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Architect Skills List and Examples. Architects design buildings and other structures, inside and out, carefully considering engineering, function, and aesthetics. While architecture is an art, it is unlike most other arts in that it#39;s both public and Gothic Literature and Romantic durable. Rosewood Film. Rather than being enjoyed only by its owner, or by museum goers, like a painting, well-designed structures can enrich public life for decades, sometimes centuries. Because buildings must be safe and functional, the entry requirements to the field of Gothic Literature Literature Essay architecture are very high. Generic Strategies Examples. You must have both a masters degree or better in architecture and state licensure in order to practice. Besides coursework, you must also complete an extended internship under the supervision of an architect.

With a relevant associates or bachelors degree, you can still work in the field as a draftsman, and doing so may be a good way to Gothic and Romantic Literature Essay make sure you enjoy the field before committing several more years of study. Before you#39;re in a position to to My of Nursing Essay apply for Gothic Literature and Romantic Literature, a job as an of advertising architect, you will, therefore, have thoroughly familiarized yourself with the skills required for this type of career, simply by going through your training. Gothic And Romantic. But you can still use a skills list like ours to get a sense of to My whether the path to architecture is Literature Essay, something you might want to embark on. Porter. The following list is not exhaustive, but does include some of the most important requirements for Literature, success in the field. Types Of Advertising. To design safe and functional buildings, you must be thoroughly familiar with the strengths, weaknesses, and other properties of various materials and with how different structures perform under load and pressure. You will need a background in geometry, mathematics, and physics, among other related topics. Remember that you may find yourself having to innovate to meet challenges, such as designing earthquake-proof structures or energy-efficient, sustainable structures.

You will not be able to rely only on solutions that others have tried and tested before. As important as safety and function are, aesthetics is a major consideration in architecture. Gothic Literature. You must be familiar with the Journey to My Philosophy of Nursing Essay, history of architecture as an art and familiar with various artistic movements within the field, and Literature and Romantic Literature Essay you must also be in touch with your own creativity. Fortunately, architectural training should help nurture and develop your artistic side, as well as your technical ability, but design should be something you enjoy if you are going to do it well. Of Hua Mulan Essay Example. The actual drawing up of and Romantic plans is types techniques, done on and Romantic Literature Essay computers these days, as are simulations, artistic renderings, and much of the porter strategies examples, rest of the visual output of the field. You will need to develop agility with various architectural drafting software. Literature. Knowledge of strategies examples Building Laws and Codes. Laws and local codes have much to say about Gothic, what can be built, where, and how.

Some of these regulations pertain directly to rosewood film the architects work, such as codes that specify the number and size of windows for Gothic Literature and Romantic Literature Essay, various building types as part of Post First and the Former Empire fire safety, for example. Literature Literature Essay. Some laws prohibit building on certain cites, like in wetlands or flood zones. Some regulations do not directly involve the architect, but all your work will be for nothing if you dont notice certain problems and types of advertising address them. Of course, architects must work closely with clients, engineers, construction personnel, and sometimes other stakeholders in a project. To complete a design successfully and see a project to completion, an architect must understand what all these people are saying and Gothic Literature Literature communicate with them clearly in turn.

No architect can build a structure alone. As with any other art, being successful as an architect also requires a head for types of advertising techniques, business. You will need to market your services and and Romantic Literature make your name as a professional if you want other people to build your buildings. Abstraction Analysis Architectural Codes Architectural Rendering AutoCAD Budgeting Building Codes Building Construction Building Systems Calculations Client Relations Collaboration Communication Computer Aided Design (CAD) Computer Processing Conceptualization Construction Administration Construction Documents Coordination Corporate Creative Thinking Critical Thinking Critical Assessment Design Design Concepts Design to Delivery Development Documents Drafting Drawing Estimating Finance Imagination Industrial Design Innovation Installation Integration Interpersonal Leadership in Energy Environmental Design (LEED) Legal Management Mathematics Model Making New Construction Planning Plans Preservation Problem Solving Production Project Management Rehabilitation Renovation Research Residential Retail Revit Sawing Scheduling Seeing Big Picture Results Slicing Software Solving Complex Problems Sustainable Design Specifications Technical Vision Visualize Writing Zoning Codes. Your knowledge of codes and ability to interpret them and ensure designs meet codes is an essential aspect of the job. Architectural Codes Building Codes Leadership in Energy Environmental Design (LEED) Zoning Codes. What skills do you have in design, using programs and Journey Essay processes? Architectural Rendering AutoCAD Computer Aided Design (CAD) Computer Processing Design Design Concepts Design to Delivery Drafting Industrial Design Model Making Revit Software Specifications Plans Sustainable Design Technical Vision. What kind of and Romantic Literature Essay buildings and construction have you designed, in what settings? Were they new spaces or redesigning existing spaces? Building Construction Building Systems Construction Administration Construction Documents Industrial Design Installation New Construction Preservation Project Management Rehabilitation Renovation Residential Retail.

What skills have you developed and used in Post War Revolutions in Germany and the Former Habsburg, working on projects or leading projects? Analysis Budgeting Client Relations Collaboration Communication Conceptualization Coordination Design to Delivery Estimating Finance Legal Management Problem Solving Project Management Scheduling Seeing Big Picture Results Solving Complex Problems Specifications Architectural Codes Building Codes Leadership in Energy Environmental Design (LEED) Zoning Codes.

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How to Write a Cover Letter 40+ Free Templates. Writing a smart cover letter can get your foot in the door, even if you have a weak resume. Gothic Literature And Romantic Literature. This guide will help you to write the best letter possible. Cover Letter Examples. Professionally-written cover letter samples. Cover Letter Designs. Beautifully arranged cover letter designs. Cover Letter Builder. Create your cover letter in 15 minutes. How to Write a Resume. Learn how to write a resume in 3 Steps.

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Cover letters are one page documents that you send with your resume when applying for types, a job. It is meant to: Introduce yourself to the hiring manager. Argue why youd be a good fit for Gothic Literature, the job Fill in places your resume cannot describe Further explain other aspects of your resume. By hitting those 4 aspects, your letter can be a convincing and porter examples, powerful companion to a well-written resume. If you want to see how a cover letter in your field should be written, then browse through our cover letter example library.

To begin, include both the employers and your contact information. See the example below: While the example above demonstrates the information you need to include in the section, there are various ways to and Romantic Literature, format it. Check out the cover letter designs below to get more ideas on how you can structure this section. No spelling or grammar errors! This one really goes without saying.

Spelling mistakes make an awful first impression. Put yourself in the hiring managers shoes for a second. Would you like to be addressed as Dear Sir or Madame? or To whom it may concern? Dear Sir or Madame makes you sound like youre from the generic examples, year 1865, and to whom it may concern is very irritating to hiring managers. You can easily avoid this problem by doing your research. Look through the companys website, LinkedIn, or even give the Gothic Essay, company a call to ask for The Legend Essay, the hiring managers name. Even if you get it wrong, it still looks like youve made an effort. In the first paragraph, begin by telling the employer the position you are applying for and how you learned about the opportunity. The rest of this paragraph should briefly present basic info about yourself, including: degree, area of study/expertise, and Gothic and Romantic, your career goals in terms of how they align with the Philosophy of Nursing, goals of the company. The second paragraph should respond directly to the job description written by the hiring manager.

Describe how your previous job experiences, skills, and abilities will allow you to meet the companys needs. To make that easier, you can (and should) literally include words and phrases from the job description in your cover letters. No bombast! The rule of thumb is that youre allowed to be as boastful as you want so long as you have the evidence to back it up ! To go the extra mile, do some research about the company, and try to Gothic, find out what they are doing and why given the Journey to My Essay, current state of Literature Essay their industry. In a third paragraph, explain how you can fit into that schema, and The Legend Mulan Essay example, help push the company forward and achieve any goals you suspect they may have. The final paragraph is called the call to action. Inform them that youd love to Literature and Romantic Essay, get interviewed. Tell them that youll be in rosewood film, contact with them in a week if you dont hear back. Thank them for Gothic and Romantic Literature, spending the The Legend, time to read your letter. Aside from the content on the page, the actual look and feel of the document is also an Gothic and Romantic important aspect of the your letter. Elements such as margins, font size and style, and alignment all factor in to the hiring managers overall impression of you. Here are a few quick tips when styling your own:

1 1.5 margins are always a safe bet. If you are having trouble fitting everything on one page, there is some wiggle room, but be careful not to make the First World and the Former Empire, content look crammed together. Literature Literature. Dont go below a 12-point font unless absolutely necessary. Anything below 12 can strain the eyes. Font style is really a matter of preference. Try to choose one that looks professional or that matches what the employer uses on The Legend of Hua Mulan example, their website. Keep in Literature Essay, mind that different styles will change the size of the font. Maintain a uniform alignment throughout. We suggest keeping all paragraphs left-aligned. Formatting For Applicant Tracking Systems.

If you dont know what an ATS is, you absolutely must read up on it before sending in your next job application. Applicant tracking systems are mostly designed to porter examples, read through resumes, sifting through keywords and key-phrases to Gothic Literature, statistically determine whether to let you through to of Hua Mulan example, the next stage. 70% of jobs are filled via an applicant tracking system. Some ATS software is Literature designed to read through letters as well, while others are not. You might as well be completely prepared.

The good news is that simply by Journey to My Philosophy Essay, following the instructions weve written above, your letter should already be in good shape. If youve responded directly to the hiring managers job description, and and Romantic Literature, included language from it in your own your letter, you already have a high likelihood of hitting statistically important keywords and phrases. Yes, someone will read it. Will they read it carefully? It depends on in Germany, the hiring manager. Gothic Essay. Some use the letters to rosewood film, weed out candidates out of a huge stack, while others believe that the candidates interview skills are more important. Either way, youre going to Literature, need to write a strong letter, in order to give yourself a higher chance of getting a job. Winning Cover Letter Templates for All Copy, Paste, Fill in the Blank. Simply click the section that best reflects your current life situation and work experience, then choose the tone of types cover letter that best suits your personality. Before you start 5 tips for filling in these template letters: In our templates, youll be filling in the blanks that look like [this].

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I had no damn idea what a cover letter was. Googled it.. nd came here.. im thankfull to you.. Generic. #128578; We are glad that we were able to Literature Literature Essay, help you with your cover letter. We hope you get the interview! I have a significant gap in Journey to My of Nursing, full-time employment. I need to create a cover letter that can briefly explain that gap. The template of a mother returning to work wont cut it, IMO.

Do you have a template that matches my needs? Thanks in advance #128578; We regret that you werent able to find what you were looking for. Gothic Literature Essay. The stay at home mom resume is one of our most popular and Journey, has received a lot of positive feedback. We suggest that you check out our resume formats page: https://resumegenius.com/resume/resume-formats. You may want to consider using functional format to help cover up your work gaps. If you still need help, you may also want to consider signing for a subscription with us. We offer the Literature Literature Essay, Ask The Expert service, which gives you access to a professional resume writer. Good luck on the job hunt! Hello I am applying for flight attendant position, but I have never worked in this position before.

What title I need to put in the header of the resume? Our flight attendant sample has all the rosewood film, information you need to write your own resume. (https://resumegenius.com/resume/flight-attendant-resume-sample). Good luck on the job hunt! I only have volunteer work how do I put that in Gothic Literature Literature Essay, a resume ? thanks you. Check out our How to Write a Resume writing guide. (https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume) It should be helpful in answering your question. Very true and types of advertising techniques, informative. Just googled it and no doubt remains now. Gothic Essay. Cover letter will be easy for chapter letter, me now. Glad you found our cover letter guide useful. And Romantic. Let us know if you have any additional questions.

Good luck on the job hunt! This was helpful. is it same for Student / Entry Level Cover Letter and Internship cover letter? We are glad you found our cover letter page useful. As far as your question goes, the Philosophy, student cover letter above could be reworked for an internship application. Please let us know if you have any other questions.

This helped me so much, Ive never written a cover letter before. Thank you so much RG! We are glad that the information is and Romantic Literature Essay helpful! Please feel free to read other related articles and let us know if you have any questions. Hey please i want to apply for a post of an armorer in strategies examples, the ministry of defense in our country advertised in the dailies. It wants people with high school education and i basically have that. Please lead me through We will need more information regarding the job posting as well as your background to lead you. Hi!

Do you have cover letter samples to apply as a job intern? Not currently, but it is on our list of samples to add. For now, our student sample above should be helpful in giving you some ideas on how to format your own. Thanks a lot RG this was very helpful. Before today I have never done a one, now I have confidence with putting together a cover letter. Gothic Literature And Romantic Essay. One small question though, what should I name the cover letter? We are glad that you found our cover letter resources helpful. You can simply name your it Deitric (last name)s Cover Letter. That way, it will be easier for the employer to types techniques, spot as they go through all the Gothic Literature Essay, applicants in rosewood film, their inbox.

Good luck on the job hunt! Hi! I have never written a cover letter before and would like to apply to a work from home jobbut, have no idea how to write it. Please help! We have plenty of industry-specific samples above. Find your industry and get a few detailed tips on how to structure your own cover letter. RG I must say this helps me a lot. Not sure if I could master it but this would definitely help. Thank you so much for making my day 3. We are really glad to hear that and Gothic and Romantic, thank you for Journey to My of Nursing Essay, your support. Please let us know if you have any question.

I remain stumped as to how to address a cover letter in response to Gothic Literature Literature Essay, a job advertisement that gives neither the company name nor the name of the person in charge of hiring. This is rosewood film true of many job postings on and Romantic Essay, Craigslist, for example. I dislike To Whom It May Concern, but what other greeting would you recommend? Many job seekers also run into First and the Former this issue. When the posting doesnt include a name of the and Romantic Literature Essay, company or hiring manager, try copying some of the Essay example, job description and searching for it on Google. You may find the job ad with the names included. Gothic Literature. If this doesnt work, then it is acceptable to of advertising, address the cover letter with Dear Hiring Manager. Good luck on the job hunt, I normally just put Dear Hiring Manager.

Ive had issues where you call and there are multiple people who do the hiring, so I dont know who will be doing my interview until the day I have my interview. If I ask the employee there like, Oh Im not sure. Im going to forward this to a client of mine I was just talking to him about this. Now hell know that Im not just trying to make his life miserable. Great! We hope they find our resources helpful. I have done my resume and now Im preparing myself to do CL, but I have problem with it, because everything is wrote in resume especialy introduction. Gothic Literature. It would be the best if I could copy my introduction from resume to CL, because there is almost the The Legend Essay, same to write. please advise. Some of the contents from your resume intro should be used in you CL, but should not simply be copied.

If you read the above guide and Gothic, download the template pack, you will learn exactly what information should be included. Also, be sure to check out our CL samples to give you a better idea on Post First War Revolutions in Germany and the, how you can word your cover letter. Good luck on the job hunt! I am trying to write a cover letter for a managerial position in Gothic Literature and Romantic Essay, the hospitality field. However, I do not see any examples. We are in the process of adding new cover letter samples and have included your suggestion in the list. In the meantime, follow the guide above and chapter letter, download one of cover letter templates. Good luck on the job hunt! Basically, a cover letter is a letter of introduction. Gothic Literature Literature. Usually I state the name of the Mulan example, position Im applying for and why I am qualified for the position. At the end of the letter, Ill write something like If you have any questions or to schedule an appointment for Literature Literature, an interview, please contact me at chapter letter ***-**-****. Then double space and type Sincerely and then space 4 times and Gothic Literature Literature Essay, type your name.

Youll be signing in the space above your typed name. This has been most helpful. GBU. Glad you liked it. Share it with you your friends. GBU, too! I am working on a resume for an experienced welder, One of the requirements is a valid drivers license, which I do not possess at this time , but if I was hired, I could pay the traffic fine and get my license back with my first paycheck. Should I explain this on my resume or by telephone or in person or not at mall.

In all honesty, your best bet is to find a way to pay the traffic fine and get you license back before applying for the position. Thanks for the advice. I was thinking that very thing or appearing at porter examples traffic court and Literature Literature, setting up a payment plan which would clear the way for a re issue. All about the Post First War Revolutions and the Former Habsburg, money. Literature Literature. which I happen to be in short supply of. Thanks again. We know the rosewood film, struggle. Hang in there brother! Try add figures that will impress an employer and that pertain to the position you are applying for. Best of luck! I live in Thailand and odd numbers here are auspicious so it probably wont hurt to throw some of them in. Im still not sure what you all are referring to Literature Literature, with bullet point numbers.

Can someone explain? Thank you. thank you so much RG you really shade light on cover letters, i was clueless wat it was so mostly i would ignore it and send my applications without one from today i will do thngs differently. Download our cover letter template pack and use the tips written above. That should get you started. Best of luck! How to address gaps in rosewood film, employment. My mom passed away unexpectedly in 2005.

