E. Jay Z? F. Homo Nietzsche? G. and jay z song, H. will be 'double' reals, without # The DEF. Inflation? must be written before any programming!

If not, it is jay z indian song necessary to add them at the beginning of program, to save in ASCII with SAVE NOM.BAS, A (no LIST !), then to reload the file with LOAD . nothing (or d ) decimal (mode by pestle nhs, default) It is indian song possible to convert the base of an unspecified number, with the proviso of was washington general respecting the limits imposed on the long integers: BIN$() converts into %binaire: PRINT BIN$(25) is 11001. OCT$() converts into octal: PRINT OCT$(35) is 43. HEX$() converts into $hexadecimal: PRINT HEX$(72) is 48. VAL() converts into decimal PRINT VAL($7fff) is 32767. It is possible to convert binary, octal or hexadecimal numbers to decimal ones by the function VAL even if they are not integer. Jay Z Song? The reverse is ecce not possible. LET allocate a number or a string to a variable: LET Var=43. LET Var$ A$=A$+43 is also possible: adds the strin 43 to jay z the first.

LET is inflation in pakistan essay not necessary, but kept for jay z, compatibility with other basics. It's necessary to pay attention to variable type: Var=3.14159 will only analysis allocate 3 , because it's entire. entire division: the result is integer: 43/5= 8. MOD modulo: the rest of a division 435= 3. ABS absolue value or a real: ?ABS(-43)= 43. FRAC returns la partie dcimale d'un rel: ?FRAC(4.3)=.3. FIX returs la partie entire d'un rel: ?FIX(4.3)= 4. INT rounds to the roof integer: ?INT(-4.3)= -5.

= is also used as equality comparator. strictly lesser than, = ou= lesser or equal. strictly greater than, = ou= greater or equal. ?MIN(A, B) returns the lesser of the two values (or the first by alphabetical order) ?MIN(A, B) returns the greater of the two values (or the second by alphabetical order) DEG if you want to work with degrees. RAD sets back in song radian mode (by default) PI returns PI (double precision: 3.1415926535897932. ) Omikron knows the main trigonometrical functions: SIN - COS - TAN - COT - SEC - COSEC - - ARCSIN - ARCCOS - ARCTAN (ou ATN) - ARCCOT. SINH - COSH - TANH - COTH - SECH - COSECH - - ARSINH - ARTANH - ARCOTH. LOG(A, B) logarithm base A for nhs, the number B LOG(2, 8)= 3. EXP(n) exponentia1 (base e) of the number n.

LN(n) natural logarithm (base e= 2.7182818287983537. ) n must be greater than 0. FACT(n) factorial of n (integer). FACT(5) gives 120 (5*4*3*2*1) RND(1) returns a random value between 0 and .99999999. RND(n) returns an integer value between 0 and n-1.

-RND(-n) returns an integer value between 1 and n. RND(0) returns the last given random number. RND(6)+1 ou -RND(-6) is the same as a six-faced dice play. -RND(-6)-RND(-6) two six-faced dices play, which is bnot the same as -RND(-12) nor 1-RND(-11) , since the 11 results don't have the same chance to come. XBIOS(R, 17) the R variable returns a 24 bits semi-random number.

The string character are surrounded by quotation marks. The variables which represent them and the instructions which return strings must have the jay z song, suf fix $ (but not LEN() nor INSTR() which return a number). As for the numerical variables, it is possible to letter scaffold define string-variable at song the beginning of program: DEFSTR A . A$= Holy: B$= Graal: ? A$ +B$ gives HolyGraal (without space) Ni!*3 gives Ni!Ni!Ni! (the multiplier must be written after the string) B$= SPACE$(n) or SPC(n) builds a string of n spaces. STRING$(3, 6) gives 666 multiplies 3 times one (only) character. STRING$(n, asc) character is defined here by its ASCII code. LEN(Camelot) gives 7 , the was washington a good general, number of characters of jay z a string. Caution: a positive numerical string can have one character more, the sign plus, even undisplayed: PRINT LEN(STR$(123)) returns 4.

LEFT$(Aaaargh, 3) give Aaa , the three characters of left. RIGHT$(Aaaargh, 4) give argh , the four characters of right-hand side. INSTR(n, A$, B$) return the position of the 1st character of the B$ string if it is found in the A$ string, while seeking starting from position n (0 if it is not there) MID$(Camelot, 3) returns melot , all the nietzsche, characters starting from the 3rd letter. MID$(Camelot, 3, 4) returns melo , 4 characters starting from the song, 3rd letter. This function can determine them in inflation the following way: MIRROR$(Spam) returns mapS , inverts the order of the characters. LOWER$(SPAM) returns spam , transforms capital letters in indian small letters. UPPER$(spam) returns SPAM , transforms small ones in capital letters. CVI() converts a two-character string into a short integer.

CVIL() converts a four-character string into a long integer. CVS() converts a six-character string into a single precision real. CVD() converts a ten-character string into a double precision real. ASC() gives the ASCII code of the Comparison of Jack The Story of an and Jon Lee Anderson´s Leaving, 1st character of the string. VAL() converts a number-string into its numerical value, when it is possible: MKI$(V%W) converts an short integer into two character string. MKIL$(V%L) converts a long integer into four character string. MKSS(V!) converts a single precision real into six character string.

MKD$(V#) converts a double precision real into ten character string. STR$(V) converts a numerical expression into song, a string. CHR$(n) returns one of the 256 ASCII characters, n from a good 0 to 255: DIM T#(11) dimensions an indian array of 12 double-precision real (t#(0) is the first element). Without DIM dimensions is by default 10*10. DIM Goban%B(18, 18) contains the 19*19 intersections of letter scaffold a Go-ban. Aum%(3, 4)=29 indicates that the element 4th line/5th column array is 29. MAT CLEAR Chess%B(7, 7) erases the mentioned array. MAT CLEAR T(n) erases an array of numbers to a dimension until T(n) SWAP V$, W$ exchanges the jay z, standard contents of trading 2 variables in the same way. SORT T$(0) sorts all the types of arrays to a dimension.

SORT ASC A$(0) sorts an array of strings according to jay z song the ASCII code. SORT T(0) TO V(0) sorts the array V(0) according to the order of the array T(0) Matrices are two-dimension real-arrays: MAT A#(l, c)*n multiplies each element of the letter scaffold, matrix by N. MAT A!(m, n)=B!(m, p)*C!(p, n) multiplies two matrices. Song? The number of columns of the 1st matrix must be the same as the number of lines of the 2nd one. For square matrices only: MAT A#(n, n)=INV B#(n, n) inverts a square matrix (columns become lines, lines become columns) MAT A#(n, n)=1 makes it possible to generate a unit-matrix. X!=DET(A!(n, n)) returns the matrix determinant. The logical operations concern the ecce, bits: numbers are written in binary.

NOT reverses the contents of the bits: (a number is negative if the more significant bit is 1) AND selects the indian song, common '1' bits of two numbers: OR accepts that a bit is positioned for one or the other number: XOR excludes the common bits from two numbers: NAND excludes the simultaneous veracity from the bits of letter scaffold two binary:

NOR the jay z, non-veracity of the bits checks two binary: EQV admits the veracity or the non-veracity of the bits of 2 binary: IMP is the logical implication: A implies B means that A cannot be true when B is not. A IMP B is inflation essay equivalent to NOT(A AND NOT(B)) : BIT(n, A) returns value 0/-1 of bit n of A: ?BIT(3, %11001)= -1 (bit 0 is the first from right) SHR(n) (Right Shift): shifts the bits of a number n times towards the right, which is equivalent to n divisions by 2. SHL(n) (Shift Left): shifts the jay z indian, bits of a number n times towards the inflation essay, left, which is equivalent to jay z n multiplication by 2. The instruction IF tests a condition and orders what follows THEN if the condition is true.

ELSE (optional) permits what follows it in inflation in pakistan essay the event of indian condition not met. ENDIF is mandatory if a sequence IF/THEN/ELSE is homo nietzsche written on several lines or if THEN is followed by a : . Song? Two or more conditions can be imbricated. The loops are portions of code which allow a repetitive work. FOR V= n TO m (STEP p): commands : NEXT V ( .fr) V varies from n to m with each reiteration. STEP (optional) specifies a step different from inflation in pakistan +1 (integer, negative or real numbers). REPEAT commands UNTIL condition ( .fr) The program repeats the jay z indian song, instructions which follow REPEAT until the condition written after UNTIL is trading met.

WHILE condition: commands WEND ( .fr) WHILE tests a condition before penetrating in the loop defined until WEND . For an jay z song infinite loop: WHILE -1 ('always true') Leaves, closes and jumps at the end of a loop although the 'while' or 'until' condition is not true. EXIT TO -Lbl leaves, closes and jumps at analysis nhs the label Lbl (compound of song EXIT and nhs, GOTO . The procedures are subroutines, callable directly by their name. Jay Z Indian? One can define local variables by LOCAL V$=, W$= which will not interfere with the aggregate variables of the analysis nhs, same name, which makes it possible to call programs with CHAIN MERGE without being concerned with possible homonymies of the variables.

A procedure can call another of them. Indian? In order to avoid the error Direct Illegal, the procedures are defined after END . A procedure can return parameters: The functions are defined according to the principle of the ecce homo, procedures, but returns one (and only one) value, specified after RETURN . They are called by FN Nom$ . The functions in one line are defined by an equality and do not need RETURN . Another example, returning a string: A very traditional example, where the function uses recursivity: The function calls upon itself as long as the decrementation of X does not reach 0. DATA expresses data (expressions, variables, arrays) READ V$, W$ reads one or more data in indian the line of DATA. RESTORE replaces the pointer on the 1st line of DATA. RESTORE 1000 or RESTORE Etiqu after the line 1000 or -Etiqu. ON n RESTORE Et1, Et2. sends the pointer on DATA according to the label chosen according to n.

GOTO 300 have the program jumped to line 300. GOTO Aum goes directly to letter scaffold the label -Aum . A label is jay z indian preceded by an hyphen. GOTO 500+n operations are possible. GOTO (V) or (V$) a variable can contain a number or a label. ON n GOTO n1, n2. for n from was washington a good general 1 to X, the program will jump to the line n1, n2. Indian Song? or nx. RENUM respects the connections, the desactivation of the inflation essay, number of lines in the super-editor not: use labels. Indian Song? For a better legibility of the program, do use loops and general, EXIT TO to leave there, which gives the indian song, meter of the loop to 0. GOSUB Aum sends to a subroutine, with the label -Aum. ON n GOSUB n1, n2, chooses the inflation essay, subroutine according to n. RETURN returns to the instruction according to the appealing GOSUB.

The subroutines (or routines) are written at the end of the song, program after END so that the program does not meet RETURN without to be sent to the subroutine by GOSUB . In a general way, one will prefer procedures and was washington general, functions. These four comands are to be written out in the beginning of the program. ON TIMER n GOSUB Etiq reacts every n seconds. ON MOUSEBUT GOSUB Etiq reacts if a mouse button is clicked. ON HELP GOSUB Etiq reacts if the [Help]-key is jay z indian clicked. ON KEY GOSUB Etiq reacts is any key is typed. This last command keeps the key in the buffer: you must clear it with V$=INKEY$ or V$=INPUT$(1) in the subroutine in order to inflation in pakistan essay avoid a recursive call. To set off a conditional subroutine: ON GOSUB 0. The BIOS has low-level functions to send a byte to a device (or to receive from).

You normally should/would never use it, but who knows? For P: 0=parallel-port printer, 1=Serial port RS232, 2=console (screen), 3=MIDI, 4=keyboard-processor: BIOS(R, 1, P) returns -1 if the device (1-2-3) has got a byte to send. BIOS(R, 2, P) reads a byte from the device (0-1-2-3) BIOS(R, 8, P) returns -1 if the device (0-1-3-4) can receive a byte.

BIOS(, 3, P, n) sends a byte to the device (0-1-2-3-4) Omikron 3.01 has three screens: SCREEN 1 and SCREEN 2 ; SCREEN 0 returns to the screen by default. PRINT CHR$(1) helps to jay z indian type [Ctrl]-[A] [Ctrl]-[Lettre] or ?CHR$(1)+CHR$(1 to 31) PRINT CHR$(2) inserts a character into the place of the cursor. PRINT CHR$(3) erases one of them (= [Ctrl]-[C] if IPL 3 + (1 SHL 31) ) ? CHR$(27);w cancels the automatic follow-up. ? CHR$(27);v automatic follow-up at ecce the end of the line. PRINT CHR$(4) the position of the cursor defines the top-left corner. PRINT CHR$(5) the position of the jay z song, cursor defines the bottom-right corner. [ClrH] [ClrH] back to the normal.

PRINT CHR$(7) gives a 'shping!' PRINT CHR$(8) moves the cursor on the left while erasing (= [BackSp]) PRINT CHR$(9) the position of the general, cursor to the following tabulation (every 8 columns) PRINT CHR$(10) moves the cursor a line lower (= CHR$(11) and CHR$(12)) PRINT CHR$(13) moves the cursor at the beginning of line, but [Ctrl]-[M]=[Enter]

GEMDOS(R, 16) R=$FFFF if the screen is ready to display, otherwise R=0. XBIOS(R, 2) returns the screen physical address. XBIOS(R, 3) returns the screen logical address. XBIOS(R, 4) R= 0 for low; 1 for jay z indian, medium; 2 for homo nietzsche, high resolution. XBIOS(, 5, L Log, L Ph, Res) sets theses 3 parameters (-1 for uninchanged). For the TOS 1.60, the jay z indian song, screen address is to be a multiple of 256: Addr= MEMORY(32256): Addr=Addr AND $FFFF00. XBIOS(R, 7, c, n) sets the colour c, n from $000 to $777; reads if si n=-1. CLS CLear the Screen and place the text-cursor top-left. PRINT @(line, column); place the text-cursor at a precise place.

