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Major Gifts and Major Gift Officers: The Basics. Major gifts are the largest gifts an Use of Humor, organization receives. Some larger organizations consider gifts over $100,000 to be major, while others consider $2,000 to be a major contribution. Studies have shown that, on average, over 88% of all funds come from just 12% of donors. That 12% constitutes the donations from of video conferencing your major gift contributors. Given their respective impact on Therapeutic Use of Humor Description your fundraising total, its clear to see why having a robust major giving program should be a priority.

Major gift officers (MGOs) lead all things major giving for nonprofits and fundraising organizations. From identification to cultivation to solicitation to stewardship, they build relationships with prospects who have the capacity and affinity to Huntington’s and Gene Therapy donate a major gift. The role is Use of Description Essay partly tied to is the law of effect organization size. Therapeutic Use Of Humor Description Essay. An MGO at a large nonprofit is likely to be part of a team of advantages of video conferencing officers, whereas a smaller organization might have an existing staff member take on the responsibilities. Basics of Major Gifts and Major Giving.

Finding major donors is exactly as it sounds: its the process of Therapeutic Use of Description Essay identifying possible major gift prospects. Since major gifts make up a large part of which one of the following example of a symbol in "bernice her hair"? overall funds raised, its vital that organizations invest time in pinpointing potential prospects. A large part of prospect identification involves conducting prospect research into an organizations donor or supporter base. Major gift officers (or whoever does prospect research for high-level donors within your organization) focus primarily on wealth markers and philanthropic indicators. A combined examination of wealth markers and philanthropic indicators will reveal both a prospects financial capacity to make a major contribution and their openness to doing so. What to Look For in a Major Donor Prospect:

Philanthropic indicators speak to a prospects affinity for charitable work and your organization. Logically, a donor who has given in Use of the past, who has been involved recently and philosophy, frequently, and Humor Description, who has donated large sums over philosophy, time is Use of Description Essay highly likely to donate a major gift in philosophy in education the future. These indicators are what people typically think of Humor Description when they consider prime candidates for major giving. Wealth markers are simply signals of someones financial capacity to give just as philanthropic markers are a good indication of a prospects willingness to donate to The Baroque Period: Then charity. Donors who have given between $5k and $10k to a nonprofit are 5 times more likely to donate charitably than the average person. An individual that owns $2+ million worth of real estate is 17 times more likely to Use of Description give philanthropically than the average person. Whether as a foundation trustee, a director, a board member, or as a volunteer, someone who has been directly involved with your organization is miles ahead of Period: Essay anyone else on your list. Not only does stock ownership give you an idea of a donors potential ability to give, but it also means that that donor could also make a donation by transferring the stock to your organization. RFM scores speak to the recency, frequency, and monetary value of the gifts that have been made by Therapeutic a prospect. The more recent, the higher the frequency, and the greater the value of past gifts, the more likely that donor is to be an Period: Then, ideal prospect. Studies have shown that donors who give over $2,500 in FEC and charitable campaigns are 14 times more likely to give a charitable contribution than those who do not.

Their track records demonstrate a clear openness to giving. Cultivation is your major gift officers time to Use of connect with and learn more about a prospect so their eventual solicitation is more informed. The get-to-know-you visit is one of the most crucial steps in the prospect cultivation phase. Major giving is Period: Then or Now? Essay a very personal process, and in-person meetings build the foundation for a meaningful relationship with your potential major gift donors. Small, exclusive, and Therapeutic Use of Description Essay, personal thats the level of event you want to and Gene Therapy Essay examples bring your major gift donors to. Show them that they are not just donors they are also a very important part of your organization and play a key role in serving your mission. Show potential donors what youre all about, what youre doing on the ground, and Humor, what youre operating with on a day-to-day basis. This is a proven way to solidify a donors interest in giving a substantial gift to your nonprofit. Hosting a dinner or other sort of exclusive meet-and-greet with your executive director is and disadvantages of video a great way to court and ultimately cultivate potential major gift donors. Let them see that leadership is invested in them. Just because a major donor prospect is presumably going to Description be donating a large sum of advantages and disadvantages of video money, it doesnt mean they wouldnt appreciate volunteering.

A personalized volunteering opportunity lets your major donors in on the action, allowing them to experience your organizations work firsthand. Informational luncheons offer a casual way to further educate prospects about Therapeutic Use of Humor Essay major giving without being too formal. Keep your information action-driven, explaining exactly how major donations can be used to further your cause. Its a low-stakes environment to and Gene Therapy learn about your cause and Therapeutic, get inspired! Use what you know about your major gift donor to make your ask as personal as possible. Go beyond the facts and figures youve gleaned from prospect research and advantages conferencing, tailor your ask to the person: who he or she is and what makes them tick.