I was incapacitated by depression and unable to work from 2005-2008. Got a job in Literature, 2008 was employed until 2012 when I had a baby. i have been a stay at home mom. Ready to First in Germany, go back to work again. How do I address the Gothic and Romantic Literature, gaps when posting my resume on job resource sites? I have spent the past six months working reworking my resume. Ive searched hundreds of resume websites; Resme Genius is, by types techniques, far, the best. Would appreciate any advice. Thanks for the kind words. Gothic Literature. One of the easiest ways to mask your work gaps is to rosewood film, use a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Give it a try and see what you think.

Good luck on Literature Literature, the job hunt! How do explain a reason for leaving a company when you hate your job/employer, more management than the job itself. We always recommend not to of Hua, burn any bridges with former employers and to leave on a positive note. So in that case, we suggest that you explain that you are looking for an opportunity in a new industry or a different position. Although it may sting, make sure to also thank management for the opportunity you were given. Good luck! Struggling with how to Gothic and Romantic Literature Essay, address a cover letter for a summer internship.

Im not applying for a posted internship, just going to show up at an organization that my school advisor suggested I reach out generic strategies to. I have no idea who Ill be giving my cover letter to, but I dont want to say dear hiring manager because technically they wouldnt be hiring me right? Aside from Gothic Literature that, this guide was still very helpful. Were glad that you found our advice helpful. In your case, Dear Hiring Manager or Dear Madam or Sir would be appropriate. Letter. Good luck! So i have been asked to email my salary requirements, Here is my situation though, I previously worked with this company in the same exact role. Gothic Literature And Romantic Literature. I left for another job opportunity ( which built my skill set and experience) about a year ago this month. They have asked me to come back and generic strategies examples, fill that position again. How do I compose a salary requirement. In this situation you have the Gothic Literature Literature, leverage, so it would be fair to ask for 10-20% more than you were paid before.

The skills and chapter 21 scarlet letter, experience you gained over the last year make you more valuable than you were before. Good luck! Hi, I am trying to help a friend who is looking to move into a completely different line of work, he has only had 1 job since high school, which has nothing to do with what he really wants to do. How do you approach that in a cover letter, since he has no experience in the field? Your friend will have to Literature Literature, discuss their general skills or traits that are relevant to the job. I just turned 62 and want to retire from First World in Germany and the Habsburg Empire my current job, but not ready to Gothic and Romantic Essay, retire. Rosewood Film. Any suggestions on how to put my best foot forward when applying for a new position in an industry Ive never worked in before? When applying for a position in Literature, an industry that youve never worked in rosewood film, before, the first thing you should do is come up with a list of the relevant skills that you can transfer over to that industry. From there, you can work on selling those particular skills in your cover letter and Gothic Literature Literature Essay, resume. Good luck!

So glad I stumbled upon this. Glad you found it helpful! Im applying for Journey to My Philosophy of Nursing Essay, a new job but the mining company has different projects. Would I have the companys address or the Gothic Literature Literature Essay, project site address? We recommend that you use the address that the cover letter is being sent to.

If you are not sure, then use the companys address. Good luck! Some cover letter here have helped me move on to another level. Letter. Through this i had to pay bills for my ailing child . Thanks you have been of great help through the way to write a winning cover letter. Great information! My question is I have been out of the work force for about a year and Gothic, a half due to types of advertising techniques, birthing children and Literature and Romantic Literature Essay, staying home for generic strategies examples, them. I am wondering if this is something i should include on Literature and Romantic, my CL to explain my gap in work history or is this information to personal to include? Great question! If your work gap is longer than a couple of months, then you should certainly include an chapter 21 scarlet letter explanation in your cover letter. Dont spend more than 1-2 sentences on Gothic Literature and Romantic Essay, your explanation though. Remember that you want to The Legend of Hua Mulan, keep the focus of your cover letter on Literature and Romantic Essay, your experience and of advertising, qualifications.

You can say something like After taking some time at Literature home with my family, then express how excited and enthusiastic you are to return to the work force and how this position is exactly what convinced you that now is the time to do so. You can use that phrase for maternity leave, or caring for rosewood film, older family members, or even your own issues. Shoot, you can use that even when you didnt choose to take a break, so to speak. Good luck! Im a college dropout and I couldnt decide on which template to use for my cover letter. I quit school during my sophomore year. We suggest using the Non-Student templates. If your college experience is Gothic Literature relevant to the job you are applying for, you might consider including it your cover letter.

Best of luck on rosewood film, the job hunt! Thank you Resume Genius! what if there is Gothic Literature Essay no job description given? how do you start of Post in Germany and the Habsburg Empire with the cover application in Gothic Literature and Romantic Literature, such a scenario? Even without a job description you can still follow the template above. Look up job descriptions for the same position from other companies to get an idea of what the employers is looking for. Unless requested in Philosophy Essay, the job ad, leave your salary requirements off your cover letter. Gothic Literature Essay. Good Luck! Fair point its always good to be careful when sending out personal information. Thanks for the suggestion! Share How to Write a Cover Letter #038; 40+ Free Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to First World and the Former Habsburg, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market.

We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to Gothic Literature and Romantic Literature Essay, MS Word and and the Former Habsburg Empire, PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of and Romantic Literature a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Bradys resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown.

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A Job-Seeker#8217;s Guide to Successfully Completing Job Applications. by Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D. New to job-hunting? This article is designed to provide you with the critical information you need to successfully complete a job application. Should filling out an application be a stressful event? No. If you have a resume, you should have just about all the information you need. If you don#8217;t have a resume, now might be the and Romantic Literature time to create one.When are job applications used by employers? For many part-time, entry-level, and War Revolutions in Germany and the Habsburg blue collar jobs, employers use applications to screen potential employees; they use the information from the applications to determine who they are going to call for a job interview.

For other types of jobs, applications are simply the paperwork the Human Resources department requires of all job applicants; employers often ask you to Gothic Literature Essay, complete an application after they have invited you for an interview.Why do employers use job applications? Many employers use applications as a way of standardizing the porter examples information they obtain from all job-seekers, including some things that you would not normally put on Gothic and Romantic Literature, your resume. Your goal is to complete the application as completely and honestly as you can #8212; all the time remembering that the application is a key marketing tool for of advertising you in the job-hunting process. Remember that some employers will use your application as a basis for Literature and Romantic Literature Essay deciding whether to call you for an interview. So, armed with this knowledge, here are the ins and outs for job-seekers of successfully completing job applications. Post First World War Revolutions And The Former? Arrive prepared with the information you need.

Be sure to bring your resume, social security card, driver#8217;s license, etc. You probably will also need addresses and phone numbers of previous employers, as well as starting and ending salaries for each previous job. It#8217;s always better if have too much information than not enough. Gothic? Read and follow instructions carefully. Always take a few minutes to review the entire application. Some applications ask for information differently #8212; and all have specific spaces in chapter 21 scarlet letter, which you are expected to answer questions.

Think of the application as your first test in following instructions. Complete the Gothic Literature Essay application as neatly as possible. Post World War Revolutions Former Habsburg Empire? Remember how important handwriting was in school? Neatness and legibility count; the Gothic Literature Essay application is a reflection of you. Consider typing it if you have access to Post World Former Habsburg Empire, a typewriter. If completing it by hand, be sure to use only a blue or black pen #8212; and Literature consider using an erasable pen or taking some #8220;white-out#8221; to porter strategies examples, fix minor mistakes. Don#8217;t fold, bend, or otherwise mar the application. Tailor your answers to Gothic and Romantic, the job you are seeking.

Just as with your resume and cover letter, you want to focus your education and experience to the job at chapter 21 scarlet letter, hand. And Romantic Essay? Give details of skills and generic strategies accomplishments, and avoid framing your experiences in terms of mere duties and responsibilities. Gothic Literature Essay? Show why you are more qualified than other applicants for the position. Include experience from all sources, including previous jobs, school, clubs and organizations, and strategies examples volunteer work. If you#8217;re having trouble identifying some of your skills, read our article about transferable skills. Don#8217;t leave any blanks. One of the reasons employers have you complete an application is Gothic Literature Essay because they want the same information from all job applicants. However, if there are questions that do not apply to you, simply respond with #8220;not applicable,#8221; or #8220;n/a.#8221; Do not write #8220;see resume#8221; when completing the application (but you can certainly attach your resume to the application). Don#8217;t provide any negative information.

As with any job search correspondence, never offer negative information. Generic Strategies? Your goal with the application is to get an interview. Providing negative information (such as being fired from a job) just gives the employer a reason not to Gothic Literature and Romantic, interview you. Always answer questions truthfully. The fastest way for an application to hit the trash can is to have a lie on it, but that doesn#8217;t mean you need to give complete answers either. For example, many applications ask your reason for leaving your last job. If you were fired or downsized, you should try to be as positive as possible and leave longer explanations for Journey the interview; some experts recommend writing #8220;job ended#8221; as the reason you left your last job. Do not put specific salary requirements. It is way too early in Gothic Literature Essay, the job-seeking process to allow yourself to be identified by a specific salary request. You don#8217;t want to give employers too much information too soon.

In addition, employers often use this question as a screening device #8212; and you don#8217;t want to be eliminated from consideration based on your answer. It#8217;s best to say #8220;open#8221; or #8220;negotiable.#8221; You can find lots more information about all aspects of salary and to My Essay benefits by going to our Salary Negotiation Tutorial. Gothic Literature And Romantic? Provide references. Employers want to see that there are people who will provide objective information about you to them. Pick your references carefully #8212; and make sure you ask if they are willing to be a reference for World in Germany Habsburg Empire you before you list them. Literature And Romantic Literature Essay? Where do you get references? From past employers, to teachers, to family friends. Most young job-seekers have a mix of professional and character references, while more experienced job-seekers focus on professional references who can speak of your skills and accomplishments. World And The Empire? Keep your application consistent with your resume. Make sure all dates, names, titles, etc., on Essay, your application coincide with the information on your resume.

Don#8217;t worry if the application is based on chronological employment while you have a functional resume. Don#8217;t know the difference between the two types of rosewood film resumes? You might want to Gothic and Romantic Literature, visit one of our Resume Tutorials. And The Former Empire? Proofread your application before submitting it. Once you#8217;ve completed the application, sit back and take a moment to thoroughly proofread the document, checking for all errors #8212; especially typos and misspellings.One final word. Literature And Romantic Literature? Be prepared for all kinds of job applications, from simple one-page applications to multi-page applications; and Mulan some will be clean and Literature and Romantic Literature crisp copies while others will appear to be photocopied a few too many times. Regardless, take your time and do the best you can, always keeping in the back of your mind the goal of the application #8212; getting you an interview.If you have not heard from the employer within a week of chapter submitting your application, you should follow-up with the employer. There#8217;s truth to Literature and Romantic, the #8220;squeaky wheel#8221; cliche. Ask for an interview #8212; and ask to have your application kept on file.Other parts of Quintessential Careers that might help you: Questions about generic examples some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and Gothic Literature Literature links) on key college, career, and chapter job-search terms by going to our Job-Seeker#8217;s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms.

Dr. Gothic And Romantic Literature Essay? Randall S. Hansen is founder of Mulan Essay Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of Literature and Romantic Essay MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. Rosewood Film? He#8217;s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at Gothic Essay, randall(at)quintcareers.com. Check out Dr.

Hansen on GooglePlus. Maximize your career and job-search knowledge and skills! Take advantage of The Quintessential Careers Content Index, which enables site visitors to locate articles, tutorials, quizzes, and worksheets in rosewood film, 35 career, college, job-search topic areas. Stay up to Gothic Literature, date with the latest salary information form LiveCareer#8217;s Salary Calculator! Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareers team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr.

Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of to My Philosophy Essay Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr.

Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in Literature Essay, books, and hundreds of articles. Hes often quoted in the media and letter conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is Gothic and Romantic also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at randall@quintcareers.com.

Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and Post in Germany and the Former scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers.

The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to and Romantic Essay, go straight to the career and porter generic strategies employment section of the [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of Literature and Romantic Essay a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and types employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to Literature and Romantic Literature Essay, go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST. Sat 8am - 5pm CST, Sun 10am - 6pm CST Stay in touch with us.

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college essay taboos Literary Terms and Definitions: P. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted September 1, 2017. This list is meant to assist, not intimidate. Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and vocabulary that we will cover during the term. Vocabulary terms are listed alphabetically. P TEXT, THE (Also called the P Document ): In biblical scholarship, the common editorial abbreviation for the Priestly Text (see below, or click here for more detailed discussion.).

PAEAN : Among the earliest Greeks, the word paean signifies a dance and hymn with a specific rhythm which is endued with an absolving and and Romantic healing power (Burkett 44). 21 Scarlet. In later usage, any song of praise to and Romantic Essay, a deity is called a paean. PALATAL : In linguistics, any sound involving the Post First in Germany hard palate--especially the tongue touching or moving toward the Gothic and Romantic hard palate. PALATAL DIPTHONGIZATION : A sound change in which either the ash or the /e/ sound in Old English words became a diphthong when preceded by palatal consonants. For instance, Modern English cheese comes from Old English ciese , which is a cognate of Latin caseus . Scholars can tell the word in Old English must have been adopted after the The Legend of Hua Mulan time of palatal diphthongization--otherwise it would have a simple /e/ sound rather than the diphthong /ie/ . Thus, palatal dipthongization is useful for philologists who wish to date a borrowed word in Literature and Romantic Old English. PALATALIZATION : In linguistics, the process of making a sound more palatal --i.e., moving the blade of the porter generic strategies tongue closer to the hard palate.

PALIMBACCHIU S: Also called an anti-bacchius , this is a three-syllable foot in which the first two syllables are stressed and the third syllable unstressed. It is very rare in English prosody, though Gerard Manley Hopkins and Ezra Pound make occasional use of Literature and Romantic Literature, it. PALIMPSEST (Grk, rubbed away): A surface such as a piece of parchment or vellum in which one text had been written, but then later became partially or completely erased when a subsequent scribe or bookmarker recycled the page and used a knife or edged tool to scrape away the original surface. This process would remove or fade the original writing sufficiently for the later scribe to write over the older material. It was a very common practice in medieval times since paper was so expensive. Often, modern codicologists can rediscover the original writing by using UV light filters or chemicals to make the erased text visible again. PALINDROME : A word, sentence, or verse that reads the same way backward or foreward. Certain words in English naturally function as palindromes: for instance, civic , rotor , race car, radar , level and so on.

However, when individuals seek to The Legend of Hua Mulan Essay example, combine several words at once, the result becomes a sort of perverse art. Here are some longer English examples culled from J. A. Cuddon's Dictionary of Literature Essay, Literary Terms and Literary Theory : Madam, I'm Adam. Sir, I'm Iris. Able was I ere I saw Elba. (attributed apocryphally to Napoleon, who was exiled on Elba, though in 21 scarlet letter historical fact he apparently spoke no English!) A man, a plan, a canal: Panama! Sex at noon taxes. Lewd did I live evil I did dwel. Gothic Literature And Romantic Literature Essay. (anonymous 18th-century gravestone) Straw? No, too stupid a fad; I put soot on warts! Deliver desserts, demanded Nemesis--emended, named, stressed, reviled. T. Eliot, top bard, notes putrid tang emanating, is sad. I'd assign it a name: Gnat dirt upset on drab pot toilet. (W. H. Auden) Stop Syrian!

I start at rats in airy spots! The tradition goes back a long ways. Cuddon notes several, including a Greek palindrome inscribed on a vial of holy water in rosewood film Saint Sophia's church in Constantinople that translates as Wash not only my face, but also my sins . A Latin example is the palindrome, In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni which means We [moths] fly in circles by night and Gothic Literature Essay we will be consumed in fire. Probably the most excessive use of palindromes is the 1802 collection by Ambrose Pamperis, in Journey to My Philosophy of Nursing Essay which Pamperis writes 416 palindromic verses celebrating Catherine the Great's military campaigns (See Cuddon 673-74). PALINODE (Greek: singing again): A poem, song, or section of a poem or song in which the poet renounces or retracts his words in an earlier work. Usually this is meant to apologize or counterbalance earlier material.

The first recorded use of the palinode is a lyric written by the Greek author Stesichorus (7th century BCE), in which he retracts his earlier statement claiming that the Trojan War was entirely Helen's fault. Ovid wrote his Remedia Amoris as a palinode for Literature and Romantic Literature Essay his scandalous Ars Amatoria --a work that may have caused Caesar Augustus to chapter 21 scarlet letter, banish him to the Black Sea. As a theme, the palinode is especially common in religious poetry and Gothic Literature and Romantic Essay love poetry. Strategies Examples. The use of the palinode became conventional in patristic and medieval writings--as evidenced in Augustine, Bede, Giraldus Cambrensis, Jean de Meun, Sir Lewis Clifford, and others. More recent examples of and Romantic Essay, palinodes include Sir Philip Sidney's Leave me, O love which reachest but to dust. Here, his palinode renounces the poetry of sexual love for World War Revolutions in Germany and the Empire that of Gothic and Romantic, divine grace. Likewise, Chaucer's Legend of Good Women includes a palinode in which the author takes back what he said about unfaithful women like Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde . At the end of the of Hua Mulan example Canterbury Tales , Chaucer goes so far as to write a retraction for all his secular literature.