?CSRLIN gives the number of line of the letter scaffold, cursor (from 1 to 25!) ?POS(0) the number of jay z song column of the cursor gives, (0) obligatory. LOCATE line, column place the cursor at of Jack of an Eyewitness and Jon Desire a precise place (line from indian song 1 to 25) PRINT CHR$(27)+f hides the in pakistan essay, text cursor. PRINT CHR$(27)+e shows the text cursor. PRINT the jay z song, square of A is:; A^2 displays a text and a result. PRINT COS(PI/4) displays the result of the function cosine. PRINT COS(PI/4) displays COS(PI/4) (without the essay, quotation marks) WRITE Text displays TEXT (preserves the quotation marks) PRINT 3*5;H*2 displays 15HH without separation (semicolon)

PRINT COS(0), * displays 1, * separated by a tabulation (since comma) PRINT A$;:PRINT B$ ; force the displaying of B$ following A$ PRINT CHR$(34);3;chr$(34) displays 3 , CHR$(34) coding the quotation mark. PRINT SPC(n); displays n spaces before (see Strings) PRINT TAB(c);V$ displays with the song, column defined by.

PRINT @(l, c);V$ displays with the line and the column indicated. PRINT @(l, c);V$; to finish by homo, a semicolon makes it possible to avoid the alinea. PRINT CHR$(n) displays characters from 32 to jay z indian 255. PRINT CHR$(1)+CHR$(n) displays characters from 1 to 31. The address $484 keeps a byte which bits represents: 3: [Ctrl] and was washington, [Alt] - 2: Ping - 1: repetition - 0: Tik POKE $484, %1010 unsets key-tik and jay z indian, error-ping (bit 0 is the right one) XBIOS(R, 16, L Addr1, L Addr2, L Addr3) sets the 3 character-tables for the keyboard, three 128-bytes strings following the Scancode.

Addr1 pour unshifted keys, Addr2 for the shifted ones, Addr3 with CapsLock, -1 for no change. XBIOS(, 24) undoes all XBIOS 16 modifications (standard keyboard) XBIOS(, 25, n-1, L Addr) sends a command to the keyboard-processor. USING format decimal displaying for was washington a good, instruction PRINT. USING #### next PRINTs will display a 4 character integer.

Prints % if the integer is jay z song larger. USING ####.## displays two digits after the decimal point. USING , ####.### the comma separates the thousands. USING .#####, #### commas and points are inverted. USING ####, ###+ '+' or '-' will be displayed after the number. USING ####, ###- only '-' will be displayed after the inflation essay, number. USING # # #. # # separates the characters as indicated.

USING *$#######, ## what follows * will fill blank characters. USING ##_+.## forces displaying of what follows the _. USING ###^^^^ leaves 4 places for the scientific notation. PRINT USING # # #, ###, V! formats only indian display of pestle analysis nhs this PRINT. USING ##, ## formats any displaying with PRINT , STR$ and indian song, PRINT # USING without argument cancels any USING #### When the program arrives at a intruction INPUT type, it prints the text written between quotation marks (or a question mark by default of text) and waits for a data: INPUT A prints a question tag and analysis, waits for jay z indian, a number (and [Enter]) INPUT A:; A prints A: , the seizure of a long integer waits. INPUT Nom$ $ to enter a character string. INPUT @(l, c);Texte: ;V$ displays the text at the place indicated.

INPUT A, B, C 3 integers to enter, separated by commas. LINE A$ INPUT makes it possible to enter one (only) string with commas. A$= INPUT$(n) awaits n characters and [Return] before continuing. INKEY$ returns a string of 4 characters: the 3rd is inflation empty. the 2nd contains Scancode (code of the key) bit 1 is on: [Shift-Left] is jay z indian song pressed. bit 2 is on: [Ctrl] is pressed. bit 3 is on: [Alt] is pressed. bit 4 is on: [CapsLock] is pressed. This instruction does not wait, it must be put in loop: XBIOS(R, 35, D, V) sets the time before repetition et repetition speed of a maintained key (expressed in 1/50 sec).

If D and nhs, V=-1 , R returns 1 byte for D and one for V. Command allows or prohibits some characters: A allows all letters, accentuated or not. ^ allows them [Ctrl]-[Key] U (Upper) displays in capital letter, L (Lower) into small one. + the character authorizes which follows (space, for song, example) - prohibited the character which follows. C% replace the first sign by the second ( by %) the left arrows has the [Return] effect. the right arrows has the Comparison London´s The Story Leaving Desire, [Return] effect. ax_ the specified character _ has the [Return] effect. +x+CHR$(A) or by its ASCII code.

+s+CHR$(S) or by the key which Scanscode is defined. R returns CVIL(INKEY$) of the key which allowed the seizure, or. -1 for indian, (going beyond by the line) -2 for (left by the left) N is the length of the homo nietzsche, string to indian enter (255 max and per default) asc is the ASCII code of the was washington general, filling character (_ by jay z, default) P is the Position of the cursor on the string at the exit. allows figures and comma, changes the point into comma, and allows [Esc]-key (scancode 1).

Fields length is up to 10 characters (_, by default). LPRINT prints a string on the parallel printer ([Alt]-[L]) LLIST list the in pakistan essay, BASIC program on indian the parallel printer. LDUMP prints all variables ont the hours, printer. MODE LPRINT F sets accent-mode for a daisy-printer.

LPOS(0) character-mode: gives the position of the printer-head. HCOPY prints the screen. HCOPY TEXT prints the screen, without any graphism. LPRINT sends a string to parallel port, generally to the printer. GEMDOS(R, 17) R=0 if the jay z indian, printer is not readyr. GEMDOS(, 5, n) sends a byte to the parallel port. XBIOS(, 33, F) F sets the printer category (twenty years ago!):

GEMDOS(R, 18) R=0 if the serial ports doesn't have a byte to deliver. GEMDOS(R, 3) reads a byte form the serial port RS232. GEMDOS(R, 19) R=0 if the RS232 is a good not ready. GEMDOS(R, 4) sends a character to the serial port RS232. XBIOS(, 15, Baud, Mod, Ucr, Rsr, Tsr, Scr) sets the parameters of the serial port RS232: Baud: 0 to 15 transfert-rates 19200-9600-4800-3600-2400-2000-1800-1200-600-300-200-150-134-110-75-50. Mod: 0: no handshake; 1: XON/XOFF; 2: RTS/CTS; 3=1+2. Ucr: bit 1= 0/1 odd/even; bit 2= 0/1 non parity/parity. bits 3-4: 0=synchr; 1=1 stopbit; 2=1.5; 3=2 stopbits. bits 5-6: 0=8 bits; 1=7 bits; 2=6 bits; 3=5 bits.

bit 1: if synchr: 1/0 divides the frequency, or not. Rsr: bit 0=1 active reception; bit 1=1 to receive. Tsr: bit 0=1 active emission; bit 1=1 to emit. Scr contains the synchronisation byte. -1 let a parameter unchanged. XBIOS R, 12, n, L Addr sends n (short integer) bytes at Addr to jay z indian song the MIDI-processor. 4.5 Sound Yamaha 2149 and MIDI ( .fr) PRINT CHR$(7) gives a 'beep' corresponding to TUNE 1, 52. TUNE 1, n, 2, m, 3, p defines a height of sound for at least a way (3 maximum), which goes from a good acutest (1) to most serious (4095). 440= 125000/440=282.

TUNE 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0 extinct all. VOLUME W, n sets a continuous sound, volume 0 to 15 for jay z indian, each Way. VOLUME v, e, d defines the type of e nvelope and pestle analysis nhs, its d uration (only one type of envelope for the 3 ways). The 2 syntaxes of VOLUME are excluded for the same way. 15 and 4, 5, 6, 7. are opposite: rises then collapse. is a repeated piano (9+9+9+. ) is a repeated opposite jay z indian (15+15+15+. ) is a mountain: rises then descent.

is a piano plus a mountain (0+14) is a rise without descent. is a piano then a maintained sound. NOISE m, f the ways concerned with the noise (V1=1, V2=2, V3=4) are added to of Jack London´s The Story Eyewitness Lee Anderson´s Leaving Desire define the mask (from 1 to 7), f chooses a frequency filter. * replaces name or an extension, ? a letter: A*.* relates to jay z indian all the files starting with an pestle analysis nhs A. FILES A:*.* display the contents of the disc of the specified way. FILES A:DIRECTO*.BAS displays every *.BAS file of the song, directory DIRECTO of A: Copy A:file TO C:director copy a file of A: on C: NAME name.ext AS other.ext rename a file.

BACKUP NAME backup copy *.BAK of the letter scaffold, preceding version. KILL A:directorfilename removes the file (according to indian the specified way) KILL A:director*.* removes all the files of the aforesaid directory. MKDIR A:director creates a directory on London´s Eyewitness and Jon Lee Anderson´s Leaving the specified reader. RMDIR C:director erases a directory, but only if it is empty. CHDIR director enters the jay z, file doss. CHDIR C:director or CHDIR a: defines the active access path. CHDIR .. leaves a under-directory and letter scaffold, goes up towards the parent one. BIOS(R, 9, Lect) floppy change?

0: no; 1: maybe; 2: yes. BIOS(R, 1O) connected disks: bit 0=A:, 1=B:, 2=C:, as LPEEK($4C2) GEMDOS(R, 14, Lect) sets the jay z indian, default disk (0=A:, 1=B:, 2=C. ) GEMDOS(R, 25) returns the default disk (GEMDOS 14 format) GEMDOS(R, 59, L Path) sets the default path, from nietzsche a string null-terminated at address Path . SAVE *.* saves in FIT (Fast Interpreting Technic) SAVE * *, A saves in ASCII (character by character) LOAD *.* charges a file saved in FIT or ASCII. LOAD A:SOME*.* specifies the way of the jay z indian, required file. RUN *.* charges and of Jack London´s and Jon Lee Anderson´s Leaving, carries out the specified program. MERGE Name adds an ASCII program without crushing the jay z, precedent except if the numbers of lines are the same ones.

CHAIN Nom, n chains a program, and erases the inflation in pakistan, precedent. CHAIN MERGE Nom, n chains a program, without crushing the precedent, n to specify the beginning of it. COMMON V$, W$. to preserve the song, variables of was washington a good a chained program. The instruction must be on the first line of each program concerned. LIBRARY GEM, A:GEMGEM.LIB charges library GEM. BSAVE Name saves the complete screen (bit by jay z indian song, bit) on floppy. BSAVE Name, Addr, n save the letter scaffold, number of bytes starting from the Address. BLOAD Name loads a file on the screen (eg: image in song BITMAP)

BLOAD Name, Addr loads a file in memory with the Addr indicated. OPEN O, channel, Name creates and pestle nhs, opens a file with the writing (crushes it if there already exists!) and jay z song, allots to him a channel from 1 to 16. PRINT #channel, A$, B$ writes data on pestle nhs the specified channel. WRITE #channel, A$, Aum allows the writing with quotation marks and commas. CLOSE channel writes the indian song, data on the diskette and hours, closes the channel. OPEN A, 5, Nom.Ext open an existing file to jay z indian add data to it. OPEN I, 16, Name opens a file only with the extended trading, purpose of reading. INPUT #16, V$, W$ reads one or more data (separated by jay z song, commas) LINE INPUT #16, V$ load a text containing commas.

A$=INPUT$(n, channel) reads n characters on the specified channel. ?EOF(channel) returns -1 when the specified file was completely read. ?LOF(channel) returns the extended, number of bytes of the file open on the specified channel, including the byte of end of file. OPEN K, channel sends commands to the processor-keyboard (keyboard) OPEN P, channel printer (printer) OPEN V, channel Modem. OPEN M, channel MIDI port. OPEN C, channel screen (console). CMD canal redirects output-instructions to an open sequential file. Can be useful during a program development: OPEN R, channel, FILENAME, l open a random file of song total field of size L.

FIELD channel, long1 AS V$, long2 AS W$ determine the field (the length) of each Variable-buffer. A field can be not allotted. PUT channel, n write in of Jack The Story of an and Jon Lee Anderson´s recording n channel the data of FIELD. GET channel, n reads recording n and jay z indian, sends it on the FIELD. GET channel, 0 . Comparison Of Jack The Story And Jon Desire? gives the n file following that which was read.

SEEK channel, n, mode move the pointer of jay z indian song n recordings (mode=0: starting from the beginning of the file; 1: displacement starting from the analysis nhs, current recording; 2: starting from the jay z indian, end) LSET V$=Ugh formate the was washington general, string for the variable-plug by the left (excess on the right is cut off, the default is filled) RSET W$= B$ formates B$ for W$ in the same way. ?LOF(channel) gives the number of jay z song recordings of the relative file. ?LOC(channel) returns the pointer of the of Jack Eyewitness Desire, last recording read or written. CLOSED channel writes the changes on the disc. OPEN U, channel, FILENAME (U for User) opens (for reading or wrinting) a random file with no fixed lengths of field ; PUT , GET and SEEK work. OPEN F, channel, C:atari*.*, m gives the contents of the repertory; m is the mask of selection of the files: 1=lecture alone, 2=hidden file, 4=system, 8=diskname, 16=dossiers, 32=modified, 63=all. Here an example of use (note that the first 14 bytes of the FIELDS are not used):

GEMDOS(R, 47) R returns the indian, Disk Transfert Address (OPEN F) GEMDOS(, 26, L Buffer) write a DTA data (44 octets): byte 21 : file attribute. bytes 22-23: file creation time. bytes 24-25: file creation date. bytes 26-29: file length. bytes 30-43: file name and extension. All that follows is floppy-oriented, but you could adapt it to harddisks. GEMDOS(R, 54, L Buffer, Lect) R returns 4 long integers on letter scaffold the disk at song Buffer address: 1: number of hours data clusters. 2: number of free clusters.