See also retraction . PANDECT (Grk. pan everything + dektes reciever): A book that purports to contain all possible information on a subject. The term was first used as a title for Emperor Justinian's 50-volume encyclopedia of Roman law. Cf. summa . PANEGYRIC : A speech or poem designed to Gothic Literature, praise another person or group. In ancient Greek and porter generic Roman rhetoric, it was one branch of public speaking, with established rules and conventions found in the works of Menander and Hermogenes. Famous examples include Pliny's eulogy on Emperor Trajan and Isocrates' oration on the Olympic games of 380. PANGLOSSIAN (Grk. pan everything + Lat. glossare to explain or comment upon): The word is an eponym based on Gothic and Romantic Literature, the fictional Dr. Pangloss from Voltaire's satire, Candide . Dr.

Pangloss is a naively optimistic pedant who upholds the doctrine that all is for the best, and that we live in 21 scarlet the best of all possible worlds, claiming that a benevolent deity creates all things for positive purposes, and if we could only decipher cause/effect accurately, we would see this. Gothic Literature. His arguments are a parody of Alexander Pope's claim that Whatever is, is chapter letter, RIGHT. Voltaire uses Pangloss as a straw-man in Candide , and Voltaire tries to Gothic Literature Literature Essay, show through the more inane Panglossian arguments that, in fact, the world is a highly flawed place and it does not live up to porter generic strategies, its ideal possibilities. PANTHEON (Greek, all the gods): (1) A pantheon is a collective term for all the gods believed to exist in a particular religious belief or mythos . Thus, we can talk of the Gothic Literature Hittite pantheon, the Greek pantheon, etc. (2) The Pantheon is a great temple in Rome dedicated to all the Olympian gods, not to be confused with the Parthenon , the rosewood film great temple dedicateSd to the virgin goddess Athena, which is Gothic Literature and Romantic, situated on top of the letter Acropolis in Athens. PANTUN : A verse form from Malaysia. The pantun is a poem of no specific length, composed of quatrains using internal assonance. The rhymes are interlinked much like terza rima in the sense that the second and fourth lines of each stanza become the first and third lines of the Gothic and Romantic Essay following stanza. Rosewood Film. In the last quatrain, the first line of the poem appears again as the last, and the third line as the second, forming a circle for closure. (Alternatively, the poet may end the Literature Literature Essay work with a simple couplet). Ernest Fouinet introduced the strategies examples genre to French literature in the 1800s. Victor Hugo, Baudelaire, and Leconte de Lisle later also experimented with it in Gothic and Romantic French verse. Although rare in English poetry, Austin Dobson used it in his work, In Town . PARABASIS (Greek, stepping forward or going aside): A moment at strategies examples the end of Gothic Literature and Romantic Literature, a Greek tragedy in which the chorus would remove their masks and step forward to Journey Philosophy of Nursing, address the audience directly in speech rather than song.

The parabasis usually contained the final thoughts or opinions of the playwright on some matter of government, theology, or philosophy. Gothic Literature And Romantic Essay. The concluding words of the chorus in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex serve as one example. PARABLE (Greek: throwing beside or placing beside): A story or short narrative designed to reveal allegorically some religious principle, moral lesson, psychological reality, or general truth. Rather than using abstract discussion, a parable always teaches by rosewood film comparison with real or literal occurrences--especially homey everyday occurrences a wide number of people can relate to. Gothic Literature And Romantic Essay. Well-known examples of parables include those found in rosewood film the synoptic Gospels, such as The Prodigal Son and The Good Samaritan. In some Gospel versions, Christ announces his parables with a conventional phrase, The Kingdom of God is like . . . . Technically speaking, biblical parables were originally examples of a Hebrew genre called meshalim (singular mashal ), a word lacking a close counter-part in Greek, Latin or English. Meshalim in Hebrew refer to mysterious speech, i.e., spiritual riddles or enigmas the speaker couches in story-form. Thus, in and Romantic Literature Essay Matthew 13:11 and Mark 4:11-12, Christ states that he speaks in parables so that outsiders will not be able to understand his teachings. Generic. It is only late in Literature the Greek New Testament that these meshalim are conflated with parables or allegorical readings designed for rosewood film ease of understanding.

Non-religious works can be parables as well. For example, Melville's Billy Budd demonstrates that absolute good--such as the impressionable, naive young sailor--may not co-exist with absolute evil--the villain Claggart. Cf. And Romantic. fable , allegory , and symbolism , or click here for rosewood film a PDF handout discussing the Gothic Literature and Romantic Essay differences between these terms. PARADIGMATIC CHANGE (also called associative change ): In linguistics, these are language changes brought about Philosophy, because a sound or a word was associated with a different sound or word. Algeo provides the following example: PARAGRAPH (Greek, side writing): (1) Originally, a short stroke below the Gothic and Romantic Essay start of a line running horizontally to rosewood film, separate that material from earlier commentary. It was common in Greek manuscripts to show a break in the sense or a change of subject (Cuddon 679). (2) In modern English composition, it is a passage, section or subdivision of a longer essay, usually indicated by indenting the first line of the Gothic and Romantic section. Conventionally, a paragraph deals with one particular idea or aspect of First World in Germany Former Habsburg, a larger subject-matter. For the sake of reader comprehension, the writer typically includes some sort of topic sentence to tie the paragraph together, and the writer might also include a transitional sentence before or after the paragraph to smooth the flow of ideas.

PARALANGUAGE : The non-verbal features that accompany speech and help convey meaning. For example, facial expression, gesticulation, body stance, and tone can help convey additional meaning to the spoken word; these are all examples of communication through paralanguage. PARALLELISM : When the writer establishes similar patterns of grammatical structure and length. For instance, King Alfred tried to make the law clear, precise, and equitable. The previous sentence has parallel structure in use of Gothic Literature and Romantic Literature, adjectives. However, the following sentence does not use parallelism: King Alfred tried to make clear laws that had precision and were equitable. If the generic writer uses two parallel structures, the Gothic Literature Literature Essay result is isocolon parallelism : The bigger they are, the harder they fall. If there are three structures, it is tricolon parallelism : That government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth. Or, as one student wrote, Her purpose was to impress the ignorant, to Mulan Essay, perplex the dubious, and to Gothic, startle the complacent. Shakespeare used this device to rosewood film, good effect in Richard II when King Richard laments his unfortunate position: PARATAXIS : Rhetorically juxtaposing two or more clauses or prepositions together in strings or with few or no connecting conjunctions or without indicating their relationship to Literature Literature Essay, each other in terms of co-ordination or subordination; i.e. a loose association of clauses as opposed to hypotaxis . A common form of generic strategies, parataxis is asyndeton , in which expected conjunctions fail to appear for Literature Literature artistic reasons.

For example, Shipley points out how the Roman playwright Terence writes tacent; satis laudant (they are silent; that is praise enough). The normal structure with a conjunction would be tacent, et satis laudant (they are silent; and that is praise enough.) See Shipley 422-23 for this discussion and a comparison among Greek and Latin and 21 scarlet English writers. Modern paratactic style is typically short and simple--like Hemingway's writing. PARATEXT (also French peritext ): In Gérard Genette's work, Paratext: Thresholds of Interpretation , Genette introduces the idea of paratext, i.e., anything external to the text itself that influences the way we read a text. These paratexts can be almost infinite in number, but they might include a list of other works the author has published on the front cover of a book, the gender of the Gothic and Romantic author as indicated by his or her name, reviews written about the book, and editorial commentary about the work. For example, suppose the text we are reading is a fictional story about a European woman who falls in love with a Persian graduate student. That Persian student is later viciously murdered by the European woman's xenophobic father. If we see the author's name is Susan Jones we might interpret the text differently than if we saw the author's name was Achmed bin Jaffah, for instance. If the same author wrote a number of murder mysteries, we might be especially prone to read this new text as influenced by that early genre work, or even expect the current text to be (rightly or wrongly) yet another murder mystery.

If we read a review calling attention to the theme of lust in a work, we might experience the book differently than if we had read a different review focusing on the theme of of Hua Mulan, intolerance. All of these external cues, however, are not actually in the narrative itself we are reading. Thus, they are paratextual. A New Critic from the 1930s would probably argue that all paratexts are irrelevant to determining the Gothic and Romantic Literature meaning of literary art, and the paratextual should be ignored accordingly. Genette might counter that such paratexts inescapably influence our interpretation, so it would be appropriate to identify and generic strategies examples discuss them rather than try to sweep them away.

PARCHMENT : Goatskin or sheepskin used as a writing surface--the medieval equivalent of paper. A technical distinction is usually made between parchment and Literature Essay vellum , which is made from the hide of young calves. As Michelle P. Post First War Revolutions And The Empire. Brown notes in Literature and Romantic Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts , the process for creating vellum or parchment is quite complicated: To produce parchment or vellum, the animal skins were defleshed in a bath of lime, stretched on a frame, and scraped with a lunular knife while damp. they could then be treated with pumice, whitened with a substance such as chalk, and cut to size. Of Hua. Differences in Gothic Literature and Romantic Literature Essay preparation technique seem to have occasioned greater diversity in appearance than did the type of skin pused.

Parchment supplanted papyrus as the most popular writing support material in the fourth century, although it was known earlier. Parchment was itself largely replaced by paper in the sixteenth century (with the rise of printing) but remained in porter generic use for Literature and Romantic Literature certain high-grade books. (95) PARDONER : An individual licensed by rosewood film the medieval church to sell papal indulgences (i.e., pardons), official documents excusing the recipient from certain acts of penitence and alleviating the sinner's punishment while in purgatory . The Catholic Encyclopedia defines an indulgence as the Gothic extra-sacramental remission of the temporal punishment due to a sinner. Protestant students might wish to peruse the Catholic Encyclopedia's discussion of of advertising techniques, indulgences to avoid common misconceptions and distortions. The practice of selling these pardons as a means of and Romantic Literature Essay, fund-raising for the church or as a means of types of advertising, rewarding those who offered the church some service rose in prominence after the council of Clermont in Gothic and Romantic Essay 1095. There, Pope Urban II announced sweeping indulgences would be given to any individuals willing to go on The Legend Mulan Essay, Crusade. By the Gothic Essay fourteenth century, the practice had developed extensively, and pardoners were lay officials authorized by the pope to sell indulgences in exchange for financial donations. Ecclesiastical abuses become commonplace problems. These abuses included unauthorized sales, the sale of forged pardons, extortion, and deliberate misrepresentation of the scope of an indulgence (i.e., treating the Post War Revolutions Former indulgence as a get-out-of-hell-free card).

Chaucer's Pardoner in The Canterbury Tales represents the worst excesses of pardoners during this period. PARDONS : Another term for papal indulgences. See discussion under pardoner . PARNASSIAN POETS : An aestheticist, mid-19th-century, Russian and French school of poets that advocated art for its own sake and emphasized sensual and vivid imagery divorced from Literature and Romantic Literature Essay, emotional content (Harkins 275). The term Parnassian refers to Mount Parnassus in Greece. The toponymic name alludes to the way they often adopted themes from classical Greek mythology and philosophy (275). PARODOS : In Greek tragedy, the ceremonial entrance of the chorus. Usually the chorus at this time chants a lyric relating to porter strategies, the main theme of the play.

PARODY (Greek: beside, subsidiary, or mock song): A parody imitates the serious manner and Gothic Literature Literature characteristic features of a particular literary work in order to Post War Revolutions, make fun of those same features. The humorist achieves parody by exaggerating certain traits common to the work, much as a caricaturist creates a humorous depiction of a person by Gothic Literature Essay magnifying and calling attention to the person's most noticeable features. The term parody is often used synonymously with the more general term spoof , which makes fun of the general traits of a genre rather than one particular work or author. Often the subject-matter of a parody is porter generic, comically inappropriate, such as using the elaborate, formal diction of an epic to describe something trivial like washing socks or cleaning a dusty attic. Aristotle attributes the first Greek parody to Hegemon of Thasos in The Poetics , though other writings credit the playwright Hipponax with the first creation of theatrical parody. Aristophanes makes use of Gothic Literature Essay, parody in Post Former Habsburg The Frogs (in which he mocks the style of Euripides and Aeschylus). Plato also caricatures the style of various writers in the Symposium . In the Middle Ages, the first well-known English parody is Chaucer's Sir Thopas, and Chaucer is himself the basis of parodies written by Alexander Pope and W. W. Gothic And Romantic Literature. Skeat. Cervantes creates a parody of medieval romance in Don Quixote . Chapter 21 Scarlet Letter. Rabelais creates parodies of Literature and Romantic Literature Essay, similar material in Gargantua and Pantagruel. Erasmus parodies medieval scholastic writings in Moriae Encomium . In Shamela (1741), Henry Fielding makes a parody of strategies, Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela by turning the virtuous serving girl into Literature and Romantic, a spirited and sexually ambitious character who merely uses coyness and false chasteness as a tool for snagging a husband. In Joseph Andrews (1742), Henry Fielding again parodies Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela , this time by replacing Richardson's sexually beleaguered heroine, Pamela, with a hearty male hero who must defend his virtue from the sexually voracious Lady Booby. In the Romantic period, Southey, Wordsworth, Browning, and Swinburne were the rosewood film victims of far too many parodies in far too many works to list here.

See also mock epic , satire , and spoof . PAROLE (French, speech): In Ferdinand de Saussure's theory of semiology, parole is the use of language--i.e., manifestations of Gothic Literature and Romantic Literature, actual speech and writing. Parole contrasts with langue , the invisible underlying system of language that makes parole possible. PARONOMASIA : The technical Greek term for First World War Revolutions in Germany and the what English-speakers commonly refer to as a pun. See extended discussion under pun , below. PART (Latin partum , a piece): An actor's role in a play, the Gothic and Romantic character the actor portrays or pretends to be. Of Hua Essay Example. The term comes from Renaissance drama.

Since it was too expensive in Shakespeare's day to Gothic Literature and Romantic Essay, print playbooks for every single actor involved in a play, penny-pinching acting companies would only give each actor a roll of paper called a part; the part would list the dialogue for one character and all the cues belonging to that character (Greenblatt 1140). The term role , synonymous with part, is similarly derived from rosewood film, such rolls of paper ( ibidem ). PARTIYNOST (Russian, Party-Spirit): In Communist Russian, the requirement that literature must identify and be compatible with the methods and goals of the dominent political party, as Lenin advocated (Harkins 275). Any other literature, according to Gothic and Romantic, the Communist Russian censors, was merely bourgeois decadence in art (275). PARTITIVE : One of several possible numbering systems in a language's grammar. For a discussion of partitives, see multiplicatives . PARTS OF SPEECH : The traditional eight divisions or categories for words as described by the Latin grammarian Aelius Donatus around 350 CE, which he is turn borrowed from earlier Greek categories. In English, these are slightly modified: English Parts of Speech: Interjections are usually treated as a separate category from the other parts of rosewood film, speech. Donatus' Latin Parts of Speech : PARTIBLE SUCCESSION : The opposite Gothic Literature and Romantic Literature of primogeniture , partible succession is the practice in which all the children share equally in an inheritance. Under this legal system, if a property-owner or king dies, the deceased's lands, money, or kingdom would be split into equal shares for each surviving child.

While this policy is in some ways more fair than primogeniture, in which eldest child takes all, it does result in the fragmentation of Journey to My Essay, estates or sometimes entire kingdoms. In the late medieval period, primogeniture was the common practice in much of Gothic Literature and Romantic Literature, Europe and Britain, but in chapter 21 scarlet the early dark ages, partible succession was notoriously common among some Celtic tribes in England and Gothic and Romantic Literature Essay the Merovingian and Frankish tribes of France and types of advertising techniques Germany. This practice is behind King Lear's sycophantic games in the first act of Literature, King Lear , as the play is set in ancient Celtic times, though the subplot about Edgar involves the much later later practice of primogeniture. PASSUS (Latin, step): William Langland uses the term passus to techniques, refer to each numbered subdivision of his poem, The Vision of Gothic and Romantic Essay, Piers Plowman . The idea is each section is a step toward salvation or spiritual truth. Cf. Porter Strategies. canto and fit . PASTORAL (Latin pastor , shepherd): An artistic composition dealing with the life of shepherds or with a simple, rural existence. It usually idealized shepherds' lives in order to create an image of peaceful and uncorrupted existence. More generally, pastoral describes the simplicity, charm, and serenity attributed to country life, or any literary convention that places kindly, rural people in nature-centered activities. The Greek Theocritus (316-260 BCE) first used the convention in his Idylls , though pastoral compositions also appear in Roman literature, in Literature Essay Shakespeare's plays, and in the writings of the porter generic strategies examples Romantic poets. Typically, pastoral liturgy depicts beautiful scenery, carefree shepherds, seductive nymphs, and rural songs and dances.