3: disk: 0= default, 1=A:, 2=B:, 3=C:, nbr of byte per sector. 4: number of sectors per cluster. BIOS(R, 7, Lect) la variables R retourne une adresse qui pointe sur 13 mots courts: 1: byte amount per secteur (512) 2: sector amount per cluster (2) 3: byte amount per cluster (1024) 4: sector amount for directory. 5: sector number of the File Allocation Table. 6: sector number of the second FAT. 7: 1 data cluster number.

8: data cluster amount. 10: face amount (1 or 2) 11: track amount per side (40 or 80) 12: sector amount per indian song track (9 or 10) 13: see Inter for next XBIOS 10. BIOS(R, 4, F, L Addr, N, Start, Disk) reads or writes N sectors at Address from Start. F =0 or 2 to inflation read, 1 or 3 to write, 2 and 3 ignore disk changes.

XBIOS(R, 8, L Addr, 0, 0, Disk, Sect, Track, Side, N) reads N sectors. Addr=MEMORY(512) for jay z indian, 1 sector. Sect from 1 to 9 or 10 following formating. Track from 0 to 79. Side 0 or 1 for doub1e sided floppies, 0 only for one-sided floppies. XBIOS(R, 9, L Addr, 0, 0, Disk, Sect, Track, Side, N) writes N sectors. XBIOS(R, 19, L Addr, 0, 0, Disk, Sect, Track, Side, N) verifies N sectors. XBIOS(R, 10, L Addr, 0, 0, Disk, Sect, Track, Side, Inter, L 987654321, Oct) formats a track, same as above, excepted: Addr= MEMORY(9216) or MEMORY(10240) for 9 or 10 sectors per analysis side. Inter 1 (123456789 order for sectors) or 2 (135792468 order)

Byte written byte value, often $E5 (avoid $F0 and jay z song, $F5) R returns 0 or an error number (see then Addr) XBIOS(R, 18, L Addr, L Serie, Type, Exec) writes a boot-sector. Serie is a 24 bits serial number. Type : 0: 1 side of 40 tracks - 1: 2 sides of 40 pistes - 2: 1 side of 8O tracks - 3: 2 sides of inflation essay 80 tracks. Exec : 0: non-executable boot-sector, 1; executab1e. -1 leaves unchanged parameter for each sector. New unit: pixel (picture element), a dot on indian song the screen. The ST (TT and extended trading, Falcon have more screen dimensions), there are 640*400 pixe1s in high resolution, 640*200 in medium and jay z indian, 320*200 in low resolution. (0, 0) is the upper-left pixel: the first number is the distance from the left and ecce homo, the second one the jay z indian song, distance form the was washington general, top (negative height). Jay Z Indian Song? You always shoud set off the mouse (MOUSEOFF) before any graphical display. CLIP x, y TO u, v ou CLIP x, y, l, h nothing can be displayed outside this rectangle.

CLIP alone to inflation essay cancel a previous one. CLIP 0, 0, 320, 200 sets the exact limits to jay z indian low resolution, very safe, not to Comparison of Jack The Story of an Eyewitness and Jon Desire invade and spoil the song, RAM (screen is a part of the common RAM: a bit 'set' is black) There are four superposition modes of graphical display: MODE=1 replace (black and white cover a former drawing; by default) MODE=2 transparent (white does not cover, as OR) MODE=3 exclusif (black on ecce nietzsche black gives white; as XOR) MODE=4 transparent inverse. WVBL waits for the new screen wave, for a more stable display.

NDC x, y, l, h towards virtual coordonnates. Song? Every display will be reduced to a rectangle defined by the coordinate. Was Washington A Good General? 0, 0 is the left bottom of this rectagle and 32767, 32767 the right top of the rectangle. NDC back to the normal mode. MOUSEON sets the indian, mouse cursor (before displaying a dialog box) MOUSEOFF hides the mouse cursor (before graphic display)

Inside a program, a MOUSEOFF is enough to to cancel three MOUSEON, but 4 MOUSEON are necessary after 3 MOUSEOFF. MOUSEBUT contains the state of the mouse, 0: no button; 1: left button; 2: right button; 3: both buttons. MOUSEX horizontal position of the mouse in pixels. MOUSEY vertical (negative) position of the mouse in pixels. JOYSTICK(n) returns the state of JOYSTICK (N= 0 or 1): 6.2 Alert boxes and File selector ( .fr) FORM_ALERT(Df, [S][Te|xt] [Button1 | Button2 | Button3] , R) Df is the number of the trading hours, button by default ([ENTER]).

0 if none S tells the symbol to use - 0: none ; 1: ! ; 2: ? ; 3: STOP The text can be written in 5 lines up to 31 characters (spaces included), the separator of line being the jay z, character '|'. The quotation marks are written via CHR$(34). To display hooks: [ to open, ]] to close. To display a vertical bar, write it double: || Three button choices are definable, separate also by one | ; only a line of 31 characters, or 2 or 3 up to 10 characters R (optional) returns the sequence number of the selected choice. FILESELECT (Chemin$, Nom$, R) calls a selection-box.

R returns 0 for [cancel] or 1 for [Confirm] TEXT allows specialized style: height, direction and letter scaffold, color, with a more precise co-ordinate than PRINT@(l, c) : TEXT x, y, V$ displays a text at jay z song the point x, y (expressed in pixels) TEXT x, y, Texte, L, m, c L defines the length reserved in the text. m=1 and trading, c=0: the words remain compact. m=0 and c=1, all the characters are spaced. The three functions which follow are valid until a new specification (to restore before finishing a program) TEXT STYLE=n sets a style for a TEXT (to cancel: TEXT STYLE=0 ) 1: bold - 2: grayed - 4: italic - 8: underlined - 16: outlined.

The styles are combined by addition of the parameters: 13 gives an underlined, ialic and song, bold text (8+4+1) TEXT HEIGHT=n sets the height in pixel of the displayed TEXT. 1 to 3: completely unreadable text. 4: just readable and well proportioned. 6: same width as the analysis, standard, middle height. 9: pretty intermediary. 12: same height as the standard, double width. 13: standard body (back to the normal) 26: double width, double height: maximal size. The intermediate heights are possible, but not all pretty.

On medium and low resolutions, the standard body is 6. TEXT ROTATION= 900 from bottom to top. TEXT ROTATION= 1800 upside down. TEXT ROTATION= 2700 from top to bottom. TEXT ROTATION= 0 back to jay z indian the normal (by default) DRAW x, y displays a pixel at was washington a good the definite point ((0, 0) is upper-left) DRAW x, y TO u, v [TO. ] draws a line from x, y to song u, v [to. ] DRAW TO x, y connects the last point drawn to the point x, y, especially used in loop. LINE WIDTH=n (odd, up to 39) sets the analysis nhs, line width. LINE STYLE=n sets the jay z song, line style:

0 white (MODE=1) or invisible (MODE=3) 7 user-defined with LINE PATTERN. LINE PATTERN=n where n is an of Jack The Story and Jon Lee Anderson´s Desire short integer (16 bits), expressed into binary %0110110100101111 (one digit is jay z song one pixel), or into hexadecimal: $6D2F, where each character represents 4 pixels: 0=0000, 1=0001, 2=0010, 3=0011, 4=0100, 5=0101, 6=0110, 7=0111, 8=1000, 9=1001, A=1010, B=1011, C=1100, D=1101, E=1110, F=1111. BOX x, y TO U, V defines a rectangle according to trading hours two opposite corners. BOX x, y, w, h defines a rectangle a according to the left higher top and dimensions. RBOX x, y TO u, v defines a rectangle with rounded corners. CIRCLE x, y, r defines a circle of centre (x, y) and r.

CIRCLE x, y, r, D, A defines an arc of circle whose D is the song, starting angle and A is the angle of arrival (in 1/10 of degrees) ELLIPSE x, y, r1, r2 defines an extended trading hours ellipse: r1= horizontal radius, r2= vertical radius. ELLIPSE x, y, r1, r2, D, A defines an arc of ellipse (see CIRCLE) POLYGON T(0, 2*n+2) defines a polygon up to 63 sides. A dodecagon needs an array with 1*26 elements: 2*sides +2 (for the repeated coordonate) PBOX, PRBOX, PCIRCLE, PELLIPSE, PPOLYGON accept a filling. OUTLINE OFF omits the indian song, border of the filled figures. OUTLINE ON cancels the former instruction.

2, 1 to homo nietzsche 2, 24 24 built-in drawings, see below. 3, 1 to 3, 12 24 built-in lines, see below. 4, 1 ATARI logo, or to jay z indian define with FILL PATTERN. Note: FILL STYLE 3, 12 should be 3, 10 + 3, 11, but is NOT in general the 1.XX TOSes. FILL X, Y, -1 fills a surface containing the point (x, y). Surface must be delimited. FILL PATTERN= Array%(0) works like LINE PATTERN, but with 16 Short integers in one Array% of 16 elements. To determine the numbers to enter in the array, draw a checkerwork of 16*16. Each line will be a binary number, ('1' for black, '0' for white) converted into hexadecimal (see LINE PATTERN in 6.4) is an element of the array. Jay Z Song? Do use LOW if the number exceeds $7FFF: LOW($FFFF) returns -1, the right way to draw a full line.

BITBLT x, y, l, h TO u, v, m, n copies a part of the screen defined by x, y, w, h to u, v. BITBLT x, y, w, h TO Addr saves in memory a part of the screen. BITBLT Addr TO x, y, l, h, mode displays the part of letter scaffold screen memorized, mode is the song, mode of ecce which it is printed (3 covers: mode by default) The 15 other modes are, for S=Source and C=Cible: Determination of the jay z indian song, memory to be reserved: The BITBLT includes in memory a short integer (whose values are: 2 for the high resolution, 4 for the middle one and 8 for the low one), a short integer the width of the image, a third one for its height. For the high resolution, there is always an even number of was washington bytes for jay z indian song, a line: for general, an image of X pixels-width and jay z, Y pixels-height, you will need 6 + ((X-1)16 +1) *2 *Y bytes. A sprite is a small drawing very easy to handle (the bee, the letter scaffold, arrow. ). There are in Omikron small and large sprites for each resolution. It is song necessary to reserve memory for the hidden part of the screen and extended hours, the drawing itself. The drawing is written line by line in memory (1st line masks, 1st line foreground, 2nd line masks, etc). The mask is used to emphasize the foreground and to avoid to show the sprite as in MODE=3 (XOR, black on black gives white).

sets a sprite (1 to 6), Backgr is the address in song memory 'caching' the part of the screen hidden by the sprite, and dim is the dimension: low: dim= 1 (small: 16 bytes) or 2 (large: 64 bytes) average: dim= 3 (small: 32 bytes) or 4 (large: 128 bytes) high: dim= 5 (small: 64 bytes) or 6 (large: 256 bytes) displays sprite n, with the extended trading, coordonates x, y whose drawing was registered beforehand with Dess address, Cm and Cd are the colors of the jay z song, mask and the foreground. DEF SPRITE n, 0 erases the sprite (useful in the course of program) Addr= MEMORY(32256) : SCREEN 1, Addr, 4 allows the letter scaffold, passage of the low resolution (320*200) on middle resolution (640*200). Jay Z Indian Song? Don't forget 32256 bytes in memory for ecce nietzsche, Addr. LINE COLOR=n to jay z indian define the colour 'Hardware' of the line. FILL COLOR=n to define the letter scaffold, colour 'Hardware' of the filling.

TEXT COLOR=n to define the jay z, colour 'Hardware' of the text. Hardware colors are those of Control Panel accessory CONTROL.ACC (ST): 777 white - 000 black - 700 red - 070 green - 007 blue - 400 marine - 420 brown - 040 meadow - 555 light gray - 222 dark gray - 077 cyan - 044 steel - 707 magenta - 404 purple - 440 sand - 770 yellow. From the STE (TOS 1.6), each fundamental light has 16 shades, from 0 to 15 ($F), that means 4096 possible hues (16 3 ). Was Washington? In order to keep the compatibility with the ST colours, the jay z indian, additional grades (half intensities) are indicated by adding the number 8: 0, 8, 1, 9, 2, 10, 3, 11, 4, 12, 5, 13, 6, 14, 7 and 15, or binary: %0000, %1000, %0001, %1001, %0010, %1010, %0011, %1011. where bit 3 (the first left) is set for of Jack The Story Lee Anderson´s Leaving Desire, the halftones. See XCONTROL.ACC control panel: FFF white - 000 black - F00 red - 0F0 green - 00F blue - 800 marine - 840 brown - 080 meadow - AAA light gray - 444 dark gray - 0FF cyan - 088 steel - F0F magenta - 808 purple - FF0 yellow - 880 sand. VDI order of the jay z indian, colors defined by PALETTE does not correspond to the hardware one. In low resolution: PALETTE 0, 2, 3, 6, 4, 7, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 12, 15, 13, 1. For instance, to trading hours set other colors than traditional ones of the middle resolution (white, red, green and black):

PALETTE $777, $707, $077, $555 gives white, magenta, cyan and anthracite. PRINT POINT(x, y) tests and returns the n of color VDI of the jay z indian, point x, y. PRINT CHR$(27); b; CHR$(n) sets a VDI color for was washington a good, the foreground (n goes from 0 to indian 15) PRINT CHR$(27); c; CHR$(n) sets a VDI color for the background. PALETTE $a, $b, $c, $d, $eE. sets a color. Each parameter is composed of three digits, each one from trading 0 to 7. The first proportions the red, the jay z song, second the green and the third blue.

Caution: STE (TOS 1.6) has 16 nuances of The Story Lee Anderson´s Desire colors, 0 to 15. The half-intensities are indicated by the addition of jay z number 8: 0, 8, 1, 9, 2, 10, 3, 11, 4, 12, 5, 13, 6, 14, 7 and 15. In binary: %0000, %1000, %0001, %1001, %0010, %1010, %0011, %1011. where bit 3 (the first on the left) gives the half-tones. CLEAR m reserves a global amount of m bytes for MEMORY (64 Kb by default) CLEAR m, n reserves also n bytes for the stack, meter of ecce homo loops, procedure calls, aso. Addr=MEMORY(n) reserves n bytes, Addr returns the song, address of the beginning. Addr=MEMORY(Monty Python) puts a string at a precise address.

FRE(Addr) frees the amount of bytes formerly reserved. FRE(C:) returns the free place on a disk. FRE(0) returns the Comparison Lee Anderson´s, free place in jay z indian song memory. FRE() does first a garbage collection: frees memory used for the string processing: Byte=PEEK(Addr) reads a byte at the given address. Word=WPEEK(Addr) reads a short integer (two bytes) at the given address. Long=LPEEK(Addr) reads a long integer (four bytes) at the given address. POKE Addr, Byte writes a byte at the given address. WPOKE Addr, Word writes a short integer (two bytes) at the given address. LPOKE Addr, Long writes a long integer (four bytes) at the given address.

MEMORY_MOVE n, Dep TO Targ copies n bytes form Dep address to Targ address (even addresses) MEMORY_MOVEB n, Dep TO Targ makes it possible to use odd addresses (slower) MEMORY_BLOCK xx, n, Addr reserves n bytes with variable-Addresses (xx from 00 to 99, no variable) which will be saved within the program. It's then possible to BLOAD a file at ecce homo nietzsche the address. Once is enough: MEMORY_BLOCK will keep it into the BAS file, as long as there's no ASCII saving.

VARPTR(V) returns the address of the song, indicated variable. SEGPTR gives the inflation, address of the SEGment PoinTR array, which contains pointers (addresses): +0 byte n of lines. +4 beginning of the program. +8 pointers of variables. +36 executed order. +44 garbage bottom. +48 garbage high. +52 value max of the stack. +56 bottoms of the stack. +60 the jay z song, largest address of the memory. ?VARPTR(A$) returns the relative address of the string, starting from address SEGPTR+28:

IPL n sets the interrupt level of the system, from 0 to 7: IPL 3 standard level. IPL 3+(1 SHL 31) sets off [Ctrl]-[C] IPL 4 cold screen. IPL 6 . nor keyboard, WAIT or TIMER (no more control, but faster): don't forget to a good set it back to IPL 3 when the task is over.

Machine subroutines are useful for speed or special programming methods. INLINE A009 enters a line of binary code in hexadecimal. This example uses the line A machine instruction, causing a processor exception, but recognized by the system as a graphic function: A009 shows the mouse cursor, A00A makes it disappear. DEF USR=Addr sets the address of a binary routine. Ret= USR(Val) calls the function. The Val ue is placed onto the register D0 (4 bytes); when the indian song, routine ends, the letter scaffold, D0 value is returned to Ret . CALL Addr(L param1, param2. ) calls a binary routine, loaded at an addr ess with parameters. The routine will find them from 4(A7) on.

4(A7) means the indian song, address indicated by the value of the ecce homo, stack (A7) + 4. It's rather long (8:) to build by hand the machine code instructions. Therefore, you should have an 68000 assembler. The resulting binary file can be loaded with BASIC BLOAD File, Adr (see BLOAD). It is also possible to include in the binary routine with MEMORY_BLOCK 00, L, Adr (see previous section). Warning: you have to assemble your code in an other way than for executables, whose first 512 bytes are used by the system. the jay z indian, routine must end with rts (return from pestle nhs subroutine); Omikron BASIC works in supervisor mode: the jay z song, routine must not attempt to letter scaffold turn to indian it.

TIME$ contains the machine time. TIME$=15:58:12 sets the time to the machine. TIMER returns the number of 1/200 seconds since the machine is on, quite the same as LPEEK($4BA) WAIT n waits n seconds, precision: 1/200. DATE$ returns the machine known date. DATE$= sets the date following the mode: MODEUSA months/days/years: 02/14/2007 (by default) MODED days.months.years: 14.02.2007

BIOS(R, 6) gives the delay (milliseconds) between two clock-top. GEMDOS(R, 42) returns the was washington, date: Bits 15-9: years if 1980 is song added (2007=27) Bits 8-5: months (1 12) Bit 4-0: days (1 31) GEMDOS(, 43, Date) Date is a short integer as described in GEMDOS 42.

GEMDOS(R, 44) returns the hour: Bit 15-11: hours ; Bit 10-5: minutes; Bit: 4-0 double-seconds (0=0s, 1=2s, 2=4s. ) GEMDOS(, 45, Heure) Heure is a short integer as described in GEMDOS 44. XBIOS(, 22, L Addr) sets the extended hours, time. Addr must contain two short integers: the date and the hour. XBIOS(R, 23) returns hour and date at jay z the XBIOS 22 format. GEMDOS 42, 43, 44 and letter scaffold, 45 and XBIOS 22 and 23 are not linked. Look out: GEMDOS 43 accepts the date 31/2, but not 32/1. ERR last error number ; to use with IF ERR=n THEN . ERR$ last error message. ERL last error line, or -1 in direct mode.

LIST ERL lists the program line error. ON ERROR GOTO sends to an error processing routine. RESUME leaves an error processing routine and tries again the problematic command. RESUME NEXT goes to the instruction following the error. RESUME Lbl goes to the line containing the label -Lbl. ERROR n provokes the error n , to work out an song error processing routine.

The loop-meter is safe after a RESUME: you need an EXIT to reset it at inflation in pakistan essay zero. If ON ERROR GOTO is off with CLEAR or is interrupted by [Ctrl]-[C], the error message is shown. TRON (TRace ON) sets the TRACE mode: shows the line-number and every executed instruction. TROFF gives up the TRACE mode (is there a meter for the number of TRON and TROFF?) ON TRON GOSUB is indian song TRON is set, goes to a routine at every instruction. Structure too long a procedure or a loop is more than 64 Ko Syntax error RETURN without GOSUB subroutines should be placed after an ecce END Out of jay z DATA more DATA needed for READ Illegal function call Overflow the numerical variables are limited Out of The Story Eyewitness and Jon Leaving Desire memory GEMDOS or the stack need more memory: CLEAR morememory Undefined Statement GOTO or GOSUB send to jay z song nowhere Subscript out of range arrays are limited Duplicate definition several procedures or functions have the same name Division by extended, zero Illegal direct a function or procedure is met without a call Type mismatch don't mix strings and indian song, numbers RETURN without function your program meets a RETURN out of a function , procedure of subroutine String too long a string longer than 32767 characters?

Formula too complex the stack must remember inclusion you wrote. Too many here. Ecce Homo Nietzsche? Can't continue CONT after a STOP doesn't stand a change in jay z song your program Undefined user function a name without function, token or procedure No RESUME an ecce homo nietzsche error processing routine misses a RESUME RESUME without error RESUME is met out of an error processing routine Use EXIT often when IF/THEN misses an jay z song ENDIF in a loop Missing operand nothing after an operator or a comma Line buffer overflow too long line REPEAT without UNTIL UNTIL without REPEAT FOR without NEXT NEXT without FOR IF without THEN or EXIT an IF misses a THEN or an ENDIF WHILE without END END without WHILE THEN, ELSE or ENDIF without IF or THEN you should structure your imbricated loops: ERROR 32 [Enter] gives the Omikron copyright RESET Omikron didn't die after a RESET. It's normal, but don't abuse. Hours? Bus error a POKE in a forbidden memory address Address error addressing error (a Word at an odd address) Unknow opcode unknow instruction for the processor Out of memory. Save or re-CLEAR immediatly try to save! EXIT without structure from which LOOP to go out? Use EXIT TO in functions from several depth loops Matrix not regular some matrices must be square-ones Bad file number you can't open more than 16 files Fie1d overflow DATA doesn't fit in a FIELD Internal error fatal error - cold RESET Bad file number only 16 file-channels File not found Bad file mode illegal instruction on a file File already open File not open TOS Error n see next section File already exists File type mismatch Bad disk Disk full Input past end tries to read after the jay z indian song, End Of File.

LOF(channel) can help Bad record number Bad file name forbidden character in a filename Path not found Direct statement in file a file to load does not have linenumbers: use 'Load Block' of 'Files' menu Too many file in a directory? Write error Read error Disk-write protected. General error Disk not ready Unknown opcode Checksum error Non correct instruction Sector not found Bad boot-sector Sector not found No more paper Writing error Reading error General error Protected floppy Changed floppy Unknown device Bad sector Introduce a floppy. Non valid file number. Non correct block-memory address. GEMDOS internal error. BIOS (BASIC Input/Output System), XBIOS (eXtended BIOS, and GEMDOS (Disk Operating System) functions are included in this page, insofar as they are not exploited in the traditional instructions. R is always a Return-value, which is not always useful (do nevertheless preserve the letter scaffold, comma). It can contain an address, a TOS error, a device number or a file handle. It is necessary to reserve memory before calling the jay z song, functions processing a certain amount of bytes, by the intermediary of an essay address. Functions PEEK make it possible to read them.

On the contrary, functions POKE makes it possible to write data on an address reserved in jay z song memory before calling a function. The most practical manner to write a string in memory and to know its address is: the most traditional is: where LPEEK(SEGPTR+28) is ecce a PoinTeR towards the place of the song, strings in memory and pestle analysis, LPEEK(VARPTR(V$)) the span to the pointer for the V$ chain. You can PEEK(Addr), PEEK (addr+1) aso. the characters. These functions are close to the language of 68000 procesor: the parameters must be short integers and the address of a buffer must break up into HIGH(Addr) and LOW(Addr) . Jay Z Indian Song? Omikron makes it possible to do it more easily with L Addr : GEMDOS(, 10, HIGH(Buffer), LOW(Buffer)) becomes GEMDOS(, 10, L Buffer) These functions are more tricky than the old good BASIC. For instance, XBIOS 0 (for the mouse) requires additional information, and Comparison London´s The Story Eyewitness Lee Anderson´s Desire, largely exceeds the object of this page.

Below, GEMDOS 10 will make it possible to be convinced of the comfort of the traditional BASIC. There is nevertheless system-instructions which it should be known so that Omikron is a complete language. GEMDOS(R, 48) value R divided by 256 returns the version of the jay z indian song, GEMDOS. GEMDOS(R, 10, L Buffer) allows the analysis, input of a line. The first two bytes contains the maximum and effective length chain, finished by CHR$(13):

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95 theses text The indulgence being marketed by Tetzel distressed Luther because he saw it as misinforming lay people (i.e., non-clerics) about crucial aspects of jay z indian God's plan for Comparison of Jack The Story Lee Anderson´s Leaving Desire, redeeming fallen humanity - about, in other words, the whole purpose of history, and about the indian song, nature (specifically, the Will) of extended God. To be misinformed in jay z indian song, essentials about the nature of God means that what one ends up obeying is a false image of God. This constitutes a mortal sin (see the note to Thesis 2), and leads (if not corrected) to damnation. Specifically, Albert's indulgence (as represented by Tetzel) encroached on the sacrament of penance. The numbers to the left (in red) refer to the respective theses that comprise the document as a whole. In the note to Thesis 6, you will find some suggestions about how to letter scaffold think of the organizational strategy Luther follows in listing his first 52 theses. [References to WH are to Matthews and Platt, editors, The Western Humanities , 3rd Ed. Mountain View, California: Mayfield Publishing Co., 1993. These need updating, since this text is jay z song now in at least its 5th edition.] 1. Poenitentiam agite: Do penance. Homo? Penitence here means sincerely repenting (detesting, deploring) one's sins, and resolving not to return to them in jay z song, the future. Was Washington General? 2. This word: refers to the Christ's word in the saying quoted in jay z indian, the previous thesis, and in particular to the term penitence ( poenitintia ). Sacramental penance : the sacrament of penance consisted of four elements: confession of one's sins before a priest, sincere contrition (regret) for them, satisfaction imposed by the priest, and absolution (remission of the sins in question, or pardon). Luther confines himself to Comparison of Jack Lee Anderson´s Leaving citing here the two elements of action (confession and satisfaction) that were to be carried out by song, the penitent (the person undergoing or receiving the sacrament).

The term satisfaction refers to penalties imposed by the priest to discharge the debt of punishment owed for the sins in question. (When carried out, these satisfy or fulfill the justice of God. [Compare the language of the honor code regulating duels among the European aristocracy: an insult to one's honor requires satisfaction, and homo nietzsche, the insultee acquires the right to choose what that shall be, within the limits of the prevailing code.]) See WH 217218 for a capsule description of the medieval sacrament of penance. (For a far more detailed discussion, covering medieval doctrines as well as the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church in the wake of its response [in the Council of Trent] to the Protestant Reformation, consult the article on The Sacrament of jay z indian Penance in The Catholic Encyclopedia .) Two categories of sin are recognized. Mortal sins involve turning away from the eternal good, or God. Letter Scaffold? (The breach of Faith committed by Adam and Eve in the Garden constituted mortal sin. Jay Z? So did what Cain did to Abel.) The punishment due for turning away from the eternal good is eternal punishment, or damnation. Venial sins occur when a person turns inordinately to a mutable good a good subject to change, because, being created, it exists in time. (Such goods are thus also called temporal or earthly goods.) Orthodox teaching holds that every created being as such is good, inasmuch as it is the creature of God. But aside from the fact that some created beings (angels and human beings) can sin, any created being, not being God Himself, requires to be loved just in the way i.e., in the degree and circumstances that God ordains.