Conventional names for the shepherds and nymphs come from Gothic Literature, bastardized Latin nicknames such as Mopsy, Flopsy, and Dorcas (from Mopsius , Doricas , etc.). See also pastoral elegy under elegy . PATHETIC FALLACY : A type of 21 scarlet letter, often accidental or awkward personification in which a writer ascribes the human feelings of his or her characters to inanimate objects or non-human phenomena surrounding them in Literature the natural world. J. A. Cuddon (692) notes the phrase first appears in John Ruskin's Modern Painters , Volume 3, Part IV, an 1856 publication. For Ruskin, the term is 21 scarlet, derogatory. An example might be Coleridge's Christabel , in which we read of a dancing autumn leaf: The one red leaf, the Gothic Literature and Romantic Essay last of its clan. That dances as often as dance it can.

For Ruskin, only the greatest of poets can get away with it. Aside from the negative connotations, the types of advertising techniques term is and Romantic Essay, more or less synonymous with personification . PATHOS (Greek, emotion): In its rhetorical sense, pathos is World in Germany and the Former Habsburg Empire, a writer or speaker's attempt to inspire an emotional reaction in an audience--usually a deep feeling of suffering, but sometimes joy, pride, anger, humor, patriotism, or any of a dozen other emotions. Gothic Literature Essay. You can read more about rhetorical uses for pathos here. In its critical sense, pathos signifies a scene or passage designed to evoke the Journey to My of Nursing Essay feeling of Gothic and Romantic Literature, pity or sympathetic sorrow in a reader or viewer. PATRISTIC PERIOD (from Latin Pater , father): The time of the church fathers, i.e., the time of the early Church and the Church's first theologians, running through the last days of the apostles through the The Legend Essay time of Saint Augustine's conversion and Literature and Romantic Saint Jerome's compilation of the Bible in the fourth and fifth centuries after Christ. The patristic period appears on the tail-end of the Classical Roman Period, and it marks the beginning of the Medieval Period. Rosewood Film. Click here to download a PDF handout that puts these periods in chronological order. PATROLOGIA GRAECA : See discussion under Patrologia Latina , below. PATROLOGIA LATINA : A famous (or perhaps in famous) scholarly collection of 228+ fat volumes of biblical and theological commentary that has been both a boon and bane to twentieth-century medieval scholarship. The Patrologia Graeca reproduces a series of Greek writings from the patristic and medieval Christian writers, while the Patrologia Latina covers the Literature and Romantic Literature Essay same sort of material in Latin sources. These works are often not available in print in any other texts.

This collection, known familiarly as the PL or the Migne (after one of its French editors), includes vast quantities of theological interpretations, Biblical exegesis, typological and anti-typological discussion, medieval treatises on hagiography , medieval medicine, lapidary lore, and oodles of relevant materials necessary for students seeking to understand the medieval world and medieval literature. Unfortunately, the material is all in Latin, with facing French translations, which makes it less useful for English-speakers hindered by Post First in Germany and the Habsburg linguistic inabilities. Additionally, a series of editors compiled the volumes of the Literature PL and they did not follow the same system of cataloging and organization as their predecessors. The result is a confusing mishmash that requires four volumes of indices and an additional index to the indices. Four generations of scholars have blessed the PL as an porter, astonishing and ambitious collection of medieval lore, while simultaneously cursing it as a devilish, misorganized amalgam riddled with errors, typos, and blunders in pagination. The PL is being displaced from its throne by the Corpus Christianorum , an Literature and Romantic Literature, electronic collection superseding the older half-edited material. However, major research libraries at this time are more likely to have an old, dusty set of shelves devoted to the PL than to have an expensive, computerized copy of the Corpus Christianorum . Types Techniques. For a student of medieval literature who can speak Latin, the best starting spot is the and Romantic index to the indices, and chapter 21 scarlet from there work one's way backward. If any readers find a library that is about to throw away or sell its copies of the PL, please contact me at kwheeler@cn.edu.

I would like to Gothic Literature and Romantic, have a copy myself, provided I can find a room large enough to store all 228 of First World Habsburg, these books. PATRONAGE (from Latin pater , father): The act of giving financial or political support to an artist. A person who provides financial support for an artist is known as a patron regardless of his or her gender. Sometimes patrons might seek to glorify their families or their countries. For instance, the Essay Emperor Augustus was a patron for Virgil. Virgil wrote The Aeneid with the deliberate goal of rousing Roman patriotism for the Augustan regime. Rosewood Film. Patronage was also a common way for aristocrats or wealthy merchants to flaunt their wealth and simultaneously give something of value to their community. The De Medici family in Florence, for instance, provided patronage to famous Italian sculptors, poets, architects, and painters.

In England, John of Gaunt and Richard II both served as patrons for Chaucer at Literature Literature various points in his career. Many literary works are dedicated to a patron. For instance, Shakespeare's early printed anthologies of sonnets are dedicated to a mysterious patron, W. H. In Germany And The Habsburg Empire. In Renaissance drama, acting companies were required to have an important noble or royal family member as a patron, for Gothic and Romantic Essay actors not in the service of such illustrious individuals were punishable as vagabonds and tramps. The Legend Essay. Authorized acting companies were thus referred to Literature, as their patrons' Men or Servants. Types Of Advertising Techniques. For most of Shakespeare's dramatic career, his acting company was first known as the Lord Chamberlain's Men. After Queen Elizabeth died, the name was changed to the King's Men in Essay 1603, when King James I ascended the throne and took up patronage of the company. PEACE-WEAVER : In Anglo-Saxon culture, a woman who is married to a member of an enemy tribe to establish a peace-treaty or end a blood-feud without paying wergild . This was a vital role for Philosophy of Nursing Essay women in Anglo-Saxon custom--but probably also a stressful and dangerous responsibility. Literature. Hildeburh and Freawaru in letter Beowulf and the speaker of The Wife's Lament are probably examples of characters in Old English literature who are peace-weavers. PEASANTS' REVOLT : Also known as Wat Tyler's Rebellion , this uprising occurred in 1387 when lower-class Londoners and workers from the surrounding areas, fed up with repressive government measures such as the Labor Statutes of 1351, marched on London and incinerated the Savoy palace belonging to John of and Romantic, Gaunt and chapter 21 scarlet damaged property belonging to other noblemen, appealing directly to the young king, Richard II, for his intervention. Literature And Romantic. The rebels burned unfavorable contracts and records of debt.

They also lynched a number of competing foreign workers from Flanders along with government officials whom they blamed for their economic woes. According to types of advertising techniques, legend, they chanted, When Adam delved and Eve span, who was then the gentleman? (i.e., when Adam and Eve first existed, who was an aristocrat?) The revolt is commonly associated with Lollards, with John Ball's proto-communist doctrines, and with other disruptive religious groups in England. At the time of their march on London, they passed directly beneath Chaucer's residence. References to this rebellion appear directly or obliquely in several Middle English writers' works, including Gower and Langland. PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL : Also called a refereed journal , a juried publication , a scholarly journal , or a critical journal , a peer-reviewed journal is a periodical publication with strict standards for accuracy and clear thinking. Only peer-reviewed journals are considered suitable sources for academic research by college students. Most are published two to four times a year. Literature And Romantic Literature Essay. These publications are held in such high esteem because, when an article is submitted for rosewood film publication, it is Literature Literature, passed on to two or three other experts in the field; they in turn critique the author's thinking and check the article's claims and of Hua Essay example facts to make sure it is as accurate as possible and Gothic and Romantic Essay (theoretically) free from distorting political, religious, ideological bias; citation errors; logical fallacies; and misattributions. This contrasts with a book, in which only a copy-editor or two will check for typos, but nobody challenges the author's ideas, and it contrasts even more starkly with a web page like this one, in which no official structure is consistently available to ensure scholarly accuracy let alone find all the typos. Good college students learn to use peer-reviewed journals; they do not rely on Google and web-browsing for their primary information. Some of the most important peer-reviewed journals for medieval literature students in English include The Journal of generic examples, Medieval and Renaissance Studies , Medievalia et Humanistica , Medium Aevum , Arthuriana, Medieval Studies , Neuphilologische Mitteilungen , the PMLA , Philological Quarterly , Reading Medieval Studies , Speculum , Chaucer Review , and Studies in the Age of Chaucer . The tell-tale signs of a scholarly journal are its typically copious footnotes, the absence of advertisements or glossy photographs, often its plain, unadorned cover, its guidelines in the back or front for scholarly submissions, and its pages, which are typically on expensive acid-free paper to ensure archival survival.

Often libraries do have these journals available in and Romantic Essay electronic databases (such as JSTOR) that can be searched as easily and as efficiently as webpages, so students have no excuse for Mulan Essay example not using them. Literature Essay. If you need help, contact your teacher or a reference librarian. World In Germany And The. Bribe this helper with chocolate. PEJORATION : A semantic change in which a word gains increasingly negative connotation. For instance, the word lewd originally referred to laymen as opposed to priests.

It underwent pejoration to Gothic Literature and Romantic Essay, mean ignorant, then base and finally obscene, which is the only surviving meaning in Modern English usage. The opposite of pejoration is amelioration , in types of advertising techniques which a word gains increasingly positive connotation. Note that some older sources follow the Literature and Romantic Latin etymology, and Philosophy thus spell the word peioration, and pronounce the word pee-yore-a-shun, but increasingly modern dictionaries use a j and Gothic and Romantic Literature Essay pronounce the generic letter consonantally. PEN NAME : Another term for nom de plum e . The word indicates a fictitious name that a writer employs to Gothic Literature Essay, conceal his or her identity. For example, Samuel Clemens used the pen name Mark Twain. William Sydney Porter wrote his short stories under the pen name O. Henry. Mary Ann Cross used the Post in Germany Former Habsburg pen name George Eliot to hide that she was a female writer, just as science-fiction writer Alice Bradley Sheldon used the Literature Essay pen name James Tiptree, Junior. C.S. Lewis used the pen name N.W. (Anglo-Saxon, Nat Whilk, or I know not whom) in some writings, including the first edition of A Grief Observed , and then played upon The Legend Essay that by quoting the medieval authority Natvilcius in Perelandra (Duriez 147). Likewise, Ben Franklin used a variety of pen names such as Silence Do-good, Jonathan Swift once used the name Lemuel Gulliver, and so on.

Writers might choose to use a pen name as a way to keep a certain name associated with certain types of work, so that a writer might use one name for Literature and Romantic Literature westerns and another name for science fiction novels. War Revolutions Empire. Other authors might seek to hide their identity to avoid negative repercussions (such as hate-mail, imprisonment, lynch-mobs, or even execution--all of and Romantic Literature, these misfortunes can and do occur to authors, especially those writing in totalitarian regimes). PENNY DREADFUL : A sensational novel of crime, adventure, violence, or horror. The term is an English archaism referring to cheaply printed books bound in paper at only a few pennies' cost. English schoolboys also called them bloods, apparently in reference to the violent content. The equivalent term in American slang is dime-novel, again referring to to My Philosophy of Nursing Essay, the cheap price, or pulp fiction, referring to the cheap wood-pulp pressed to make the Gothic Literature Literature Essay paper. My personal favorite penny dreadful from pre-1800 writing is Varney the Vampire: Or, The Feast of Blood! The title gives some indication of the 21 scarlet letter content. See also dime novel . PENTAMETER : When poetry consists of five feet in each line, it is written in pentameter . Literature Literature Essay. Each foot has a set number of syllables. Post First World War Revolutions In Germany And The Former. Iambs, spondees, and trochees are feet consisting of two syllables.

Thus, iambic pentameter, spondaic pentameter, and trochaic pentameter lines would have a total of ten syllables. Anapests and dactyls are feet consisting of three syllables. Gothic Literature And Romantic Essay. Thus, anapestic pentameter and dactylic pentameter lines (if such lines were common) would have a total of fifteen syllables. See foot and meter . Types Of Advertising. You can click here to download a handout discussing meter in greater detail. PENTATEUCH : The first five books of the Hebrew Bible--i.e., Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Gothic and Romantic Deuteronomy. PEREVAL (Russian, The Pass): A group of Russian writers led by generic examples the critic Voronsk in 1923 and associated with the Gothic and Romantic Essay journal Red Virgin Soil (Harkins 279). This group of writers opposed the letter concept of enforced proletarian literature and the oppression of Literature, Communist conformity on writers--but the Russian authorities dissolved the group in types of advertising 1932 and forced its members to merge with the Union of Soviet Writers (Harkins 279-80).

PERFECT RHYME : Another term for exact rhyme or true rhyme. See exact rhyme . PERFECTING : In the Renaissance printing industry, the term perfecting refered to printing on the second side of a sheet of and Romantic Literature, paper after the first side of that sheet had already been printed to Post First World War Revolutions and the Former, make a double-sided copy. In the 1500s, printers would typically do the recto side of the sheet in the morning and the verso side in the afternoon or evening. Literature Essay. By the 1700s, it became common to use two presses consecutively--one side done on the first press and the other side done on to My Philosophy, the second press. PERICOPE (Grk, section; the Essay last two syllables rhyme with dopey): (1) In biblical studies, a story, brief passage, or selection from Mulan Essay, gospel narrative or passage found embedded inside another story, narrative, or passage. Gothic Literature And Romantic Literature. (2) Passages of gospel text inserted at the head of a homily or sermon in medieval texts. See frame narrative . PERIPHRASIS (Grk. roundabout speech): The act of intentional circumlocution, expressing a short idea with many more words than is absolutely necessary, or expressing indirectly an idea that one could express briefly and simply. Rosewood Film. J.A. Cuddon cites an example the sentence, Her olfactory system was suffering from a temporary inconvenience, instead of her nose was blocked (701).

While writers after the modern period have generally considered concision and directness admirable traits in style, some rhetorical situations may call for periphrasis. For example, writers may use periphrasis in order to Gothic Literature Essay, avoid breaking a social taboo, in which case the periphrasis fulfills the same purpose as a euphemism . Chapter 21 Scarlet Letter. E.g., one might write he went to his final rest instead of he died, which is both periphrasis and a euphemism. In the 18th century, periphrasis was often considered valuable for its own sake as a means of displaying a writer's erudition or facility with language, so such writings of the time might refer to the scaly breed for reptiles or the feathered kind for Literature and Romantic Essay birds in a manner akin to Germanic kennings (Shipley 429). If a writer or speaker uses periphrasis with the deliberate goal of tricking, misleading, or confusing the of Nursing Essay audience, that act is called ambage . If periphrasis appears to have no purpose, or appears awkward and unsuitable, or detracts from the Gothic Literature and Romantic impact of the writing, rhetoricians refer to it as perisologia , a stylistic blemish. If the blemish originates in unnecessary repetition, the fault is called macrologia . An example of macrologia would be they returned home into their own country from rosewood film, whence they had come (Shipley 365). This sentence would be briefer as they returned home.

A sample passage of periphrasis is called a periphrase , not to be confused with the honophone paraphrase (Shipley 429). PERIODIC ESSAY : The forefather of modern periodicals like magazines and Gothic Literature Literature Essay literary journals, these publications contained essays appearing at regular intervals (monthly, quarterly, and so on). The subject-matter varied from The Legend Essay example, current events, literary criticism, social commentary, fashion, geographic and architectural features of London, childhood memories, and whatever other reverie entered the author's head. The essays often began with a Latin epigraph as a rhetorical flourish illustrating the and Romantic good taste and education of the gentleman author, a practice that has fallen out of favor in more fiercely democratic and egalitarian times. The Legend Essay Example. The first literary periodicals were French. They included Journals des Scavans (1665). Italian ones followed such as Giornale de Letterati (1668). English imitators included Mercurius Librarius (1668), the Gothic Literature and Romantic Literature Athenian Mercury (1690), and the Gentleman's Journal (1692). The early 1700s was a time when the English periodic essay flourished in particular. This time was especially important in the development of the modern periodical and in the growing acceptance of the First Habsburg essay as a valid genre . Writers like Defoe, Addison, Steele, and Boswell either contributed frequently to these magazines or edited and produced their own.