A love of any temporal being that goes beyond the intensity or occasions willed by God is thus said to letter scaffold be inordinate. Indian Song? Such sin incurs a debt of temporal punishment (a term that you will see often in the theses to follow). The priest (via his ordination by a bishop appointed in turn by ecce homo nietzsche, the pope) is a designated representative of the pope. (We meet here the general concept of vicars and vicarage, which will become a focus of even more fundamental dispute when Luther a few years later comes to attack the even more fundamental notion that the indian, pope is extended trading hours Christ's own designated vicar.) Hence when a priest administering the sacrament of penance imposes satisfaction on the penitent, he is indian song acting on behalf of the pope. This explains why Luther speaks interchangeably of penalties. imposed by [the pope's] own authority (Thesis 5), or of was washington general those imposed by himself (Thesis 20), or of penalties of sacramental satisfaction, which are of human appointment (Thesis 34). 3. Can you see the connection with asceticism here, and in Thesis 4? (Of course there are ascetics and ascetics! Remember, Pelagius was an ascetic, too. Indian Song? In what points of doctrine would Luther and Pelagius part company?) 5. Remittance - like satisfaction - is a term that comes from the world of the balance sheet, of debits and credits. Both guilt and punishment due are conceived as debts that must be paid.

When a debt is extended trading either paid off (by the debtor or someone who does surety for indian song, him) or forgiven, it is no longer due. When the creditor or injured party signifies (directly or through his authorized agent) that the analysis, debt is no longer due, he is said to remit the jay z song, sin. (The term remit comes from the Latin word meaning to send back. The custom persists in banking today: when you pay off your house mortgage, the bank will give back to you the loan certificate, now marked paid, along with the deed to the property, both of which it kept in its physical possession until you paid off your debt.) The canons here (and in Thesis 23) are rules established in Canon Law (the law governing the administration of Church affairs) for letter scaffold, guiding priests in assigning satisfaction in administering penance. They amount to a schedule of penalties for different offenses, according to the seriousness of the sin, as determined by various factors they specify. (As such, they are somewhat analogous to the sentencing guidelines for judges, under criminal law in the US today.) 6. Orthodox teaching makes a distinction not only between sins of various degree (mortal and venial) but between the guilt attaching to jay z a sin (sometimes referred to simply as the sin itself) and the penalties attaching to it (the punishments due because of it). The damned, it is held (for example), repent the punishment they suffer for their sins but, being confirmed in in pakistan essay, sin, are not displeased by jay z song, their sin itself (since their wills eternally now reaffirm and assert it). Debts consisting of punishment due for sin are understood as payable by the sinner who incurred them. The debt of hours guilt (the debt of jay z sin per se ) is not. It can be discharged only when one of two things occurs: either it is either forgiven (by God the Father) or it is taken on extended, and paid off by another (the Son) whose wealth is sufficiently great to do so. (Can you see the jay z indian song, connection to what is essay referred to in Thesis 33).

Theses 5 and song, 6 together turn on this distinction. (So does Thesis 76, later on.) When the pope (represented in the priest) dispenses absolution -- remission of sin (more precisely, of the guilt attaching to sin) -- as part of the sacrament of penance, he does not (according to ecce nietzsche Theses 6 76) actually effect it himself. Rather he discloses to the penitent what God has done (remitting of guilt). It is, then, only penalties attaching to sin that the pope himself (whether directly or through his representatives, i.e., priests) can remit. Indian Song? Any indulgences purporting to remit the guilt attaching to extended sin (the sin itself, so-called) are simply fraudulent. Moreover, within the category of penalties, it is only those that have been prescribed by canon law or that he had the authority to impose in the first place and did indeed go on to impose (again, whether directly or through the priesthood) that he can remit. All other penalties are remittable only by God. And among these other penalties are those referred to by Christ in the quotation in Thesis 1, and described again in Thesis 4. Since this true inward repentance that consists in jay z song, hatred of self for pestle nhs, having committed the sin continues until our entrance into the kingdom of heaven, it continues to be suffered by souls in purgatory.

Conclusion: these penalties of jay z song sin -- the remorse suffered by souls in nietzsche, purgatory on their way to heaven -- are outside the power of the pope to remit. Any indulgences purporting to remit the suffering of souls in purgatory (penalties for sin being experienced by them, namely, their remorse for having committed them) are likewise fraudulent. Jay Z Indian Song? But even among the living, this sort of penalty for sin cannot be remitted by the pope -- for Christ has commanded us to undergo it as long as we live (Thesis 1). Any indulgence that purports to relieve us of being heartily sorrow for our wrongs is likewise fraudulent. Worse, it encourages us to violate Christ's express command. (And, since the pope, as the Vicar of Christ on earth, enjoins us to obey Christ's commands, remission of these penalties for sin is letter scaffold outside his power as pope.) What remains are those penalties imposed by jay z, the pope or the canon law, in the context of the sacrament of penance, as administered by letter scaffold, priests. [This is the language of Theses 5 and 20. Thesis 34 uses the formula appointed by man (since the jay z, pope and the priests are not God) to describe sacramental satisfaction -- i.e., penalties of the sort the priest declares the penitant to inflation owe).] Coming at this category from still another point of view, authorities described them as temporal punishment. Song? (See the note to Thesis 2.) Referentially, these terms are all synonyms: that is, they identify the same class of individual things. Their difference lies only in the fact that they pick up these things by different handles, approaching them from different angles, i.e., via different relationships they have with other things. Theses 7-8 focus on Tetzel's claim that the indulgence he was selling was issued by the pope and had the power to remit guilt for trading, sins. Luther circles back to jay z indian this theme later on, in Theses 75-76. Theses 8-29 focus on Tetzel's claim that that indulgence was issued by the pope and had the power to remit the penalties owed by souls in purgatory. Theses 30-52 focus on the risks, in Tetzel's behavior, for the people who are induced to buy his indulgences -- i.e., the misunderstandings about justification that are perpetrated among the living. (In passing -- Theses 35-37 -- his remarks touch again on the absurdity of Tetzel's claims about the purgatory.) The emphasis is upon the peril these misunderstandings pose for the soul of the naive clientele.

In Theses 30-40, the chief emphasis here is the necessity, for sinners, of a proper understanding of the requirement for genuine contrition , and the way in which indiscriminate peddling of indulgences implicitly preaches the contrary. Letter Scaffold? In Theses 41-46, the emphasis shifts the risks that lie in presenting purchase of indian pardons as instances of good works, when, in their effect on the soul, or what they signify about the condition of the soul, is far inferior to what is accomplished by works of charity. Thesis 52 sums up this line of homo attack. [??Thesis 47: does it fit in this organizational scheme? Or does it belong with Theses 48-51??] From this point on, Luther's organizational strategy loosens even further. For one thing, it is clear that he likes to return to indian certain themes within new contexts. Moreover, as we have already seen, he sometimes takes the inflation, opportunity to tuck in theses (for example, Theses 50-51) that are marginal to the logical categorization that defines the main line of development at jay z, the moment (Theses 30-49 + 52).

Sometime the stimulus for doing this seems to be that Luther has entered upon a certain rhetorical device (e.g., the repetition of an opening formula, like Christians are to be taught that . ) which carries its own power of inflation in pakistan suggestion for what could be usefully included at a given moment. After Thesis 52 , there does not seem to jay z indian be a definite overall pattern of a good organization at work, although there are clearly stretches within which Luther is focusing on a particular theme (e.g., what are the jay z indian, true Treasures of the Church? [ Theses 56-68 ]) or a rhetorical turn (e.g., Theses 81-91 , where the move is to point out how the pardons being sold by Tetzel bring the pope into disrepute with the laity by stimulating them to sarcastic impieties that nevertheless seem plausible on the false assumption that the pope supports the sale of such pardons). 7. The priest is God's vicar insofar as the extended trading, pope is the Vicar of Christ and the priest is a vicar of the pope. See note 5 above. Thesis 7 says, then, that remission of guilt, though it is done only by God, is something God has for his own reasons chosen to do only for indian, those who submit themselves to the Church, and, as part of doing this, participate in the sacraments (here, specifically, the sacrament of penance, though communion is also a part of what is comprehended here). In other words, there is pestle analysis nhs no salvation outside the Church. Jay Z? (Cf.

Thesis 38.) Later, Luther doesn't abolish the priesthood. Rather, he declares the doctrine of the priesthood of all believers. (He will, however, declare that penance is not, properly considered, a sacrament.) 20. Plenary remission means full remission. (In Thesis 23 the synonymous formula entire remission is used.) Luther concedes the power of the Pope to remit all penalties of only the restricted class of temporal penalties imposed in the sacrament of penance or due under the canons of governing the general, assignment of indian song satisfactions in penance (in the was washington a good, case of sins committed but not yet dealt with by receiving the sacrament of song penance). 22. Neither other penalties (for example, those actually due for souls in purgatory) nor guilt attaching to was washington a good sins (even venial sins Thesis 76) are within the power of the indian, Pope to remit. Trading? But all indulgences are issued by the Pope. Therefore indulgences can be effective in jay z indian song, remitting either the suffering of souls in purgatory or the guilt itself attaching to sin. Hence the claims Tetzel is making for Comparison of an and Jon Desire, the indulgence he is song peddling in the Pope's name is fraudulent (Thesis 24). People are being induced to believe these claims at the peril of their soul (Thesis 32). For the doctrine of purgatory , and its connection with the medieval system of penance, see WH 218 (paragraph 3). Purgatory is the place (or state) in which souls who die in God's grace may expiate venial sins or satisfy divine justice for the temporal punishment still due for remitted mortal sin.

The term comes from the past participle of the Latin verb purgare , which means to nietzsche purge (to purify by getting rid of defilement). How does Luther stand with respect to the bull Salvator Noster (1476)? Note that Luther's tactic in the Ninety-five Theses is to assume that the Pope is unaware of the jay z indian song, doctrinal errors being preached in ecce nietzsche, his name by a mad servant, who is betraying his master. Jay Z Indian? The Pope is being offered the opportunity to repudiate Tetzel's behavior. Compare the implicit characterization given of the Pope's personal dispositions in Thesis 50. 23. Note that Luther concedes here that it is letter scaffold possible for some rare individuals to pass directly to heaven. But he does not go so far here as to claim what the Church had long insisted on, namely, that the saints die in a state of excess of merit, which then passes into the Treasury of Merit, out of which merits can be drawn to substitute for jay z indian, the temporal penalties that would otherwise be due for sin. How does this re-definition of the concept of nhs saint square with the jay z indian, particular theory of the Treasury of letter scaffold Merit set forth in Pope Clement VI's bull Unigenitus (1343)? On the other hand, are we really authorized to attribute to Luther at this moment such a re-definition of the concept of saint as just described?

Consider Thesis 58. 27. One of the jingles attributed to Tetzel went like this. (The rhymes, incidentally, are basically the song, same in German and English.) As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, The soul from Purgatory springs. 32. Letters of pardon are the documents certifying the granting of an indulgence. (See also Thesis 52.) In this Thesis, is Luther accusing Tetzel and his customers of was washington committing venial, or mortal, sins? 33. The inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to God is the divine grace conveyed in the blood of Christ shed in the Crucifixion.

35. By now you should be imagining for jay z song, yourself what kind of sales pitch Tetzel relied on inflation in pakistan essay, in convincing people to pay good money to get souls out of purgatory. Whose souls would he be pointing to? How would he paint them? A confessional license would exempt the holder from the necessity for confession. Why would Luther insist that confession is an essential element in the process by which one achieves justification? 36. Compunction is a synonym for contrition, regret, repentance. (See note on penitence at Thesis 1.) Why does Luther insist that this is an essential element in the process of justification? 42.

Along what lines could a case be made that contributing to the Church (and receiving an indulgence) is in itself a work of mercy? (What, supposedly, would the jay z indian, Church be using the contribution to support? [What is the divinely ordained purpose of the Church in the first place, according to traditional doctrine? What is its role in history ?]) 43. Does it strike you here that Luther (writing on this particular occasion, at this particular phase in his thinking) seems to be according a positive value to at least some items in inflation in pakistan, the category of works ? What do you understand to be Luther's ultimate position on indian, the value and effect of extended works in the salvational scheme? Is this Thesis inconsistent with that position, or can it be construed in a fashion that can be made to square with that position? 50.

Here we find a claim that must have resonated strongly with those who resented the jay z, flow of capital from the German North to Italy. 52-56. Here Luther lays out a theory of what constitutes the Treasury of the Church. How does it compare with the theory elaborated by Clement VI in was washington a good, the bull Unigenitus (1343)? 62. Notice that it is not clear in the Ninety-five Theses themselves what a crucial role Thesis 62 will play in future Lutheran theology: Luther does not explicitly spell out the implications. But, retrospectively, can you see how this claim was destined to become the central bombshell in the breach between Luther and the Church of Rome? 65. Jay Z Indian? What does Luther mean here by the phrase men of riches? Is he referring to people with lots of money and property?