The Tatler (1709), the Spectator (1711), and the Guardian (1731), all established by Addison and Steele, became profoundly influential in shaping the writing habits and publication customs of the modern world. Most of these publications ran for only two or three years before vanishing, but some lasted for decades. The Gentleman's Magazine first came out in 1731 and the last issue appeared in 1907, for instance, and the Quarterly Review (1809) was still being published as of 1991, when I last subscribed. PERIODIC SENTENCE : A long sentence that is not grammatically complete (and hence not intelligible to the reader ) until the reader reaches the final portion of the sentence. An example is this sentence by Bret Harte: The most common type of periodic sentence involves a long phrase in which the verb falls at the very end of the sentence after the direct object, indirect object and Gothic and Romantic Literature Essay other grammatical necessities. The Legend Of Hua Mulan Example. For example, For the queen, the lover, pleading always at the heart's door, patiently waits. In a non-periodic sentence , we would normally write, Always pleading at the heart's door, the lover waits patiently for the queen. And Romantic. The non-periodic sentence is clearer in English. It tends to follow the subject-verb-object pattern we are accustomed to.

The periodic sentence is Mulan example, more exotic and Literature and Romantic Essay arguably more poetic, but initially confusing. Periodic structure is to My of Nursing, particularly effective in synthetic languages (i.e. languages in which meaning does not depend on the order of words). Gothic Literature. In such languages, a periodic sentence creates suspense or tension in a reader eagerly awaiting the First World War Revolutions in Germany and the outcome of a grammatical action. In classical Latin or Greek, periodic sentences were accordingly considered the height of dramatic style. In English, however, the result can become confusing or comic if the writer loses control, as evidenced in the work of Victorian novelist George Bulwer-Lytton, which has been much mocked by modern readers.

Milton's employs a periodic style in Paradise Lost because he seeks boldly to imitate the features of a classical epic --including the Gothic and Romantic Literature very grammatical structure of the original Latin and Greek works he loves and emulates. Compare to 21 scarlet letter, anastrophe . PERIODIC STYLE : A style of writing in which the sentences tend to be periodic. See discussion under periodic sentence , above. Literature Essay. Periodic style in English is usually considered indirect or artificially artsy in Mulan comparison with the more straight-forward non-periodic style . PERIODIZATION : The division of literature into chronological categories of Literature and Romantic, historical period or time as opposed to chapter 21 scarlet, the categorization of literature according to genre , i.e., categories based on conventional features shared between works of similar type. For instance, if I were organizing my bookshelf, and I placed all the books from the early 1800s on one shelf, and all the books written in and Romantic Essay the Victorian period on the next shelf, and all the twentieth-century books on the last shelf, I have organized my literature by periodization . If, however, I placed all the books containing tragic drama together on one shelf, ands placed all my Western novels on another shelf, and put all the poetry collections on the last shelf, I have organized my books according to Mulan Essay example, genre . Gothic Literature Essay. (Other possible organizing principles might be alphabetical or thematic.) Periodization is not always clear.

A particular author's life span might overlap with both the Victorian period and the twentieth century, for instance. Other periods--such as the postmodern and modern periods--have no clearly defined ending or beginning point. Porter Strategies Examples. Still, the intellectual exercise can be useful for thinking about how particular literary artists fit (or don't fit) into an era and for thinking about the Gothic Essay zeitgeist or spirit-of-the-age in which they live. PERIODS OF ENGLISH LITERATURE : The common historical eras scholars use to rosewood film, divide literature into comprehensible sections through periodization . Gothic Literature And Romantic Literature Essay. Dividing literature into these sometimes arbitrary periods allows us to better compare and contrast the writing, poetry, and drama produced in generic strategies different ages, to more easily trace chains of influence from and Romantic Literature, one writer to another, and to appreciate more readily the connection between historical events and intellectual trends. A few common divisions include the following: the types Anglo-Saxon period, Middle English period, Renaissance period, Restoration period, Neoclassical period, Romantic period, Victorian period, Modern period , and Postmodern period. No universally accepted scheme exists for the divisions.

For instance, some editors or anthologists might lump both the Anglo-Saxon and Middle English periods together as the Literature Essay Medieval period. Another might subdivide the 21 scarlet Renaissance into the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods, and so on. Click here for a PDF handout listing the periods in more detail. PERIPETEIA (Also spelled peripetea , Greek for sudden change): The sudden reversal of fortune in a story, play, or any narrative in which there is an observable change in direction. In tragedy, this is often a change from stability and happiness toward the destruction or downfall of the protagonist. PERIPETY : Another term for peripeteia . See above.

The word was particularly common in older English writing. PERPETUUM CARMEN (Latin, continuous song): Ovid's twist on Callimachus' sarcastic description for his literary adversaries' work. Originally, in Gothic and Romantic Essay Callimachus' use, Callimachus applies the term to types of advertising, lengthy narrative poetry done poorly, as opposed to Callimachus' own work, which focuses on brief, short narratives (see Feeney xxiv). Ovid, however, takes the term and applies it paradoxically to his own work, which involves a number of short narratives worked into a single, lengthy, epic-length work. PERSONA (Plural, personae or personas ; Latin,mask): An external representation of oneself which might or might not accurately reflect one's inner self, or an external representation of Gothic Literature Essay, oneself that might be largely accurate, but involves exaggerating certain characteristics and minimizing others. One of the rosewood film most famous personae is that of the speaker in Jonathan Swift's A Modest Proposal.

Here, the Literature Literature Essay Irish author Swift, outraged over Journey Britain's economic exploitation of Ireland, creates a speaker who is a well-to-do English intellectual, getting on in years, who advocates raising and eating Irish children as a means of economic advancement. Another famous persona is Geoffrey Chaucer's narrator in The Canterbury Tales , who presents himself as poetically inept and somewhat dull. Contrast with alter ego and poetic speaker . PERSONAL ENDING : In linguistics and grammar, a verb inflection that shows if the subject is first person, second person, or third person. PERSONIFICATION : A trope in which abstractions, animals, ideas, and Literature Essay inanimate objects are given human character, traits, abilities, or reactions. Personification is particularly common in poetry, but it appears in nearly all types of artful writing. Examples include Keat's treatment of the vase in Ode on a Grecian Urn, in which the urn is treated as a sylvan historian, who canst thus express / A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme, or Sylvia Plath's The Moon and Philosophy of Nursing the Yew Tree, in Literature Essay which the types moon is a face in its own right, / White as a knuckle and terribly upset. / It drags the sea after it like a dark crime. When discussing the ways that animistic religions personify natural forces with human qualities, scientists refer to this process as anthropomorphizing , sometimes with derogatory overtones. A special sub-type of personification is prosopopoeia , in Literature Essay which an inanimate object is given the ability of human speech.

Apostrophe (not to be confused with the punctuation mark) is a special type of personification in rosewood film which a speaker in a poem or rhetorical work pauses to address some abstraction that is not physically present in and Romantic Literature Essay the room. See also prosopopoeia , apostrophe therianthropic , and porter strategies examples theriomorphic . PETRARCHAN CONCEIT : A conceit used by and Romantic Literature Essay the Italian poet Petrarch or similar to those he used. In the Renaissance, English poets were quite taken with Petrarch's conceits and recycled them in their own poetry. Examples include comparing eyes to the stars or sun, hair to golden wires, lips to cherries, women to of Hua Essay, goddesses, and so on. His oxymora , such as freezing fire or burning ice, were also common. PETRASHEVSKI CIRCLE (aka Petrashevski Conspiracy ): A secret society of Gothic Literature and Romantic Essay, Russian Utopian socialists who formed in generic 1845 and met at the home of M. B. Butashevich-Petrashevski to read illegal socialist literature, including among its members the author Dostoyevski and the poet Pleschcheyev (Harkins 287). In 1849, Czar Nicholas I had the circle arrested and staged a mock drama and execution--only revealing at Gothic Literature the last moment the Philosophy Essay group had been issued a reprieve. Instead of execution, the members of the and Romantic Essay group were sentenced to exile in Siberia or military service (287). PETRINE DOCTRINE : Roman Catholics (and pretty much all medieval Christians in western Europe) have traditionally believed the First World War Revolutions Habsburg Petrine doctrine . The Petrine doctrine is the belief that Saint Peter was given special authority by Christ that has since passed on to each Pope. In the Gothic and Romantic Literature Essay Gospel narratives, Matthew 16:18-19, Christ states, You are Peter [ petrus ], the Rock [ petros ], and on The Legend of Hua Mulan Essay, this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell will not prevail against and Romantic Essay, it.

To you I will give the keys to techniques, the Kingdom of Literature Essay, Heaven. To My. What you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and what you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. (A similar verse is found in John 21:15-17.) Medieval and modern Catholics believed the Archbishop of Rome (i.e., the and Romantic Literature Pope) was in direct apostolic lineage back to techniques, Saint Peter. That means the Archbishop who anointed the Pope had been annointed by others all the Gothic Literature Essay way back to Saint Peter. Thus, the Pope inherited the same special authority Saint Peter had. The Orthodox Greek church did not share this belief. Journey To My Philosophy Of Nursing Essay. They thought of the Pope as being the first among equals, an archbishop like any other. He did not have authority to Gothic Literature and Romantic Literature Essay, command the of Hua Mulan Essay whole church. The two halves of the medieval church in the West and the East argued about Literature and Romantic, this, but that was the sum of the dispute for several centuries. The differences between the two halves of the old Roman empire was exacerbated by the differences in Mulan example language as well (Western Europe spoke Latin, but the Gothic Eastern half of the empire spoke Greek.) See also schism . PHALLIC (from Greek phallos , penis): A phallic symbol or phallus is a sexualized representation of male potency, power, or domination--particularly through some object vaguely reminiscent of the penis. Common phallic symbols include sticks, staves, swords, clubs, towers, trees, missiles, and rockets. Types Of Advertising. Contrast with a yonic symbol.

See also herm . PHANOPOEIA : Ezra Pound's term for one of three techniques to create charged language. Gothic Literature. In this case, phanopoeia is a word that creates visual imagery, or as Pound states, You use a word to Journey to My Philosophy, throw a visual image on to the Gothic Literature Essay reader's imagination (37). See also melopoeia and logopoeia. PHATIC COMMUNICATION : Exchanges or conversation designed primarily not to transmit information, but rather to to My of Nursing, reinforce social bonds, signal the beginning or end of a conversation, or engage in ritual activities. For instance, if we pass a stranger in Gothic Literature Literature the hallway and say, Hi, howya doing? and porter generic pass on after a nod, the linguistic exchange was not an actual request for data, but merely a politeness acknowledging the Gothic and Romantic other's presence. Similarly, thanks for stopping by or you're welcome, come again are all social lubricants to ease the transition to and from ritual activity rather than attempts at factual communication. Phatic communication is the term for this phenomenon. PHILOLOGY (Greek, Love of words): Not to be confused with philosophy (see below), philology was an important but now somewhat dated field of study in the 19th and early 20th century. It covered the topics of literary studies, linguistics, folklore, and mythology. Philologists were the ones who reconstructed proto-Indo-European, developed comparative mythology, deciphered the relationships between modern languages, and compiled records of regional folklore, fairy tales, and mythology before they vanished into modernity. This large and unwieldy field eventually split apart and become the of advertising academic fields we know today as separate entities (i.e., the Essay distinct degrees of literature, lingustics, folklore, and so forth).

Few colleges offer degrees in techniques philology today (Oxford being a notable exception), but in the first half of the twentieth century, J.R.R. Tolkien was the primary philologist in the Inklings , which sometimes became a source of tension. C. S. Lewis apparently distrusted philology's obsession with source texts, and in Literature Essay his diary, when Lewis first met Tolkien, Lewis wrote, he [Tolkien] is a philologist. The Legend Of Hua. No harm in him: only needs a good smack or two. PHILOSOPHY (Greek, Love of wisdom): The methodical and Literature and Romantic Essay systematic exploration of 21 scarlet letter, what we know, how we know it, and why it is Gothic Essay, important that we know it. Too frequently, students use the term somewhat nebulously. They often mistakenly state, My philosophy about X is . . . when they really mean, My opinion about chapter letter, X is . Literature And Romantic Literature Essay. . . or My attitude toward X is . . Journey To My Essay. . Traditional areas of Western philosophic inquiry include the Gothic and Romantic Essay following areas. PHOBOS (Grk, fear): The emotional purgation of First in Germany and the Former Empire, negative feelings known as catharsis involved, according to Aristotle's Poetics , two emotions: eleos (pity) and phobos (fear). If the audience did not feel pity for the tragic hero in a play, or feel fear at his downfall, the play failed in Literature Essay its purpose.

See discussion under catharsis . PHONEME : The smallest sound or part of types, a spoken word that serves as a building block in a larger syllable or word, and which cannot be broken down further into smaller constitutive sounds. Phonetic transcription always indicates the spoken rather than the Literature and Romantic written word. This term contrasts with graphemes (the letters or smallest written symbols that count as a unit of an rosewood film, alphabet) and morphemes (smallest units that have meaning-- either written or spoken). For instance, in the word rerun , the morphemes are re- and run . Gothic Literature And Romantic Literature Essay. Though the u- or the r- by themselves are not meaningful sounds like a full morpheme, they cannot be broken down or reduced into any smaller sounds, and thus they are phonemes--the smallest possible sounds in English. Linguists often transcribe English words into phonetic markings to rosewood film, indicate subtle differences in Gothic and Romantic Essay accent, pronunciation, etc., which may or may not correspond to the graphemes (the markings we use to symbolize sounds--i.e., the rosewood film written word).

When they do so, they often enclose the phonetic symbols in Gothic and Romantic Literature Essay slashes /laik ∂ Is/ and enclose the graphic markings in examples chevrons like this so the reader can tell whether that linguist is discussing the spoken form of the word or the written form of the Gothic word. Contrast with grapheme and morpheme . PHONETIC FULCRUM: Jake Carrick's term for a sentence with two parts of opposite sounds, with a pivot in porter generic the middle separating the two sections. An example from Bram Stoker's Dracula : Broken battlements showed a jagged line across the moonlit sky. The distinction here is the first half of the sentence uses hard consonance, but after jagged, the sentence's alliteration shifts to liquid and soft consonance (Carrick). In poetry, such a shift often falls in the caesura, though the effect is not limited to alliterative verse. PHONETICS : The study of Gothic Literature Literature Essay, phonemes, or units of sound in The Legend of Hua Essay spoken language. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION : Written symbols that linguists use to represent speech sounds. One common transcription system is the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). Literature And Romantic Essay. To see samples in PDF format, you can download IPA vowels and IPA consonants. PHONOGRAM : A written symbol that indicates a spoken sound. Students should not confuse this term with a gramophone (an antique record-player).

PHONOLOGY : According to Algeo, The units of sound (phonemes) of a language with their possible arrangements and rosewood film varieties of Essay, vocal expression (329). More generally, the study of sounds and sound-systems in porter examples a language. PICARESQUE NARRATIVE : Any narrative (including short stories) that has the same traits as a picaresque novel. See discussion under picaresque novel . PICARESQUE NOVEL (from Spanish picaro , a rogue or thief; also called the Gothic Literature Essay picaresque narrative and Post First War Revolutions in Germany and the Habsburg Empire the Räuberroman in Gothic German): A humorous novel in which the plot consists of rosewood film, a young knave's misadventures and escapades narrated in comic or satiric scenes. This roguish protagonist--called a picaro --makes his (or sometimes her) way through cunning and Literature and Romantic Literature trickery rather than through virtue or industry. The picaro frequently travels from place to place engaging in to My a variety of jobs for several masters and getting into mischief. The picaresque novel is Gothic and Romantic Literature Essay, usually episodic in nature and realistic in its presentation of the seamier aspects of society. The genre first emerged in 1553 in the anonymous Spanish work Lazarillo de Tormes , and techniques later Spanish authors like Mateo Aleman and Fracisco Quevedo produced other similar works.

The first English specimen was Thomas Nashe's The Unfortunate Traveller (1594). Probably the most famous example of the genre is French: Le Sage's Gil Blas (1715), which ensured the genre's continuing influence on literature. Other examples include Defoe's Moll Flanders , Henry Fielding's Jonathan Wild , Smollett's Roderick Random , Thomas Mann's unfinished Felix Krull , and Saul Bellow's The Adventures of Augie March . The genre has also heavily influenced episodic humorous novels as diverse as Cervantes' Don Quixote and Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn . PICKUP SYLLABLE : Another term for the unstressed syllable in anacrusis . PIDGIN : A simplified, limited language combining features from and Romantic Essay, many languages and used among persons who share no common language amongst themselves. Rosewood Film. By definition, a pidgin language is not a native language--but rather it is one used between ethnic groups rather than within any particular single ethnic group. However, artificial conditions (such as the enforced assimilation on slave plantations) can cause children to grow up with little use for their native tongues. This can cause the pidgin language to develop into a much richer creole . PIECE-BIEN-FAIT : The French term for Literature Literature Essay the dramatic genre called the well-made play. See discussion under well-made play . PIETAS (Latin, reverance): In Roman times, pietas is the quality of revering those things that deserve reverence. The word is the source for our modern English words piety and piousness (reverence toward the divine), but the types of advertising techniques Latin term is far more all-embracing--indicating not only devotion to the gods, but also devotion to one's gens (family) and patria (homeland or country). Thus, it also means patriotism and familial responsibility. In Virgil's Aeneid , one epithet frequently applied to Aeneas is pius Aeneas , implying that Aeneas particularly embodies this quality so valued by the Romans. PILGRIMAGE : An act of spiritual devotion or penance in which an individual travels without material comforts to a distant holy place.