How would you explain your answer in the context, for example, of the thesis that follows this one, #66? 83. What does Luther consider mistaken about the practice of performing funeral masses and anniversary masses for the deceased (masses for the dead celebrated on ecce homo nietzsche, the anniversaries of the death of the person in question)? What is the purpose of these ceremonies? (What is prayed for in them?) In what sense is it a confidence game to jay z song accept money for performing such services? (Is the issue of simony also at stake here, i.e., separately and inflation, distinctly?) 86. Indian Song? Does the tone here strike you as completely consistent with that in Thesis 50? 93. If we read this thesis carefully in the context of #92, which immediately precedes it, and which is couched in grammatically parallel form, what are we to understand as the sense of the included claim that there is no cross? 94.-95. Can you see how Luther has crafted his conclusion to collaborate with Theses 1-4 at the very beginning, to form a frame for the rest? Does Luther think it is correct and spiritually healthy for a person to seek to escape just punishment? (What evidence can you give for your answer?) What is the proper attitude to a good take towards the suffering that results from Original Sin? What elements of it are we under an obligation to jay z song resist?

What elements of it are we under an letter scaffold obligation to accept even to affirm? The force of song your answer will come home to you to the degree that you explicitly recall for yourself what the effects of letter scaffold Original Sin are, according to the theology we constructed in jay z song, the spirit of Augustine upon the Genesis account of the Fall of Mankind. Go to the Home Page for English 233 (Introduction to of Jack and Jon Desire Western Humanities: Baroque Enlightenment). Suggestions are welcome. Please send your comments to indian . Contents copyright 1997 by in pakistan, Lyman A. Jay Z Song? Baker.

Permission is extended trading hours granted for non-commercial educational use; all other rights reserved.

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E-Business Strategy Development: an Fmcg Sector. The paper aims to examine the tensions created at tier-1 level relating to the adoption of e-business solutions for B2B activities. Jay Z Song! Design/methodology/approach The paper draws on pestle analysis, the literature to indian, describe the technological options for achieving e-commerce, focusing particularly on a good, Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and internet-mediated e-commerce. It then explores the current uptake of e-commerce, and the drivers and barriers that relate to its adoption. Indian! The theoretical issues identified are explored empirically using data gathered from a case study of Princes Soft Drinks. We will write a custom essay sample. on E-Business Strategy Development: an Fmcg Sector or any similar. topic specifically for you. A detailed survey of organisations within its supply base was conducted in order to inform the of an Leaving development of indian song, its future e-business strategy. Trading Hours! Findings The results of the survey indicate a lack of enthusiasm among Princes supply chain members for the adoption of e-commerce generally and for internet-mediated e-commerce solutions in particular.

Research limitations/implications The empirical survey is jay z song, limited to the UK soft drinks sector and allows for the development of descriptive findings. These findings, discussed within the theoretical context of the ecce homo nietzsche paper, have potentially wider implications for the FMCG sector as a whole. Practical implications The work has significant implications for indian song the development of hours, Princes e-business strategy, and by extrapolation for other companies operating in similar commercial environments. Originality/value The paper reports original empirical research in the commercially important FMCG sector. Its value stems in part from the examination of the supply chain tensions created at tier-1 between powerful e-committed retailers and e-reluctant industrial suppliers. Keywords Electronic commerce, Internet, Fast moving consumer goods Paper type Case study Introduction Electronic commerce (e-commerce) refers to the conducting f business transactions over electronic/computer networks, including the internet, (Barnes and Hunt, 2001) and therefore encompasses processes related to the buying, selling and trading of products, services and jay z indian information, (Gunasekaran et al. Letter Scaffold! , 2002).

There has been considerable publicity given to the use of e-commerce in business-toconsumer (B2C) markets, where transactions involving such activities as ordering goods, personal banking and share trading are becoming increasingly commonplace. However, the use of jay z song, e-commerce for business-to-business (B2B) transactions has been widely identified as an area with ignificant potential for. Page 2 E-Business Strategy Development: an Fmcg Sector Essay. cost saving and future revenue generation (Barnes and Hunt, 2001). For businesses, B2B can mean electronic interaction with members of the supply base, i. In Pakistan! e. for inbound procurement, and with customers for transactions relating to their procurement activity. In the current business environment the adoption of ecommerce is seemingly unavoidable . . . e-commerce is no longer an alternative, but an indian song imperative. [However] many companies are struggling with the most basic problem: what is the was washington best approach for establishing and doing business in song, the digital economy? (Lee, 2001, p. Comparison Of Jack The Story Of An And Jon Desire! 49). This suggests that, in moving into an e-commerce business environment over indian, which there is little choice there is trading hours, a need to develop an ebusiness strategy that will inform and direct future operations. Lee goes on to argue that in addressing this problem, there is no simple prescription or established business model for indian song companies or industries and a good general that developing an e-capability often entails making a paradigm shift, radically altering traditional approaches to doing business (Lee, 2001). It follows that the development of an e-business strategy is uniquely challenging and essential.

Such a strategy should concern not only the appropriate technology choices of tools and solutions, but also the coherence and integration of indian, these choices with other company processes (Cagliano et al. , 2003) and of Jack London´s The Story Eyewitness and Jon Lee Anderson´s Desire with their wider strategy for supply chain management (Smart and Harrison, 2002). Jay Z! The empirical component of this paper presented after theoretical background explores the situation faced by Princes, a tier-1 supplier in the UK soft drinks industry. Ecce! It considers the difficulties faced by first tier The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www. meraldinsight. Song! com/1359-8546. htm Supply Chain Management: An International Journal 11/4 (2006) 353362 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited [ISSN 1359-8546] [DOI 10. 1108/13598540610671806] 353 organisations in the supply chains for Comparison of Jack London´s The Story and Jon Lee Anderson´s Leaving FMCG (also known as Consumer Packaged Goods Cox, 2003/2004), and the implications of these for jay z indian song the development of e-business strategy. A Good! Within the broad definition of e-commerce, it is clear that there are alternative technological routes by which ecommerce can be achieved the internet being only one possibility. Moreover, both within the literature and in ractice, there is confusion over the terminology used in this area, with some authors using the term e-commerce synonymously with that of e-commerce mediated via the internet, or I-commerce (e. g. Manecke and Schoensleben, 2004, Yen and Ng, 2003). The increasing accessibility of the indian song internet and extended trading hours the wide availability of standard browsers is encouraging the expansion of e-commerce via the internet (Gunasekaran et al. , 2002). However, technology options for conducting commerce electronically still include telephone, facsimile, electronic mail (email), Electronic Data. Interchange (EDI) together with the internet. Structuring their discussion of the impact of e-commerce on operations, Gunasekaran et al. (2002) distinguish between the principal contemporary options email, EDI and the internet. This distinction mirrors the indian structure of the empirical research undertaken in support of this paper.

The three options are discussed below. Trading Hours! Email was one of the first applications to run on the internet and involves the direct transmission of text messages between 2 users. Using email provides the simplest form of jay z song, ecommerce. It replaces paper, fax and telephone communication between members of a supply system (Beynon-Davies, 2004). It is quick and letter scaffold uncomplicated, but lacks the sophistication provided by EDI and internetmediated e-commerce solutions.

Developed to facilitate business transactions between trading partners, EDI technology provides organisations with the means to develop e-commerce capabilities and thereby to jay z indian song, eliminate the was washington delays and errors generally associated with traditional procurement systems. It provides a (limited) collection of standard message formats that businesses may se to exchange data including, for example, orders, delivery notes and invoices (Beynon-Davies, 2004). It has been in existence for indian song over 20 years and trading has been championed mostly by large manufacturing and retail companies who use it to link suppliers into their business processes. Indian Song! On the letter scaffold inbound supply-side of an organisations operations, improved record accuracy, lower data entry costs, reduced inventory holdings and improved inventory turn ratios are cited as benefits; whilst on the outbound demand-side improved responsiveness to orders and enquiries and increased usiness opportunities are cited (Davis and OSullivan, 1998). Unfortunately, the technological solutions developed for EDI are generally customer led and frequently proprietary in nature. Standardisation of approaches is restricted (Beynon- Davies, 2004) and the cost of participation can be high. Consequently, EDI technology-enabled e-commerce is typically characterised by closed groups of users whose transaction volumes are high, as it is these organisations that are most likely to benefit from the expected improvements in operational efficiency. The costs of switching between EDI ystems are also high (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000), and this limits the ability of group members to go elsewhere. As a consequence, e-commerce facilitated by song, EDI has tended to be limited to in pakistan essay, larger organisations with stable supply chain structures. Jay Z Indian! It is less popular with smaller organisations or those in letter scaffold, non-stable supply networks where the costs of jay z, participation are prohibitive. Increasingly, the internet is being promoted as a means to facilitate collaboration between members of supply chains, to result in cost savings, more efficient operations, improved customer service and potential for innovation and new usiness opportunities (e. g. General! Wagner et al. , 2003, Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000, Baldwin et al. , 2001, Timmers, 2000).

Internet technology differs from conventional EDI technology in several important ways. It is song, relatively inexpensive. It is trading hours, based on open standards and therefore supports numerous applications, which can process small transaction volumes cost effectively and can be configured to accommodate changes in users with ease (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000). Indian! It is also a public network that is globally available, providing access to customers and suppliers worldwide. Moreover, pplications are not limited to inter-firm transactions.

Internet and letter scaffold Web technology can be used within the indian organisation to manage workflow, co-ordinate activities and pestle nhs improve process efficiency through the sharing of information (Rowlatt, 2001, Gunasekaran et al. Jay Z Indian Song! , 2002). Letter Scaffold! Intranets, the term used to describe these private communication networks, secured behind firewalls (Beynon-Davies, 2004) are typically based on groupware[1] applications (Gunasekaran et al. Indian! , 2002). Nietzsche! As such, they can be extended to indian song, encompass other firms that an organisation has a commercial relationship with. The resulting Extranet configurations can be used to facilitate closer relationships with customers and suppliers, to improve the co-ordination of (supply chain) activities, and to improve communications between the functions and individuals of an organisation (Davis and OSullivan, 1998). Analysis! The benefits cited for internet-mediated e-commerce solutions over proprietary EDI solutions are summarised as speed, consistency, immediate access, lowered transaction costs, flexibility and extensibility i. e. the potential to access further applications via a web-server (Manecke and Schoensleben, 2004). Conversely, internet-mediated solutions are said not to match the robustness and jay z indian capacity of EDI for carrying out pestle nhs, B2B ecommerce (Lee, 2001). Despite the obvious benefits offered by internet-mediated e-commerce there is little indication that its functionality is being widely harnessed in practice (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000, Wagner et al. , 2003). Indian Song! Evidence suggests that smaller businesses, in particular, are failing to appreciate its potential benefits (Williams, 2001) and that the majority of e-commerce transactions continue to be associated with conventional EDI technologies and larger organisations (Hawkins and hours Prencipe, 2000). The following section draws on a range of published literature to develop a macro view of the causes of this and of the scale of the problem.

The adoption of e-commerce solutions in song, supply chains In order to link with the subsequent empirical work within the paper, this section is structured around the perspective of a tier-1 FMCG organisation, interacting demand-side with its retail customers and supply-side with its ingredient and raw material suppliers. Letter Scaffold! However, the data, upon which it draws, is indian, not specific to ecce, the FMCG sector. E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 Number 4 2006 353362 354 For some time, EDI has been the technological choice of large manufacturing and retail companies for managing transactions within their supply chains. (e. g. Jay Z Indian! Beynon-Davies, 2004, McIvor and Humphreys, 2004). Comparison Of Jack Eyewitness Lee Anderson´s Leaving! For these major commercial and song industrial players, e-commerce has become their preferred way of operating and, provided their suppliers buy-in to the technology, represents an effective and efficient means of conducting e-commerce. Therefore, for these organisations, there is pestle analysis, little need to consider the pportunities offered by the internet. Jay Z Indian! Additionally, it has been said that the internet has provided no new sales opportunities for FMCG retailers, and that they therefore have little incentive to develop online interaction (Brown, 2000). Although this has been identified specifically at the demand-side of retailers, it may be expected that they would have an equivalent reluctance to develop internet-mediated ecommerce solutions on was washington, their supply-side. Thus, there may be little incentive to move away from the traditional EDI interaction with their tier-1 suppliers. On the supply-side, there is far less consensus and tandardisation of approach. Individual companies may supply many customers some using EDI, others using more conventional business approaches.

In this situation the indian song arguments for considering the relatively flexible and accessible internet-mediated e-commerce appear compelling. However, evidence suggests that industry is letter scaffold, not rushing to adopt ebusiness and that attitudes are predominantly reactive (Wagner et al. , 2003). There is typically a mis-alignment between internet standard functionality and the traditional inhouse IT infrastructure used to run operations. This creates a reluctance to change which, together with the non-strategic erspective adopted by industry, means that opportunities to re-shape business around I-commerce are being missed (Wagner et al. , 2003). The scale of the jay z song problem has been highlighted in a number of surveys, which are summarised in Table I. Empirical data on the micro reasons manufacturers are apparently so reluctant to adopt e-commerce is scant and typically limited to the identification of generalisable factors drawn from multiple sector studies. Hours! Table II draws on published literature to develop a view of the factors that are thought to be influencing decisions to indian song, develop e-commerce capabilities using internet technology.

These are classified as either drivers or barriers. The drivers for adoption have been categorised as either reactive or proactive, and either strategic or tactical (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000). Pestle Analysis Nhs! Hawkins and Prencipe (2000) found that tactical drivers were the most dominant particularly the desire to reduce costs and that firms were becoming more proactive. A later study found that improvements in supply chain relationships were considered more important than cost reductions and improvements in efficiency (Clegg, 2001). In this case, the drivers seem to be strategic rather than tactical in jay z song, nature. It has also been noted that the approach most frequently adopted, particularly amongst organisations already conducting business through conventional channels, is exploratory and inflation experimental (Williams et al. , 2001, Malone, 2001). This suggests that a cautious and possibly opportunistic view of the technology prevails and that an important factor influencing the extent and effectiveness with which e-commerce is adopted may be an organisations perception of the risks and benefits associated with the technology. The preceding sections of the paper have introduced the principal options for indian song developing a B2B e-commerce apability, and have explored the current status of ecommerce implementation. In the extended hours following section, a case study from the UK FMCG industrial sector is presented. Analysis of the case supports much of the earlier discussion and provides empirical evidence of the status of the adoption of B2B e-commerce in the supply base of Princes Soft Drinks, UK. A case from the FMCG sector The case study concerns the development of an e-business strategy for Princes Soft Drinks.

It presents a survey of the companys supply base, and discusses how the findings of this informed the strategy development process. By contrast to the Table I Summary of surveys undertaken into jay z song, the adoption of e-commerce Source Findings e-commerce enquiry conducted by the UK Office for homo nietzsche National Statistics (Williams, 2001) 70% of smaller businesses in jay z song, the manufacturing sector were using computer technology Less than 50% had internet access in the food and clothing sector 66% of was washington, manufacturers had no immediate plan to develop e-commerce for selling or buying products Regional surveys within the UK (Scotland Wagner et al. , 2003; and jay z indian song Wales Quayle, 2002) Reluctance on the part of SMEs to trade electronically and to use the internet to achieve this 0% of those using e-commerce were doing so only trading hours because of pressure from their major customers (Quayle, 2002) European-wide study (Cagliano et al. , 2003) Use of jay z song, internet-mediated e-commerce within manufacturing supply chains described as low Multiple sector survey of 120 international companies (Dutta and Biren, 2001) Only 25% of companies recognised the strategic importance of of Jack and Jon Lee Anderson´s Leaving Desire, internet technology and were using it to develop new business models by song, re-engineering their supply chains and to explore new ways of letter scaffold, adding value International study (Baldwin et al. Jay Z! 2001) More advanced use of the letter scaffold internet in jay z indian, technologically advanced countries such as UK, France, Germany, USA than those that lack technological infrastructure, e. g. Slovenia E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. General! Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 Number 4 2006 353362 355 multiple sector surveys considered in table I, the indian survey conducted as part of this study is focussed within the UK soft drinks supply chain. As such, whilst adding to the findings of previous studies, it also elaborates on them by providing a ore detailed company perspective of the issues. Practical context: the trading FMCG sector Within the jay z indian FMCG supply chain a distinction is made between consumers the end users of a product, and customers retailers through which products are sold to consumers (Cox, 2003/2004). Typically, manufacturers of FMCG products must use retailers to ecce, access their consumers and as a consequence the balance of power in the tier-1 distribution channel is on the side of a small number of extremely powerful, competing names, such as Wal-Mart, Marks and Spencers, Sainsbury, Tesco, etc. These organisations, by irtue of their position in the supply chain, are the change agents in the FMCG sector, often instigating moves which have profound implications for tier-1 suppliers, e. g. the introduction of product tracking using bar coding technologies provided suppliers with little alternative but to do the same.

A more recent example is the demands Wal- Mart have made on their top 100 suppliers to use RFID (radio frequency identification) tagging (Lamb, 2003). If the expected savings materialise as expected, other retailers will follow and tier-1 suppliers will have to respond. These nitiatives reflect a general shift from a focus on volume and internal efficiency to an external one on value and consumers (OKeeffe, 2001). This OKeeffe refers to as the change from the supply chain management era to the network era, key components of the change being summarised in Table III. However, this by no means describes the sector as a whole. The UK soft drinks industry, continues to adhere to the earlier supply chain management model characterised by fierce price competition, with powerful buyers and jay z indian traditionally weak sellers (OKeeffe, 2001); i. e. an hours nvironment in which cost reduction is a management mantra.

Tier-1 companies in the FMCG supply chain typically produce finished products for indian song eventual sale to consumers via retailers and as such form the interface between a small number of extended trading, powerful retail customers and a plethora of smaller industrial suppliers of both specialised and commodity products. Thus tier-1 organisations wishing to indian, develop an ebusiness strategy can find themselves in Comparison of Jack London´s Eyewitness and Jon Leaving Desire, the unenviable position of being squeezed between e-committed retailers on the outbound side and e-reluctant suppliers on the inbound ide, a situation with the potential to create considerable tension for the parties concerned. Princes soft drinks The Princes Food Group is wholly owned by the Mitsubishi Corporation and is the largest UK supplier of own-label processed grocery products. Indian! The Soft Drinks division within the group is the major supplier of fruit juices, carbonated, ready-to-drink and dilute-to-taste soft drinks in the UK. Pestle Nhs! It principally supplies own-label drinks to major supermarket retailers. It is a market where there has been much negative Table II Drivers and barriers to the adoption of e-commerce. Drivers (reactive R, proactive P, strategic S, tactical T) Barriers Pressure from others in the supply chain (R) Internal pressure to maintain an e-commerce presence (R) Re-structuring of the supply chain (P,S) Exploration of new business models e. g. the role of intermediaries and distributors (P,S) Cost reduction e. g. Jay Z Indian! transaction processing, inventory holding, purchase price (P,T) Improved process efficiency e. g. reduced lead times, improved procurement and production practices and logistics (P,T) Business process integration integration of analysis, purchasing and sales with other business functions (P,T) Improvements in supply chain relationships (P,S) Costs of song, acquiring and maintaining an e-commerce capability (Quayle, 2002, Williams, 2001, Clegg, 2001) Concerns about security and control (Quayle, 2002, Williams, 2001, Davila et al. , 2003) Lack of knowledge of the internet and nhs e-commerce (Williams, 2001, Wagner et al. , 2003) Lack of senior management understanding, attitude and vision (Clegg, 2001) Lack of skills/technology/training in-house (Clegg, 2001, Wagner et al. , 2003) Resistance from indian song, employees based on fear, inertia, lack of a good general, faith (Quayle, 2002) Poor availability of external skills (Clegg, 2001) Resistance from suppliers unwilling to drop proprietary systems and a lack of equipment and time (Quayle, 2002) System compatibility (Clegg, 2001, Davila et al. , 2003) Incoherence and jay z indian song perceived lack of security and flexibility internet-specific (Quayle, 2002) Table III Key components of in pakistan, alternative business eras in retail supply Supply chain management era Network era The age of indian, reason: efficiency The age of possibility: opportunity Taking costs out Putting value in Introverted Customer-focused Chain starts at the DC (distribution centre) Chain starts with the consumer Logistics productivity Marketing productivity.

Physical distribution Information management Economies of scale Network economics Negative feedback Positive feedback Focus on volume Focus on value Source: OKeeffe, 2001 E-business strategy development: an trading hours FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 Number 4 2006 353362 356 pressure on prices to the extent that suppliers have been forced to cut costs, improve process efficiency and push price reductions back up the supply chain to lower tier suppliers. Figure 1 illustrates the position of Princes within its supply network. In 2001 it became clear that Cotts Beverages UK, one of Princes major competitors, was enjoying business benefits from the implementation of an internet-based supply chain management software solution (Tinham, 2001). Facing intense pressure in the FMCG marketplace, the report that Cotts were enjoying significant benefits from indian, internet-based fulfilment generated considerable interest within Princes. If Cotts system was delivering reduced supply chain costs and improved supply chain processes then the ensuing business benefits of lower selling prices and improved delivery adherence represented a significant competitive threat. Since the Comparison of Jack The Story of an Eyewitness and Jon early 1990s Princes had been communicating electronically downstream with the major supermarket retailers using EDI. Different technological approaches were used for different customers meaning that Princes has had to invest in alternative solutions in order to trade downstream. The use of EDI enabled transactional data to be imported into jay z indian, and exported out of SAP Princes Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system quickly and ecce homo accurately. The use of EDI, together with the integration of transactional data into jay z, Princes SAP system, had increased the effectiveness of the of Jack London´s The Story of an and Jon Lee Anderson´s companys outbound, demand-side supply chain. During this period however, communication with suppliers had remained largely unchanged, relying on a combination of telephone, fax and the traditional postal service.

During the indian latter part of the 1990s, Princes had explored the was washington a good general possibility of adopting EDI links with suppliers, but high costs and technological issues had prevented its adoption. At this time, with the jay z indian song rise of the internet, communication with suppliers was increasingly taking place via Email. Whilst this often proved more effective than telephone communication, it was generally nable to handle the transactional data that was required and this was frequently sent via fax or post. The company began to in pakistan essay, pilot an application called Business Connector which used the internet to transmit transactional data between organisations that operated a SAP ERP system. However, whilst SAP is the global leader in providing ERP solutions for large organisations its adoption is far from universal and jay z many companies large and small make use of alternative ERP packages. Thus, Princes use of analysis, this application had been restricted to only a small number of its total supply base (i. e. to those that used SAP). The company was aware of many national and multinational manufacturers that were implementing internet-based systems to improve the quality and the value of the information that they exchanged with their business partners, the objectives of indian song, such collaborative initiatives being to improve the overall performance of the pestle analysis nhs supply chain (Fernie et al. , 2000). Faced with this knowledge, the need to review supply-side (inbound) transactional mechanisms and the potential threat posed by Cotts, Princes felt compelled to explore the opportunities that the new and emerging B2B solutions could create within a FMCG supply chain.

In particular, they were interested in establishing the positions and views of the organisations within their supply base on the adoption of possible B2B solutions and what the current and indian anticipated impact of the internet on of Jack of an Eyewitness and Jon Leaving Desire, B2B communication and business transactions might be. The results of the investigation were to inform the jay z indian development of a B2B ecommerce strategy that would take the company forward into the twenty-first century. As a tier-1 business within an aggressive market, Princes was in a very challenging position, squeezed between ecommitted customers on its demand-side and potentially ereluctant uppliers on its supply-side. In order to develop and implement future strategic direction for the use of ecce nietzsche, ecommerce in all its B2B interaction, there was an urgent need to investigate the existing position of its supply-side partners, and to determine the prevailing degree of indian song, enthusiasm for e-commerce. Study design issues Prior to undertaking this research, Princes knowledge of pestle analysis, its suppliers views on e-commerce was largely anecdotal. The development of future strategy without formal knowledge or Figure 1 The Princes soft drinks supply network E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study. M. Webster, R. Indian Song! Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 Number 4 2006 353362 357 understanding in this area would have been unwise. There was therefore a critical need to carry out an exploratory study that would yield clear findings for the particular case of this supply chain.

In the sense that it should allow the company to focus on understanding the dynamics present within a single setting (Eisenhardt, 1989) and to develop an enhanced understanding of real world events (McCutcheon and ecce homo Meredith, 1993), the study needed to be case-based. Within he development of the case study however, it was considered essential to gather the views of as many members of the supply network as possible. Detailed dyadic data relating to jay z indian song, a single supplier relationship with Princes, whilst interesting, would be inadequate for the purposes of this work; it would not truly reflect the views of all supplying organisations, nor would it necessarily gather the multi-disciplined perspective necessary to inform the development of an e-business strategy. Accordingly, a study design based on the collection of data through a supply-base wide survey was considered most appropriate. Survey research, i. Ecce Homo Nietzsche! e. he statistical analysis of data gathered by large-scale data collection techniques such as postal questionnaires (Barnes, 2001), is the jay z indian song most popular approach used in OM research, representing approximately 60 per cent of the published research in London´s of an Lee Anderson´s Leaving Desire, this field (Forza, 2002). A major advantage of this approach is that the techniques used are recognised and largely approved of by the research community. Additionally, data collection can be undertaken quickly and for relatively little cost. The means by which the questionnaire is administered can have a significant influence on response rates and hence the value of the results obtained. In this case, care needed to jay z, be taken in the design of the questionnaire and also its method of implementation to ensure that as comprehensive picture as possible from the supply chain could be built up. Study methodology and extended trading hours limitations Princes procurement strategy had been to work in partnership with a small number of indian song, suppliers who themselves were major players within their particular sectors, and to develop strong relationships with them. As a consequence of this consolidation strategy, Princes supply base consisted of Comparison London´s The Story of an and Jon Desire, approximately 100 suppliers.

Of these, 61 ere selected to jay z indian song, take part in the survey. The selection criteria applied was that the volume of homo nietzsche, business from each should exceed 1 per cent of Princes annual purchases. A survey questionnaire was designed for indian which completion would be unsupervised. It was structured around the following key themes and topics: . current approaches adopted by suppliers in relation to B2B strategy and current communication methods; . suppliers views of the specific electronic communication channels, i. e. EDI, Email and internet/websites; and . a section on organisational details. The majority of the questions were of the extended closed type as these were felt to be most suitable for the easy unsupervised completion of the questionnaire, but where it was thought that qualitative data might improve the understanding of the issues, open questions were also included. Indian Song! Given the relatively small number of responses possible it was considered important that a high response rate was achieved. Hours! To this end, the 61 supplier companies were contacted prior to dispatch of the questionnaires to identify the appropriate respondent by name, to encourage their cooperation and to song, ask if they would participate in essay, the study. Jay Z! 4 (88 per cent) responded positively and were sent the questionnaire. Of these, 39 completed questionnaires (72 per cent of the 54) were received in time for the subsequent analysis. Whilst this response does not cover the entire Princes supply base, it is estimated that it represents over 85 per cent of all annual procurement transactions measured by value and volume. Additionally, the in pakistan essay responding organisations included all but two of the jay z song companys top 20 suppliers (measured by extended trading hours, annual value).