The journey often has spiritual overtones--it may symbolize a journey to Literature and Romantic, the celestial city of heaven or repeat the journey of a saint or biblical hero. Examples. Pilgrimage has become a prominent symbol in both Western Christian writings and Middle-Eastern Islamic writings. John Bunyon's Pilgrim's Progress and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales are two literary examples using the pilgrimage motif . P'ING HUA : A Chinese yarn or tall tale. The genre typically involves a strong narrative presence and colloquial or idiomatic Chinese. The tone is realistic, but the content is typically fantastic or hyperbolic. Contrast with the Russian skaz . PIT : In indoor theaters during the Gothic Literature Renaissance, the most expensive and prestigious bench seating was the rosewood film pit--an area directly in front of the Gothic Literature and Romantic stage. The Blackfriar's theater was one such architectural example containing a pit. In later centuries, the musical orchestra would be moved to this position. PITCH : In linguistics, a semi-musical tone or quality used in some languages to distinguish meaning. PLACE OF ARTICULATION : The point in examples the oral cavity where the position of speech organs (lips, teeth, tongue, etc.) is Literature Essay, most important for a particular sound. PLACE POEM : A poem whose subject is Philosophy of Nursing Essay, a specific location, such as a building, a city, a regional geographic feature like a river or hill, or a particular area of the Gothic Literature and Romantic Essay countryside.

Examples include Percy Bysshe Shelley's Mont Blanc, William Wordsworth's Tintern Abbey, or the Galician poems of Rosalia de Castro. Contrast with occasional poem . PLAGIARISM : Accidental or intentional intellectual theft in which a writer, poet, artist, scholar, or student steals an original idea, phrase, or section of Mulan example, writing from Literature Essay, someone else and presents this material as his or her own work without indicating the source via appropriate explanation or citation. Click here for types of advertising more information. PLATONIC : In common usage, people often use the word platonic to mean intellectual rather than physical. Thus, a Platonic love-affair is one in which the couple is attracted to each other for Gothic and Romantic Literature mental or psychological qualities rather than bodily attributes. More specifically, however, Platonic philosophy is Plato's idea that behind (or above or outside) the imperfect physical world, another intangible world of chapter 21 scarlet, abstract ideas has its own existence. These abstract-but-perfect ideas (called Platonic forms ) appear only as dim outlines (or shadows) in the physical world. For instance, Plato argues that traits such as Justice, Beauty, and Goodness theoretically exist in perfect forms.

Material creatures, who cannot see or enjoy the abstract quality of Beauty itself, can only enjoy specific manifestations of Beauty--such as sunsets or starlight or silvery snow. What the unenlightened do not realize is that it is Gothic Essay, not these specific objects they should admire, but the Journey Philosophy of Nursing Essay quality of beauty behind them--the form of absolute Beauty that is Literature Literature, eternal and Journey Philosophy Essay unchanging even as specific sunsets fade and yearly snowfalls melt away. Because these abstract traits remain eternal even as the physical world changes ever, Plato concludes that the Platonic forms are somehow even more real than the concrete things we see, hear, smell, touch, and taste every day. His breathtaking, nearly mystical conclusion is Literature and Romantic, that the physical world is the illusion or dream, and rosewood film the world of the mind is Literature, closer to the real world of the eternal forms. Platonic thinking had profound influence on medieval theology and Post First World War Revolutions in Germany and the Former Habsburg philosophy. In C. S. Lewis's The Last Battle . Literature. Professor Digory Kirke interprets the strategies examples New Narnia of Heaven's relationship to Gothic Literature, Narnia and England as being one of Platonic forms (spiritual) and Platonic shadows (material) , and Aslan refers to the land of England and Narnia as being Shadowlands, i.e., the world of material shadows rather than spiritual realities. See also Cave, Plato's . Platonic thinking profoundly influences Plotinus, Boethius, Saint Augustine, Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier , Spenser's Hymn in Honor of Beauty, Shelley's Hymn to First in Germany and the Empire, Intellectual Beauty, and Wordsworth's Ode on Literature and Romantic Literature Essay, Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood . PLATONIC FORM : The permanent and perfect ideas, images, or patterns of which physical reality is but an imperfect or transitory symbol or expression. The Legend Of Hua Mulan Example. See discussion under Platonic for full details. PLAY : A specific piece of drama, usually enacted on a stage by diverse actors who often wear makeup or costumes to make them resemble the character they portray. See drama . PLEONASM : A bad habit of speech or writing in which an Gothic, idea repeats itself in a single sentence, i.e., a redundancy. For example, tiny little town is a pleonasm, as opposed to tiny town or little town.

Likewise, Shipley points out With mine own ears I hear his voice (429) as a pleonasm. Most modern style books, perhaps influenced by First World and the Habsburg Empire Hemingway, discourage pleonastic constructions as being wordy or repetitive. I also steer students away from them. However, pleonasms have been fashionable in other centuries. Geoffrey of Vinsauf favored them in his twelfth-century style manual, the Poetria Nova. Literature And Romantic. The New Testament book of Mark happily used them, as David Smith points out (8).

Consider Mark 13:33, Blepete, agrupneite! (Watch out! Be aware!) in which the author emphasizes alertness by using a pleonasm. PLOT : The structure and relationship of actions and to My of Nursing events in a work of fiction. Gothic. In order for a plot to begin, some sort of catalyst is necessary. While the temporal order of events in the work constitutes the The Legend of Hua Mulan Essay story, we are speaking of Gothic Literature Essay, plot rather than story as soon as we look at how these events relate to porter, one another and how they are rendered and organized so as to achieve their particular effects.

Note that, while it is most common for events to unfold chronologically or ab ovo (in which the first event happens first, the second event happens second, and so on), many stories structure the Gothic Literature plot in such a way that the reader encounters happenings out of order. A common technique along this line is to rosewood film, begin the story in the middle of the action, a technique called beginning in medias res (Latin for in the middle[s] of things). Some narratives involve several short episodic plots occurring one after the Literature Essay other (like chivalric romances), or they may involve multiple subplots taking place simultaneously with the main plot (as in many of chapter letter, Shakespeare's plays). PLUCK BUFFET : Anthropologists suggest that pre-adolescent male children in a variety of cultures share the Gothic Literature and Romantic Essay game of pluck buffet. In this game, one child trades blows on the arm or chest with another to see who is bravest or toughest. Alternatively, pluck buffet also refers to any game in which two individuals challenge each other to some contest (often archery) and the loser must receive a strike from the techniques winner. For instance, the poem Garland depicts Richard the Lion-Hearted and Robin Hood having an archery contest, and and Romantic Literature the loser must Beare a buffet on his hede. Techniques. This exchange becomes an important theme in ballads like Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne . Pluck buffet may also lie at the heart of a Celtic motif known as the trade of blows in which one warrior agrees to trade strikes with another; in Literature Literature Essay the case of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , pluck buffet takes a potentially lethal turn when Gawain and the green elf-knight play the game using giant axes. POETIC DICTION : Distinctive language used by Post First War Revolutions Former Habsburg Empire poets, i.e., language that would not be common in their everyday speech.

The most common signs of poetic diction include involve archaisms , neologisms , rhyme , and unusual figures of speech. Teachers often point to Literature, Spenser's use of words like gentil and tobraken , or Shakespeare's use of techniques, abysm and climature , or Emily Dickinson's use of thee and thine . When they ask students, why did this poet write in such a way? students often mistakenly reply, Because that's the way people talked back then. Gothic And Romantic Literature. On the contrary, in rosewood film the 1500s, Spenser is resurrecting language that was common in Chaucer's day in the 1300s--not the language of his own time. The words abysm and climature are made-up words Shakespeare invented from abyss/chasm and Gothic Literature Essay climate/temperature , not words he would hear in Journey Philosophy Essay everyday use on the London streets. Gothic Literature Essay. Likewise, the pronouns thou/thee/thine faded in the 1600s, long before Emily Dickinson's heyday in the 1800s. 21 Scarlet Letter. These poets chose such language precisely because it is Gothic and Romantic, unusual for their time--because it is different from humdrum ordinary speech. (That's what makes it striking poetry, after all.) The concept of literary decorum (and its requirement for certain genres and characters to use lofty, elevated language) also generated thick poetic diction. As M. H. Abrams notes in volume I of The Norton Anthology , the results were phrases such as the finny tribe for Journey Philosophy Essay fish and the the Gothic Literature Essay bleating kind for sheep (2958). To modern poets, such phrasing might seem overblown. The point, however, is that poetic diction is vastly different from Essay, daily speech.

POETIC LICENSE : The freedom of Gothic Literature and Romantic, a poet or other literary writer to depart from the norms of common discourse, literal reality, or historical truth in order to create a special effect in or for the reader. When applied to prose writers, the term is often called artistic license. Essay Example. Contrast with verisimilitude . POETIC JUSTICE : The phrase and the idea was coined by Thomas Rymer in Gothic and Romantic the late 1600s. Of Advertising. He claimed that a narrative or drama should distribute rewards and and Romantic Literature punishments proportionately to the virtues and villainies of each character in the story. Thus, when a particularly vicious character meets a despicable end appropriate for his crimes, we say it is poetic justice. This formula for of advertising resolving plots has fallen into disfavor in later centuries, and no widely influential critics today advocate such a formula without qualifications.

POETIC SPEAKER : The narrative or elegiac voice in a poem (such as a sonnet, ode, or lyric) that speaks of his or her situation or feelings. It is a convention in poetry that the speaker is not the same individual as the Literature historical author of the Journey of Nursing Essay poem. For instance, consider the Essay poet Lord Byron's mock epic Don Juan . Post First World War Revolutions And The Habsburg Empire. Lord Byron wrote the poem as a young man in Literature his late twenties. However, the speaker of the chapter 21 scarlet letter poem depicts himself as being an elderly man looking back cynically on the days of youth. Clearly, the Gothic Literature Essay voice talking and rosewood film narrating the story is Gothic Literature Essay, not identical with the author.

In the same way, the speaker of the poem My Last Duchess characterizes himself through his words as a Renaissance nobleman in Italy who is to My Philosophy of Nursing Essay, cold-blooded--quite capable of Literature and Romantic Essay, murdering a wife who displeases him--but the author of the poem was actually Robert Browning, a mild-mannered English poet writing in the early nineteenth-century. Many students (and literary critics) attempt to decipher clues about the author's own attitudes, beliefs, feelings, or biographical details through the of advertising techniques words in a poem. However, such an activity must always be done with caution. Shakespeare may write a sonnet in Gothic Literature and Romantic Literature Essay which the porter strategies poetic speaker pours out his passion for a woman with bad breath and wiry black hair (Sonnet 130), but it does not necessarily mean that Shakespeare himself was attracted to halitosis, or that his wife had black hair, or that he had a fling with such a woman. In fact, it is a convention in some genres , such as the medieval visio or dream vision, that the poetic speaker is a dull, imperceptive caricature of the author. See also authorial voice and dream vision , above.

POETRY : A variable literary genre characterized by rhythmical patterns of language. These patterns typically consist of patterns of meter (regular patterns of high and Gothic Literature and Romantic Essay low stress), syllabification (the number of syllables in each line of text), rhyme , alliteration , or combinations of these elements. 21 Scarlet. The poem typically involves figurative language such as schemes and tropes, and the poem may bend (or outright break) the conventions of Literature, normal communicative speech in of advertising the attempt to and Romantic, embody an original idea or convey a linguistic experience. Many modern students mistakenly believe that rhyme is the dominant feature separating poetry from prose (non-poetic) writings. However, rhyme is actually a fairly recent addition to poetry. In classical Greece and Rome, meter was the trait that separated poetry from prose. POEISIS (from Greek poieo , to make): In Plato's Symposium , this term refers to act of creating or making something--both in The Legend the biological act of procreation and in Literature the realm of the mind. It covers the action itself as well as the porter generic examples moment of transition where one thing becomes something new, and encompasses, as the character Diotima argues in The Symposium, all of the Literature and Romantic Literature following (1) natural poiesis or reproductive sexuality, (2) poiesis in a city through the attainment of worthy fame, and (3) poiesis in the soul through virtuous habits and moral education. The word is of advertising, related to Gothic Literature and Romantic Literature Essay, the root of the modern English word poetry . POINT OF VIEW : The way a story gets told and strategies who tells it. Literature And Romantic Literature. It is the method of narration that determines the position, or angle of vision, from which the story unfolds.

Point of view governs the reader's access to the story. Many narratives appear in techniques the first person (the narrator speaks as I and the narrator is a character in the story who may or may not influence events within it). Literature And Romantic Literature. Another common type of narrative is the third-person narrative (the narrator seems to be someone standing outside the story who refers to all the rosewood film characters by name or as he , she , they , and so on). And Romantic Essay. When the narrator reports speech and action, but never comments on letter, the thoughts of other characters, it is the dramatic third person point of view or objective point of view. The third-person narrator can be omniscient --a narrator who knows everything that needs to be known about the Gothic Literature agents and events in the story, and is free to generic strategies examples, move at will in time and place, and who has privileged access to a character's thoughts, feelings, and motives. The narrator can also be limited --a narrator who is confined to what is Literature, experienced, thought, or felt by a single character, or at examples most a limited number of characters. Essay. Finally, there is the types of advertising unreliable narrator (a narrator who describes events in the story, but seems to make obvious mistakes or misinterpretations that may be apparent to a careful reader).

Unreliable narration often serves to characterize the narrator as someone foolish or unobservant. See also authorial voice . POINT OF VIEW CHARACTER : The central figure in a limited point of view narration, the character through whom the reader experiences the author's representation of the world. See point of view , above. POLIS (Greek, City): The Greek city-state, a small, independent government consisting of a single town and its immediate environs. Gothic Literature. Some of 21 scarlet, these city-states were democracies in which every male citizen voted on Literature and Romantic Literature Essay, every government action. Others were oligarchies in which a few rich or aristocratic families cooperated and shared powers. Others were dictatorships in which a single military leader came to power. The two most influential city-states were Athens and types techniques Sparta.

They eventually rose to power over their neighbors through combinations of alliances and Essay conquests. Athens was famous for letter its culture and art and Gothic Literature Essay intellectual life. Sparta was famous for its toughness and its martial lifestyle. POLYGENESIS : The theory that, if two similar stories, words, or images appear in two different geographic regions or languages, they are actually unrelated to each other. Each one arose independently. Of Hua Example. For an analogy, in both early Mayan architecture and in Literature Egyptian architecture, pyramids are striking engineering features. Examples. However, since no contact took place between the two cultures, archeologists believe each group invented the design independently rather than adopting it from Gothic Literature Literature, a single source (such as one group borrowing it from the other). Circumstances such as the Essay example lack of mortar, concrete, or flying buttresses ensured that both Mayans and Egyptians would come up with a wide-base structure to support any large edifice--leading to pyramid designs by default.

In the same way, similar legends appear across the world even when each group has no contact with others. Many cultures that master metallurgy create legends or myths about crippled smiths (witness Hephaestus or Vulcan in Gothic Literature and Romantic Literature Essay Greco-Roman myth, Weiland in Norse and Germanic legend, and Silverhand in Celtic stories). Cultures that do not master metal-smithing do not create crippled craftsmen-gods in Philosophy their pantheons. This lack can be explained by the theory of polygenesis. Men who are crippled cannot join the Literature and Romantic Literature hunters in gathering food or join the chapter 21 scarlet farmers in Literature digging irrigation ditches, so they tend to rosewood film, stay in the village and Gothic and Romantic Essay work as craftsmen, developing skills that ultimately seem magical to the untrained without these years of experience. However, the archetype of the crippled craftsman/god does not appear in cultures without the technology of metal-working.

In the same way, flood-narratives appear across many cultures--Noah's flood in porter generic strategies the Judeo-Christian tradition as well as in Welsh, Chaldean, and Greek legends. Fundamentalist Christian interpretations accordingly see this as evidence of a literal flood occurring world-wide. Scholars of myth would argue that myths of a universal flood appear only in Literature Essay cultures that experience flooding regularly as a natural disaster. Aborigines in the Australian outbreak or desert-dwelling tribesmen do not share such a legend, for instance. To My Philosophy Of Nursing Essay. This leads to the idea that these flood-narratives arose independently in different places through polygenesis. See also archetype . Contrast with monogenesis . POLYSYLLABIC : Having more than one syllable. POLYSYNDETON : Using many conjunctions to achieve an and Romantic, overwhelming effect in a sentence. For example, This term, I am taking biology and English and of advertising techniques history and math and music and physics and sociology. All those and s make the student sound like she is completely overwhelmed.

It is Literature, the opposite of asyndeton . Both polysyndeton and chapter 21 scarlet asyndeton are examples of rhetorical schemes. For a literary example of polysyndeton, click here. POLYTHEISM : The belief in multiple deities--usually non-omniscient and non-omnipotent--in contrast with the Gothic and Romantic Essay idea of a single all-powerful deity. POMP É : In classical Greco-Roman culture, many major festivals were marked by a pompé . Mulan Essay Example. A pompé was a combination of a parade, pilgrimage, and religious procession. Worshippers would don special garb, line up in rows by the thousands, and then travel through the city or from one holy site to Literature Literature Essay, another (such as from the Parthenon to the site of the Eleusinian mysteries). Generic Strategies Examples. The most important pompé in Athens celebrated Athena's birthday. On this day, her shrine would be cleaned and scrubbed, and the cult statue would be physically carried or carted in a procession leading to Gothic and Romantic Literature, the Aegean, where it would be cleansed with sea-water and given a new peplos (woman's cloak) to wear for the upcoming year. POOH-POOH HYPOTHESIS : In linguistics, the idea that language began as emotional outbursts or surprised exclamations; contrast with the bow-wow theory , the ding-dong theory , and the yo-he-ho theory . PORTRAIT EN CREUX : A rhetorical or literary device in which a writer mentions an and the, absence to evoke the counterpart presence. This is the verbal equivalent of negative space in sculpture or painting.

POSTMODERNISM : A general (and often hotly debated) label referring to the philosophical, artistic, and literary changes and tendencies after the 1940s and 1950s up to the present day. We can speak of and Romantic Literature, postmodern art, music, architecture, literature, and Journey to My of Nursing poetry using the Gothic and Romantic same generic label. The tendencies of First World Former Habsburg Empire, postmodernism include (1) a rejection of traditional authority, (2) radical experimentation--in some cases bordering on gimmickry, (3) eclecticism and multiculturalism, (4) parody and pastiche, (5) deliberate anachronism or surrealism, and (6) a cynical or ironic self-awareness (often postmodernism mocks its own characteristic traits). In many ways, these traits are all features that first appeared in modernism , but postmodernism magnifies and intensifies these earlier characteristics. It also seems to me that, while modernism rejected much of tradition, it clung to science as a hopeful and objective cure to the past insanities of history, culture and superstition. Modernism hoped to tear down tradition and longed to Gothic Literature Literature Essay, build something better in 21 scarlet its ruins. Postmodernism, on Literature and Romantic Literature Essay, the other hand, is often suspicious of scientific claims, and generic examples often denies the possibility or desirability of establishing any objective truths and shared cultural standards. It usually embraces pluralism and Literature and Romantic Literature Essay spurns monolithic beliefs, and Post and the Habsburg it often borders on solipsism.

While modernism mourned the passing of unified cultural tradition, and wept for Gothic Essay its demise in the ruined heap of civilization, so to speak, postmodernism tends to dance in the ruins and play with the techniques fragments. Some of the new literary movements growing from postmodernism include the darker or horrific tales of science fiction, neo-Gothic literature, late twentieth-century horror stories, concrete poetry, magic realism , Theater of the Absurd, and so on. Finally, postmodernism is often used loosely and interchangeably with the critical movements following post-structuralism--the growing realms of Marxist, materialist, feminist, and psychoanalytical approaches to literature that developed during and after the 1970s. Gothic And Romantic. To see where postmodernism fits into a chronology of literary movements, click here for a PDF handout. POSTPOSITIVE : A function word--often a preposition--that must come after its object rather than before it. By definition, a postpositive word or phrase cannot begin a sentence. Several words in to My Philosophy of Nursing Essay Latin and Greek are postpositives.

POST-STRUCTURALISM : A collective and Gothic Literature Essay loose term for any of the literary theories appearing after the structuralist movement in linguistics--including Derrida's infamous concept of The Legend example, deconstruction . The more radical poststructuralists attempt to subvert, question, or eliminate common concepts accepted before the Literature structuralist movement--like individual identity, the subconscious mind, rules for social interaction, and so on. PREFIX : A morpheme added to the beginning of rosewood film, a word. For instance, the prefix re- can be added to the word play to create the Literature and Romantic word replay . PREQUEL (formed from the prefix pre - and the root word sequel ): A novel, play, film, or other narrative usually written after the popular success of an earlier work but set before the events in porter that successful earlier work, and incorporating characters, settings, and situations with which the Literature and Romantic Literature Essay audience is already familiar. Contrast with sequel and series . PRE-RAPHAELITE : Pre-Raphaelitism, or the Pre-Raphaelite movement, begins in Post War Revolutions Former 1848 as a protest against Literature Literature Essay, conventional art and literature. A band of young London artists, poets, and intellectuals formed a brotherhood dedicated to Post First in Germany and the Former Empire, re-creating the type of medieval art existing before the Gothic and Romantic Literature Essay Renaissance . Hence, they took their name from types, Raphael (1483-1520), the earliest major Renaissance artist in Italy. Like the Romantic poets, Pre-Raphaelites wished to regain the and Romantic Literature Essay spirit of Journey to My Philosophy of Nursing Essay, simple devotion and adherence to nature.

Hence, they rejected modernity, mass production, and Gothic and Romantic Literature urbanization. Typical Pre-Raphaelite writings involve an interest in chivalry , courtly love , ballads , archaic diction, pictorial qualities and visual imagery. The first Pre-Raphaelites included Dante Gabriel Rossetti (the ringleader), William Holman Hunt, William Michael Rossetti, Thomas Woolner, James Collinson, John Everett Millais, and Frederick George Stephens initially. The movement later grew to include or influence Dante Rossetti's sister, the poet Christina Rossetti; William Morris, the craftsman and writer; the author Swinburne, and Burne-Jones the artist. In 1850, they formed their own literary journal, The Germ , to propagate their views and writings. Click here to download a PDF file of Christina Rossetti's poem, A Birthday, to sample the diction and style of Pre-Raphaelite poetry. PRE-ROMANTICISM : The first phase of the Romantic movement in European literature of the late 1700s and early 1800s. Harkins labels its main traits as greater freedom in expression of personal feelings, a new interest in landscape, the cultivation of medieval, chivalric themes as well as . . . the supernatural, and Mulan Essay the melancholy mood of 'graveyard' poetry (309). See Romanticism for further details.

PRESCRIPTIVIST : A grammatical treatise or a lexicon is said to be prescriptivist if it has the goal of fashioning guidelines or rules for grammar, spelling, and word use, as opposed to and Romantic Essay, describing unjudgmentally how a group of people tend to use language. Letter. Contrast with descriptivist . PRESS VARIANT : Unlike a deliberately revised edition printed at a later date, a press variant is a minor and usually unintentional variation among books printed in the same edition or print run. Greenblatt notes they usually result from corrections made in the course of printing or from slipped type (1142). PRIESTLY TEXT (Also called the P Text or the Priestly Document ): In biblical scholarship, this refers to material in Genesis and the Hebrew Bible that probably appeared during a late period of editing--in contrast with the older J Text and E Text . The name P Text comes from and Romantic Essay, Priestly Text. Priests probably incorporated this material during or soon after the Babylonian exile of 587 BCE--though possibly as recently as 450 BCE. (Some scholars in chapter the minority argue that portions of the material might date pre-exilicly from the Gothic Literature and Romantic Essay late eighth/early seventh century BCE during Hezekiah's reign, but this stance is not widely held.) At the porter generic strategies time of the exile, the Judaic priests were probably desperate to retain their unique monotheistic beliefs in the face of overwhelming Babylonian influence, but they also faced the challenge of harmonizing their world view with that of Babylonian tradition. At this point, many Aramaic (aka Chaldee) loanwords appear in the Hebrew text and they are incorporated into the Hebrew Bible thereafter. This influence explains why today most biblical concordances and dictionaries (such as the 1979 version of Strong's Comprehensive Concordance of the Bible ) refer to their Hebrew sections as a Concordance of Hebrew and Literature Literature Essay Chaldean, a Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary, or a Hebrew and Aramaic Dictionary. Christ will still be using some Aramaic terms 400 years later in the New Testament gospels, which show how influential and long-lasting the linguistic effects of the Exile were on the Hebrew vocabulary. Biblical scholars think that Genesis 1:1-2:3 and other sections such as Genesis 6 come from the chapter letter P Text, and these are probably the latest additions to the Genesis account.

The foreign loanwords mean these sections couldn't have been written before coming into contact with the Chaldeans--at least not in the form in which they come down to Literature and Romantic Literature, us today in surviving manuscripts. Some features of the P text include a stress on ritual observances such as the Sabbath, circumcision, and types dietary taboos believed to be late additions to the religious tradition. Other features of the P text--such as the Literature details of the Passover ritual, ordination ceremonies, and descriptions of the Post World War Revolutions and the Former Habsburg Empire tabernacle--appear to have come from now lost older manuscript traditions after being updated and modified in the P tradition. Finally, the P text is marked the prominence it gives to Literature and Romantic Literature, Aaron (as opposed to the dominant role of Moses in the J and E texts), the chapter 21 scarlet account of Moses' death in Gothic and Romantic Deuteronomy, the legal materials of Leviticus and Numbers, and a series of genealogies showing some influence from Mesopotamian sources. If students are reading a study Bible like the Anchor Bible series, the editors helpfully mark which sections come from the J, E, and P Texts. PRIMARY SOURCE : Literary scholars distinguish between primary sources , secondary sources , and educational resources . Types Of Advertising. Students should also. To understand the difference, click here. PRIMOGENITURE : The late medieval custom of allowing the first born legitimate male child to inherit all of his father's properties, estates, wealth, and titles upon Gothic Literature the father's death. Primogeniture was a key issue in determining succession to the royal throne, and it plays an important part in Mulan Edmund's villainy in King Lear , in King Henry V's claim to the French throne in Henry V , and in many other Shakespearean plays. In medieval times, primogeniture lead to huge social problems since Western Europe was producing large numbers of second born militarily trained knights who had no means of making a livelihood.

Since the firstborn son inherited everything, the only legitimate option for the other sons was becoming celibate and Gothic then joining the Post World War Revolutions and the Habsburg Empire church hierarchy as clerics or entering monasteries. And Romantic Essay. Since this was not always a preferable option for chapter 21 scarlet letter hot-blooded young men, many involved themselves in coups to gain the family estate, took up lives of brigandage, or became mercenaries and wandered from one war to another seeking their fortunes. Gothic Literature Essay. When Pope Urban II called the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem, the church saw that part of the solution to this problem was to of Hua, provide a legitimate arena of warfare for these dispossessed knights. The opposite custom of dividing inheritance is known as partible succession . PRINTING PRESS : Chinese and Gothic Literature Essay Japanese inventors developed simple printing techniques centuries earlier in monasteries, but in the 1440s and 1450s, Europe developed printing independently. Even though forerunners of the types of advertising printed book might have existed in Holland, the Gothic most important developments were in Mainz, Germany, where Indulgence was printed in 1454, and the Gutenberg Bible in 1456. John of Gutenberg is credited with the of advertising invention by Gothic Literature fifteenth-century writers, and the invention spread rapidly to Post First World, Italy, France, Holland, and and Romantic Literature Essay other countries. William Caxton set up a printing press in Europe (Bruges) in of Nursing 1475, and there printed the first book in English, The Recuyell of the Historyes of Literature Essay, Troye . Porter Generic Examples. Returning to England in 1476, Caxton set up his second printing press in Westminster.

He next printed a number of Latin texts before printing in English the Dicts or Sayings of the Philosophers (1477), Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (1483), Malory's Le Morte Darthur (1485), and others for about a hundred titles in total. His assistant, Wynkyn de Worde, took over the business after Caxton's death and published perhaps 800 additional titles. The printing press was a revolution comparable to and Romantic Literature Essay, the modern internet revolution. Post World In Germany Empire. It made books for the first time cheap enough for mass production and mass purchasing, ensuring a rise in Gothic Essay literacy, blurring dialectal vocabularies, spreading geographic and types of advertising techniques cultural knowledge, and fueling the flames of and Romantic Literature Essay, religious reformation. PRIVATE SYMBOL : In contrast with an archetype (universal symbol), a private symbol is one that an individual artist arbitrarily assigns a personal meaning to. Nearly all members of an ethnic, religious, or linguistic group might share a cultural symbol and agree upon its meaning with little discussion, but private symbols may only be discernable in the context of one specific story or poem. Examples of private symbols include the elaborate mythologies created by J. R. R. Rosewood Film. Tolkien in The Silmarillion (such as the One Ring as a symbol of Gothic Essay, power lust) or William Butler Yeats' use of Constantinople as a symbol to represent poetic artifice in Sailing to Byzantium, or Yeats' use of a gyre to symbolize the Journey Philosophy of Nursing Essay cycles of and Romantic Essay, history and the sphinx as an emblem of the Antichrist in The Second Coming. See also token and emblem . PROBLEM PLAY : There are two common meanings to this term. (1) The most general usage refers to any play in which the chapter main character faces a personal, social, political, environmental, or religious problem common to his or her society at large. Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman is representative of a problem play in that Loman must face the challenges of what the author considers false values in a capitalistic society. Gothic And Romantic Literature Essay. (2) In a narrower sense, Shakespearean scholars apply the of advertising techniques term problem play to Literature Literature Essay, a group of Shakespeare's plays, also called bitter comedies, especially Measure for Measure , Troilus and Cressida , and All's Well That Ends Well . These plays explore dark and ignoble aspects of The Legend Mulan example, human psychology without attempting to solve or resolve the Gothic plot to the reader's satisfaction beyond a superficial level.

Because of the uneasy endings, the plays do not seem to follow the standard conventions of Post First War Revolutions in Germany and the Habsburg, Renaissance comedy . PROCATALEPSIS (Greek anticipation): Procatalepsis is a rhetorical strategy in which the writer raises an objection and then immediately answers it; by doing so, the rhetor seeks to strengthen his argument by dealing with possible objections before his audience can raise counter-arguments. PROFANITY ACT OF 1606 : This law passed under King James I required that any profanity in a publicly performed play or in published material would result in a ten-pound fine for the performer or printer, a substantial sum. Three of Shakespeare's quartos show signs of revision to meet the Gothic and Romantic Literature requirement of the The Legend Mulan Essay example Profanity Act, such as omissions of obscenity, the Literature and Romantic word God changed to heaven, or Jove, etc. Contrast with the Censorship Ordinance . PROLIXITY : A type of wordiness or periphrasis characterized by types of advertising techniques unnecessary rambling or excessive detail, as Shipley puts it (429). Gothic And Romantic Literature. A writer or speaker who has this tendency is said to be prolix. See dicussion under periphrasis . PROLOGUE : (1) In original Greek tragedy, the porter strategies prologue was either the action or a set of introductory speeches before the first entry ( parados ) of the Literature and Romantic Literature chorus. Post First World In Germany Habsburg Empire. Here, a single actor's monologue or a dialogue between two actors would establish the play's background events. Gothic Literature. (2) In later literature, a prologue is a section of any introductory material before the types of advertising techniques first chapter or the main material of a prose work, or any such material before the first stanza of Gothic Literature, a poetic work. PROMPTBOOK : A manuscript of a play adapted for performance by a theatrical company--usually with extra stage directions, notes on special effects or props, and last minute revisions or corrections.

In some promptbooks, the characters' names and speech prefixes are scribbled out and replaced with the names of the actors playing those roles. PROMYTHIUM : A summary of the moral of a fable appearing before the main narrative. If the summary is found at the end of the narrative, it is called an epimythium . Techniques. Contrast with prologue . PRONUNCIATION SPELLING : A new spelling of an old word that more accurately reflects the current pronunciation than the original spelling does. PROPAGANDA (Latin, things that must be sent forth): In its original use, the term referred to a committee of cardinals the Roman Catholic church founded in 1622 (the Congregatio de propaganda fide ). And Romantic Literature. This group established specific educational materials to be sent with priests-in-training for foreign missions . The term is today used to refer to information, rumors, ideas, and artwork spread deliberately to help or harm another specific group, movement, belief, institution, or government. The term's connotations are mostly negative. When literature or journalism is propaganda and rosewood film when it is not is hotly debated. For instance, the Roman Emperor Augustus commissioned Virgil to write The Aeneid for Gothic Literature Essay specific goals. He wanted Virgil to glorify Rome's greatness, instill public pride in Rome's past, and The Legend of Hua Mulan example cultivate traditional Roman virtues such as loyalty to Gothic and Romantic, the family, the Empire, and the gods. Journey To My Philosophy Of Nursing Essay. Is this propaganda?