The constitution of the respondents means that the findings of the research are ikely to reflect the views of those suppliers with a high level of commitment to Princes and possibly to those that have a positive view of e-Business. A research methodology incorporating interviews with the collaborating suppliers would have facilitated a higher level of analysis that would undoubtedly have led to jay z indian song, greater depth of understanding. However, the primary purpose of the study was for the rapid collection of data that would inform the in pakistan development of strategy. The findings are largely descriptive. Study findings Of the respondents, 51 per cent indicated that their rganisations had formulated a B2B strategy. Of these, several had not yet started implementation and most had not completed it. Of the strategy-formulators, 33 per cent identified the use of EDI as part of the strategy, and 28 per cent mentioned the use of their SAP ERP systems within it. Business integration with XML-based documents, along with the development of websites and portals were other common themes. Of those without a B2B strategy, all indicated that they expected to formulate one. The percentage of this group looking to their key customers to contribute to the formulation totalled 63 per cent.

All survey respondents currently used at jay z, least two methods of communication with their business partners, and in pakistan essay the majority used at least four methods. Indian Song! The most popular methods of communication were email, fax, and phone, used by 92 per cent, 92 per cent and 90 per cent of respondents respectively. By contrast, use of the internet (excluding email) had only a 13 per cent adoption rate. Whilst the traditional postal service was no longer used by approximately 40 per cent of the sample, its use remained far more widespread than non-Email communication via the internet. In line with the literature-based discussion earlier in the aper, respondents views of the 3 options were sought: EDI, email and the internet/websites. The adoption of email as a channel for B2B communication has been rapid and far-reaching and has been described as the primary technical focus for organisations involved in developing an e-commerce capability (Clegg, 2001). Of the survey respondents, 95 per cent used email and many saw it as equally essential to business as the telephone or computer.

It was used for both demand-side and in pakistan supply-side transactions. Transactional security and difficulties of backoffice integration were considered important issues, but the peed, ease of use and low cost of email meant that it remained the preferred medium of indian, many organisations and for many transaction types. It is seen as less useful for payment and invoicing transactions than for transactions such as notification of nhs, order acceptance, dispatch confirmation, forecasting, ordering and acknowledging receipt. Jay Z Song! Most users E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Letter Scaffold! Webster, R. Beach and I. Jay Z Indian! Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 Number 4 2006 353362 358 process email messages by extended trading, printing or downloading to preadsheet software, although 15 per cent of respondents are able to indian song, integrate some of the was washington messages directly to internal business systems. The disadvantages cited for email included the song high volumes of email communication (including junk mail), inefficient processing methods and lack of security.

The percentage of respondents who expect the importance of email as a B2B communication channel to ecce homo, increase numbered 97 per cent. Of the respondents, 59 per cent were using, or had used, EDI. Of these, 70 per cent had adopted it because it was a requirement from their customers. There was no indication of the importance of this channel for individual businesses relative to other channels, but intuitively this adoption rate seems high. Song! This may be explained by the relatively high adoption rate in the FMCG sector as a whole, where as discussed earlier tier-1 suppliers are frequently required to use it by the major retailers and distributors who appear to have the power to force its adoption (Hill and extended Scudder, 2002). Indian Song! A number of Princes suppliers described as dual suppliers in Figure 1 are themselves tier-1 suppliers to retailers and would therefore already be using EDI (e. . the letter scaffold sugar suppliers).

Others supply to customers in the chemical industry where use of EDI is relatively high. Additionally it may have been influenced by jay z indian, the fact that the average turnover of the letter scaffold responding companies was ? 372m, suggesting that small organisations were not equally represented in indian song, the sample. In the survey, EDI is most used for conducting supply-side transactions, with comparatively few on the demand-side. Of those using EDI, more than 50 per cent had interfaced it with their internal business systems. Others either download the EDI output to letter scaffold, spreadsheet systems or use hard copies. The major reason cited for non-adoption of indian, EDI by the other respondents was lack of demand from their customers rather than for ecce homo cost or technology reasons. There appears to be a possible link between the adoption of EDI and jay z song company turnover with adopters tending to have higher turnover than non-adopters. Of all respondents, 59 per cent believe that they will be using EDI for inflation in pakistan essay business transactions in the future. Only 35 per cent of respondents felt that the importance of EDI would increase as a channel for B2B communication.

Overall, this suggests that the scope for jay z song uture EDI adoption is limited, with those perhaps that have already invested in the technology continuing to derive benefit from it. The most cited advantage perceived for using EDI is the efficiency gains that derive from its use for transaction handling. Other benefits mentioned but with much lower frequency included improved partnerships, reduced costs, and volume efficiency. Evidence that supports an pestle observation made by Hill and Scudder (2002) following their survey of the use of EDI in the American food industry as a vehicle for improving supplier coordination that companies may see. EDI as a tool for improving efficiencies rather than a tool for jay z song developing supply chain management (ibid, p. 383).

The most cited disadvantages relate to ecce homo nietzsche, costs, inflexibility and technical complexity. Others included general poor adoption rates, the need for dedicated one-to-one links, the danger of obsolete technology, security and the multiplicity of standards. Although 67 per cent of respondents claimed to indian song, use the internet (excluding its use for email) to communicate with partners, only in pakistan 13 per cent were regularly using internet platforms for business communication. Indian! Of the adopters, rivate exchanges were the predominant platform used, although this may be because many of Princes suppliers are already hooked into inflation in pakistan, an exchange that has been set up by indian song, one of their competitors. General websites are the second most used platform. A wide range of business processes were being executed through the internet, including both demand-side and supply-side transactions. Examples included ordering, order acceptance, dispatch notification, and letter scaffold delivery receipt. Less common uses are for invoicing, forecasting, and payment.

Unlike EDI, the song majority of messages transmitted hrough the internet were processed manually and were not interfaced directly into internal business systems. The most commonly cited reason for the lack of adoption of internet B2B communication was that this did not represent a business priority. Other reasons included the letter scaffold view that the technology was still too immature to be of significant benefit, and that customers did not want to jay z song, use it. Extended! However, all respondents expect its use to increase in the future. As shown in Figure 2, perceived benefits of using the internet to communicate included lower costs, ease of use, high availability of nformation, flexibility and speed.

These benefits were expected to contribute to business benefits such as improved customer service, forecasting and business integration, increased processing and labour efficiency, stronger business partnerships, and reduced processing errors, transaction costs and inventory holdings. As indicated in Figure 3, perceived disadvantages included security issues, a lack of universal standards, insufficient technical knowledge, loss of jay z, personal interaction, and the inefficiency of the internet. A Good! Respondents identified technological needs in song, order to implement internet ommunication including requirements for an XML infrastructure, for trading software middleware[2] and for integrative hardware. Study summary As summarised below, the studys findings indicated that the development of a B2B procurement strategy needed to take account of three key factors: Technical issues Technical barriers to the implementation of jay z indian song, generic B2B software solutions were found to of Jack London´s The Story Desire, be: . the jay z immature nature of the B2B marketplace and of the software available within it; . the lack of universal standards for e-Business middleware that can integrate internal business processes with e- Business messages and in pakistan transactions; and a lack of evidence of the ability of B2B software to indian song, synchronise supply chains, to improve collaboration or to deliver sufficient return on extended trading hours, investment (Fontanella, 2001). Particularly important to Princes was the costs already sunk in the companys ERP system (SAP). This had given the company a high degree of internal integration with many business processes being automated and capable of sharing information easily. Thus, MRP, purchasing and accounts modules worked together to automate the indian song procurement process from order generation through to settlement. Documentation was also generated automatically and could e channelled via a variety of media; currently the preferred channel was automated fax. The e-commerce proposal for any future implementation needed to take account of these issues. Ecce Homo! E-business strategy development: an jay z indian song FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and inflation essay I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 Number 4 2006 353362 359 Customer/commercial issues Competition within the grocery retail industry continues to be intense and retail customers continue to exert pressure on indian, their tier-1 suppliers.

Price pressures increased during the time in which this research was undertaken. In such a business climate, the justification for capital investment can be problematic. Clearly, this very practical commercial constraint also applied to Princes suppliers. Thus, there was a need for solutions that would minimise capital and other forms of investment. Supplier issues It was clear that the approaches taken to B2B varied between Princes suppliers. The technical sophistication of their approaches to internal business processes also varied from leading edge ERP systems to those using stand alone PCs. It was evident that few had coherent strategies for developing future B2B initiatives. Thus, any solution reached by Princes had to letter scaffold, be capable of operating over a variety of channels and communicating in a variety of formats. Furthermore, in jay z, order to achieve full integration of the supply chain, information needs to flow seamlessly up and down the chain in the same way that using internal business systems enables the exchange of data within an individual organisation. Partnerships incorporating mutual trust are a prerequisite of securing the open exchange of information between agents, which is necessary to integrate inter-business processes.

Cultural change is necessary to develop such artnerships, which must be based on trust, collaboration and Figure 2 Perceived advantages of internet communication Figure 3 Perceived disadvantages of internet communication E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 Number 4 2006 353362 360 a unified vision of the inflation essay supply system. For many of Princes suppliers, the jay z song volume of trade does not justify the financial and resource-based investment needed to develop this level of collaboration and for others, the hours nature of the trading elationship precludes its achievement. High levels of interbusiness integration and collaboration are not considered appropriate for all partnerships. Thus the B2B solution for Princes would have to be based around a few key suppliers (typically those with a high volume of jay z, transactions) whilst providing functionality for trading with others. Discussion and conclusions The constitution of the respondents to the Princes survey means that the findings of the research are likely to reflect the views of of Jack of an Lee Anderson´s Leaving Desire, those suppliers with a high level of indian song, commitment to Princes and possibly to those that have a positive view of ecommerce. Given this, the findings are somewhat depressing. London´s The Story Of An Lee Anderson´s Leaving Desire! The lack of enthusiasm for e-commerce in indian, general and for internet-mediated solutions in particular, supports the was washington a good general evidence summarised earlier in the paper that industry is not yet ready for full scale adoption of internet-mediated B2B e-commerce.

However, although it has shown the use of internet-enabled transactions to be limited, a notable statistic is the number of respondents that use email to communicate within the supply chain and who see it as growing in importance. Perhaps, where the benefits are clear and the osts and risks acceptable, companies are willing to adopt new technology, to identify its limitations and to exploit its potential. This case-based evidence supports the findings of Hawkins and Prencipe (2000), that manufacturing organisations are tactically orientated. Jay Z Song! Equally clear is the fact that they are predominantly reactive rather than proactive in ecce homo, their approach. The adoption of song, contemporary e-commerce solutions requires co-operation with external members of the supply chain. Considering the letter scaffold particular position of tier-1 suppliers in FMCG chains where the nature of relationships has raditionally been transactional and song adversarial, it is clear that the development of an e-commerce strategy is extremely problematic. As evidenced within this study, these organisations are squeezed between powerful e-committed retail customers and e-reluctant suppliers.

The cautious, customer driven approach adopted by the Princes suppliers is understandable, but difficult to incorporate into a one-sizefits- all supply-side e-commerce strategy. For Princes, the findings of the survey meant that the development of a coherent, universal e-commerce strategy for its supply-side was not possible. The majority of its suppliers additionally supplied other tier-1 and hours retail customers, with the jay z indian result that they were unwilling and unable to invest in letter scaffold, a Princes-specific approach. Princes only feasible option at this stage was therefore to continue with a piecemeal approach to indian, supplyside e-commerce in the hope that technical developments would ultimately lead to improved accessibility and greater standardisation. As shown in Figure 1, Princes is squeezed between multiple retailers and multiple suppliers. Whilst there is essay, some coherence of approach to e-commerce among the retailers (EDI) the study has found that there is no common approach r purpose within the supply base. Princes finds itself forced to adopt different prescribed systems at its demand-side but unable to develop a unified approach at its supply-side. Jay Z Song! Arguably this uncomfortable position is a general feature of tier-1 supply within the FMCG sector.

In addition to informing strategy development for Princes, this study may have more far-reaching implications within the FMCG sector and beyond. For organisations (suppliers) with just one customer who wants to trade using a particular approach (e. A Good General! g. EDI) the associated investment may be seen as too large and uncertain. On the other hand, if the supplier has several ustomers demanding the same approach then the jay z song investment may more easily be justified. Where customers demand different approaches, the supplier must apportion the letter scaffold investment among the different relationships. Jay Z! This process of investment may ultimately lead to structural changes within the industry via the analysis nhs development of a range of tier-1 supplier types, defined by their approach to the use of jay z, e-commerce. At one extreme will be small specialised suppliers using the same solution across all their relationships, and at the other will be large organisations that can afford to Comparison London´s The Story of an Lee Anderson´s Desire, maintain several means of jay z song, electronic trading.

As a supplier, Princes falls within the latter category, whilst the majority of its own suppliers fall into the middle ground of having multiple customers, insufficient financial resource to fund a variety of solutions and hence little enthusiasm for general e-commerce. As shown in figure 1 a few exceptional dual suppliers fall into the same category as Princes typically where they supply directly to the retailers also. This view of future industry re-structuring has parallels to developments within the automotive industry where tier-1 suppliers have increased in jay z indian song, power and size, and are able to rade with a range of customers using alternative e-commerce solutions[3]. Notes 1 Groupware is a range of software tools and associated technology that is used to support groups of people working together. Typically, this includes a number of personal computers, laptops or other terminals connected in real time by a network. Of Jack London´s Lee Anderson´s! The span can range from a single room to full global reach achieved by internet links. 2 Middleware is defined here as a separate software application that interfaces between two disparate applications and enables the indian song transfer of information and inflation in pakistan essay he synchronisation of jay z indian song, activities between the two applications. 3 The ideas discussed in the final paragraph were stimulated by the comments of an anonymous reviewer.

We are grateful for the contribution.