Or patriotism? Typically, readers claim a work is propaganda when it sets forth an argument with which they personally disagree. And Romantic. In other cases, readers will call a work propagandistic if they can perceive that the characters or the author advances particular doctrines or principles. Harry Shaw notes: Propaganda is attacked by most critics and general readers because it is an attempt to influence opinions and actions deliberately, but by this definition all education and most literature are propagandistic (220). PROPARALEPSIS (plural: proparalepses ): A type of neologism that occurs by rosewood film adding an extra syllable or letters to the end of a word. For instance, Shakespeare in Hamlet creates the word climature by adding the and Romantic Literature end of the word temperature to Post World War Revolutions Former Habsburg, climate (1.1.12).

The wizardly windbag Glyndwr (Glendower) proclaims that he can call spirits from the vasty deep in 1 Henry IV (3.1.52). We would expect him to speak of the vast deep normally. Proparalepsis is an example of a rhetorical scheme. PROPORTIONAL : One of several possible numbering methods in a language's grammar. Literature Essay. For a discussion of proportionals, see multiplicatives . PROPS (abbreviation of stage properties): Handheld objects, furniture and similar items on types of advertising techniques, stage apart from costumes and the stage scenery itself used to and Romantic, provide verisimilitude , to reinforce the setting , to help characterize the actors holding or wearing them, or to provide visual objects for practical, symbolic, or demonstrative purposes on the stage. PROSCENIUM : An arch that frames a box set and holds the curtain, thus creating a sort of invisible boundary through which the audience views the on-stage action of a play. PROSE : Any material that is not written in rosewood film a regular meter like poetry. Gothic Literature And Romantic Literature. Many modern genres such as short stories, novels, letters, essays, and treatises are typically written in prose.

PROSKENION : A raised stage constructed before the skene in classical Greek drama. The proskenion sharply divided the actors from the Journey to My Essay chorus, and the elevated height made the actors more visible to the audience. PROSODIC SIGNAL : Algeo defines this as the [p]itch, stress, or rhythm as grammatical signals (327). PROSODY (1) : the Literature and Romantic Literature Essay mechanics of verse poetry--its sounds, rhythms, scansion and rosewood film meter, stanzaic form, alliteration, assonance, euphony, onomatopoeia, and rhyme. (2) The study or analysis of the previously listed material. This is also called versification . PROSOPOPOEIA (Grk prosopon , face): a form of personification in which an inanimate object gains the ability to speak. Gothic Literature Literature Essay. For instance, in the Anglo-Saxon poem, The Dream of the Rood, the wooden cross verbally describes the death of Christ from its own perspective. Techniques. Ecocritical writers might describe clearcutting from the viewpoint of the Gothic Literature and Romantic Essay tree, and so on. See personification , above. PROSTHESIS : Adding an rosewood film, extra syllable or letters to the beginning of a word for poetic effect.

Shakespeare writes in his sonnets, All alone, I beweep my outcast state. He could have simply written weep , but beweep matches his meter and is more poetic. Gothic And Romantic Essay. Too many students are all afrightened by the use of rosewood film, prosthesis. Prosthesis creates a poetic effect, turning a run-of-the-mill word into something novel. Literature Literature Essay. Prosthesis is an example of First War Revolutions Habsburg Empire, a rhetorical scheme. It results in a neologism . PROTAGONIST : The main character in a work, on whom the author focuses most of the narrative attention. See character . PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN : The reconstructed ancestor of all Indo-European languages. Many scholars use this term interchangeably with Indo-European. Click here for and Romantic Literature Essay more information.

PROVIDENCE : The theological doctrine stating God's sovereignty--especially his omniscience--allows complete divine control over the universe in Post in Germany and the the past, present, and Literature and Romantic Literature future. It connects closely with questions of rosewood film, omniscience, free will and predestination. In John Milton's Paradise Lost , Milton emphasises providence as one of Gothic Literature Literature Essay, his themes, depicting a universe in which God allows complete free will, but one in which God will ultimately use providence to turn even evil choices and decisions to a greater good in the long run through his own mysterious means. Cf. Rosewood Film. Augustinian time . PRYS (also spelled pris ): The French noun prys , meaning worthiness, is a cognate with the Literature and Romantic Essay English word price. Prys was rich in connotations, appearing frequently in French chansons de geste and medieval romances . It embodies knightly worthiness on a number of levels. A knight who has prys is rosewood film, loyal, brave, polite, courtly, proud, refined in taste, and perhaps a bit foolhardy and arrogant, quick to take anger at an insult and Gothic Literature fast to accept a challenge or dual.

Chaucer uses this term to describe the of advertising Knight in the General Prologue of The Canterbury Tales : PSYCHOLOGICAL REALISM : The sense that characters in fictional narratives have realistic interiority or complex emotional and intellectual depth, including perhaps subconscious urges and and Romantic Essay fears they are not aware of. On an outward level, this realism typically involves reacting to external characters and situations in a manner consistent with the expectations of readers ( verisimilitude ). On an internal level, it may involve the revelation of characters' thoughts and internal meditations about themselves and others. Strategies Examples. Such internal machinations are a standard part of Elizabethan drama in the form of the soliloquy . Gothic. However, psychological realism is associated most closely with the movement toward realism and naturalism in the nineteenth- and twentieth-centuries. After psychoanalysis appeared, Freudian ideas influenced many writers who sought to incorporate his theories into their own depictions of characters. Whether or not we can speak of psychological realism in literary works before the Renaissance is a thorny issue. Medieval saint's lives ( vitae ) , chivalric romances , sagas , and most other pre-Renaissance literary texts pay little attention to psychology, rarely describing a character's internal thoughts beyond a sparse assertion that a character was angry, sad, or lonely (and that assertion often made as part of a stock formula, such as Then King Arthur fared wondrously woode.) Often ancient works are so focused on allegory to the exclusion of psychology that some critics assert pre-Renaissance writers and readers had very little sense of interiority or any unique self apart from tribe, family, religious caste, occupation, or social standing. The difference is World in Germany and the Habsburg Empire, so marked that some scholars like Harold Bloom speak of the invention of the human in Gothic the Renaissance. On the Journey to My Philosophy of Nursing Essay other hand, it is difficult to read something like The Confessions of Saint Augustine without getting a sense of a real human being intensely aware of his own psychology. Gothic. Possibly, the First War Revolutions and the Former Empire difference is rooted in conventions of literature rather than any actual historical change in human self-awareness, but the debate continues. PSYCHOPOMPOS (Greek, soul procession or soul carrier): A spirit-guide who leads or escorts a soul into the realm of the dead.

Such a character often appears in the motif of the descent into and Romantic, the underworld . Examples of a psychopompos would be deities like Hermes and letter Charon in Literature and Romantic Essay Greek mythology, or the characters of in Germany and the Former Habsburg, Virgil and Beatrice in and Romantic Literature Essay Dante's Inferno . PULP FICTION : Mass market novels printed cheaply and War Revolutions in Germany and the Former Habsburg Empire intended for a general audience. The content was usually melodramatic, titillating, or thrilling. The earliest samples are the Gothic Essay penny dreadfuls or bloods of the eighteenth century, which were followed in the nineteenth century by of advertising so-called dime novels (which were sold for ten cents). Examples included westerns, Horatio Alger novels, soft science fiction series, murder mysteries in serialized format, and melodramtic crime stories. The designation pulp comes from the paper quality--these novels are usually printed on the cheapest newsprint available. PUN (also called paronomasia ): A play on two words similar in sound but different in meaning. For example, in Matthew 16:18, Christ puns in Koine Greek: Thou art Peter [ Petros ] and upon this rock [ petra ] I will build my church. Gothic Literature And Romantic Literature Essay. Shakespeare, in Romeo and Juliet , puns upon Romeo's vile death ( vile = vial , the vial of poison Romeo consumed).

Shakespeare's poetic speaker also puns upon letter his first name ( Will ) and his lover's desire (her will ) in the sonnets, and John Donne puns upon his last name in Hymn to God the Father. Originally, puns were a common literary trope in serious literature, but after the eighteenth century, puns have been primarily considered a low form of humor. A specific type of pun known as the equivoque involves a single phrase or word with differing meanings. For instance, one epitaph for Gothic Literature a bank teller reads He checked his cash, cashed in his checks, / And left his window. / Who's next? The nineteenth-century poet, Anita Owen, uses a pun to side-splitting effect in her verse: They tell sweet lies of Paradise; And in those eyes the rosewood film lovelight lies. And lies--and lies--and lies! Another type of pun is the and Romantic Literature asteismus , in which one speaker uses a word one way, but a second speaker responds using the word in a different sense. For instance, in generic Cymbeline (II, i), Cloten exclaims, Would he had been one of my rank! A lord retorts, To have smell'd like a fool, twisting the meaning of rank from a noun referring to noble status to an adjective connoting a foul smell.

Yet another form of pun is the paragram , in which the wordplay involves altering one or more letters in a word. It is often considered a low form of humor, as in and Romantic Literature various knock-knock jokes or puns such as, What's homicidal and lives in the sea? Answer: Jack the Kipper, or in Chapter Four of Mulan Essay example, C.S. Lewis' The Silver Chair , which is Literature and Romantic Literature, titled A Parliament of Owls (a pun on Chaucer's Parliament of Fowles ). In spite of the chapter letter pun's current low reputation, some of the best writers in English have been notoriously addicted to puns: noticeably Shakespeare, Chaucer, and James Joyce. PURGATORY (Latin, purgare , to purge): Donald Logan writes:

The medieval and Catholic doctrine of purgatory stated that Christian souls who had accepted rites of baptism and been accepted into the body of the faithful church, but who died unexpectedly with unconfessed sins or minor venial faults, would not be sent to hell, but would rather spend an indeterminate period in a spiritual place of temporal punishment. The same temporary suffering was believed to and Romantic Literature, be the fate of baptised infants who had not yet reached the World and the Habsburg age of Gothic Literature and Romantic Essay, reason where they could choose to accept Christian doctrine and make first confession. In this spiritual place, popularly called purgatory, such souls would suffer for a time as an The Legend Mulan Essay, act of penance. This would purify them so they could enter heaven. The Council of Florence (1431 AD) was the Literature Essay first time the church officially embraced purgatory as a doctrine, but the belief in purgatory had long been a part of porter generic, church practice going back to the patristic period of the fourth century, when Epiphanius mentions the practice of praying for deceased souls in order to lessen their time in purgatory. Literature. It is clear, however, that at this early point, the issue of hell, purgatory, and the afterlife was still a matter of Post World War Revolutions and the Former Habsburg, dispute among proto-Christians, as theologians like Acrius denied the doctrine. The popularity of purgatorial doctrine increased, and by the tenth century, it was practically universally accepted in the church.

In the Middle Ages, some heretical groups like the Albigensians, the Waldensians, and the Hussites challenged the belief, but the first serious breach with the doctrine appears in the sixteenth-century during the Protestant Reformation. At that time, Martin Luther initially considered retaining the doctrine of Purgatory in the Lutheran Church, as witnessed in the Leipzig Disputation, but as the breach between Catholics and Protestants increased, political pressure to make a clean break with popishness decided the issue. The rejection of purgatory became practically universal among the Protestant churches. John Calvin's doctrine was especially sharp in its break, and Calvinist teaching included the doctrine of infant damnation, in Gothic Literature Literature which all children who die in types of advertising the womb, in childbirth, or during infancy were damned for eternity in hell. Literature. Calvin went so far as to types, term the Gothic and Romantic Literature Essay Catholic position exitiale commentum quod crucem Christi evacuat . Porter Strategies Examples. . . quod fidem nostram labefacit et evertit ( Institutiones , lib.

III, cap. v, 6, quoted in The Catholic Encyclopedia ). Gothic And Romantic Literature. The modern Greek Orthodox church has also discontinued the purgatorial doctrine. Click here for a link to The Catholic Encyclopedia 's discussion of purgatory that is much more thorough than mine. The doctrine and imagery of purgatory is especially prevalent in medieval literature. It is the focus of Marie de France's Saint Patrick's Purgatory . The Purgatorio , the second book of Dante's Divine Comedy , involves a spiritual journey through purgatory just after the poet's trip through the Inferno . C. S. Lewis explores the question of purgatory in 21 scarlet letter The Great Divorce , where he attempts to have his cake and eat it too by suggesting purgatory does and does not exist simultaneously, arguing that we experience purgatory temporally and perceive it as a real thing, but in Augustinian time , we are able to see that purgatory (and material life on earth) on some level always have been heaven or hell, when we examine the afterlife sub specie aeternitatis . PURIST GRAMMAR (also called Grammatical Purism ): The belief in an absolute or unchanging standard of correct grammar. PURITAN : Most familiar to modern Americans as the Literature and Romantic religious denomination of the Mayflower colonists, the Puritans were a Protestant sect particularly active during the letter sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In a positive sense, Americans associate Puritanism with the Gothic Literature and Romantic struggle for religious freedom since the rosewood film Puritans colonized America to escape religious persecution; however, the Literature and Romantic idea is something of a misconception since the Puritans' hope was to create an all-encompassing Puritan culture in the new colony, not to create a cosmopolitan, tolerant society open to other branches of Protestant Christianity, much less Catholicism, Judaism, or other religions. Post World And The Former Habsburg Empire. (That sort of Gothic Literature, religious tolerance comes about in American culture largely as a result of the Deism fashionable among intellectuals in porter generic examples the eighteenth century during the Essay writing of the Constitution.) In its negative sense, the word Puritan often evokes the idea of dour, grim, religious conformity, since Puritans stereotypically wore only black and white; they frowned upon drinking, dancing, and displays of chapter 21 scarlet letter, sexuality; burned aging misfits as witches; censored literature, and closed Shakespeare's playhouses in England because of Literature, acting's immorality. These tendencies have led to H. L. Mencken's jest defining Puritanism as the haunting fear that someone, somewhere, may be happy. Puritanism forms the backdrop of The Scarlet Letter and The Crucible in Journey to My Philosophy American literature. Shakespeare uses a Puritan named Malvolio as the Gothic and Romantic Literature Essay party-pooping villain in Twelfth Night . See also Roundhead and Puritan Interregnum . PURITAN INTERREGNUM (Latin, inter + regnum , between reigns): The term refers to both the Puritan government established under Oliver Cromwell after a civil war against strategies, the British monarch and those years in which that government lasted (1649-1658). Literature And Romantic Essay. This interregnum marks the end of the English Renaissance. It came into being after a long civil war between two political factions, the Roundheads , non-aristocrats who supported Puritan reforms, and the Cavaliers , the aristocratic courtiers loyal to Essay, the monarchy.

Ultimately, the Stuart monarch was captured and executed, and his supporters fled to the continent with the heir to the throne, leaving the Puritans in power. The Puritans called their regime the Commonwealth, and it was nominally a parliamentarian government but a de facto dictatorship under Cromwell. This government fell apart upon Cromwell's death. At that point, the English royal heir returned to Gothic Literature, claim the throne, leading to The Legend of Hua example, the Restoration . See also Puritan , above. PURPLE PATCH : A section of purple prose or writing that is too ornate or florid for the surrounding plain material, which in turn looks too tranquil or dull by Gothic and Romantic the incongruity of the startling purple patch. The colorful image for this term comes from Horace's Ars Poetica 2.3.14-19, where he refers to the purpureus pannus , the purple piece of Journey to My, royal or princely cloth that is a colorful but irrelevant insertion into a plain-speaking work. PURPLE PROSE : Writing that seems overdone or which makes excessive use of imagery, figures of speech, poetic diction, and polysyllabication. These artifices become so overblown that they accidentally become silly or pompous. See also purple patch . PUSHKIN PLEIAD : A group of young Russian poets, friends and contemporaries of Pushkin, who shared his general poetic outlook--including Vyazemski, Dadydov, Delvig, Yzykov, Venevitinov, and Baratynski (Harkins 323). PYRRHIC : In classical Greek or Latin poetry, this foot consists of two unaccented syllables--the opposite of a spondee . At best, a pyrrhic foot is an unusual aberration in English verse, and most prosodists (including me!) do not accept it as a foot at Gothic and Romantic Literature Essay all because it contains no accented syllable. Normally, the context or prevailing iambs, trochees, or spondees in surrounding lines overwhelms any potential pyrrhic foot, and a speaker reading the foot aloud will tend artificially to stress either the first or last syllable.

See meter for Post First in Germany Former Habsburg more information.