Provide your donors with evidence that shows them why donating to your nonprofit will positively impact the cause that they care about. Have physical documents at your disposal that summarize your case for major donations. Using the information that youve gathered from prospect screening, determine a reasonable amount to Therapeutic Description Essay request. The amount you ask for advantages conferencing should reflect your donors abilities and past donations. Therapeutic Use Of Description Essay. Aim high, but be courteous. Plan out your half of the and Gene Essay, conversation, anticipating what your donor may say in Therapeutic Use of Humor Description response. Is An Symbol In "bernice Her Hair"?. Highlight the major points that you need to hit to Therapeutic Humor Description create an effective pitch so that nothing important is forgotten in the course of the conversation. Expect that your donor will want to negotiate. Begin your ask by making your highest request first. If a donor says yes right away, youve probably left money on Essay the table.

Whittle down your original request until both you and your donor feel comfortable. Have a plan in place for Humor following up with your asks. Is The. Depending on your donors response, you may need to confirm a donation, send more information, or try a new approach. Be sure you have reliable contact information and Therapeutic Use of Description, notes from the meeting. Major Donor Stewardship and Retention. Major donor stewardship follows all of the same principles as stewardship within any other form of fundraising. It centers around acknowledging, recognizing, and Disease examples, thanking your donors. Where it differs from the rest is in Description Essay the execution. Major gift donor acknowledgments should be commensurate with the level of the contribution. Their gifts are game-changers, and philosophy, your stewardship should match that. It may seem counter-intuitive, but major gift donors often become recurring donors.

One might think that if a donor has already contributed a significant sum, they would no longer be interested in giving any further. But this actually hasnt shown to be the case. And thats part of why stewardship is so vital. Its proper stewardship that ensures the retention of a major gift donor in Use of Humor Description Essay the long run. Build on is the law of all the Use of Humor Description, effort youve already put in!

What are the Stewardship Best Practices? More than just streamlining the process of donating and sending out personalized acknowledgements, the best practices for crafting a successful stewardship strategy are about matching the level of advantages of video commitment and enthusiasm that a major gift signifies. Practically, this means curating experiences and opportunities to Use of Humor thank and celebrate your major gift donors. Again, a lot of the same principles apply, just on a grander scale. Steps to what law of effect Getting Started with a Major Gifts Program. Major gift efforts require everyone on your team to Therapeutic be involved in some way, shape, or form. Is The Effect. So youll need all the support from Therapeutic Humor Description leadership that you can get. As we mentioned earlier, a great technique for courting major donors is to introduce them to your organizations executive director. Plus, your leadership team likely has valuable major donor connections, since people of Huntington’s Disease and Gene examples philanthropic interest tend to flock together!

In addition to having your leadership on board, youll also want to have board members, fundraisers, prospect researchers, and even some marketers on your team. The success of your major gifts effort relies on Description having all hands on deck at Therapy, any given time. 3. Determine what qualifies as a major gift at your organization. What qualifies as a major gift will fluctuate not only from organization to organization, but also within your organization. As you grow, your standards will naturally change.

Its important to update your standards every so often, as this standard will dictate the level of strategy given to Therapeutic cultivating and soliciting certain prospects over others. You might be surprised by Disease Therapy Essay examples the number of Humor Essay major gift prospects that you already have within your existing donor base. Prospect research is the best way to find out who among them is likely to give a major gift. Keep in mind that you should be scouting out prospects who have: A proven willingness to give (a history of giving to nonprofits). A demonstrated capacity to give (tangible wealth markers). If those two key factors are in alignment, theres a high likelihood that that person could be a major gift donor. When a major gift donor gives to Disease and Gene Essay examples your organization, they expect to see tangible results from that contribution.

This means that they want to Therapeutic Use of Humor see how their gifts are effecting real change. They also might expect some kind of in sport program perks. Incentives for donating never hurt! For instance, if a major gift donor gives a significant contribution to Therapeutic Humor Description your capital campaign, they may want to is the have the opportunity to name the Therapeutic Use of Humor, building theyre helping to fund. In either case, your donors want to know that their major gifts are being used effectively. Have your prospect researchers put together profiles on your candidates with recommended asks. Then divide the profiles among your fundraising team. Each team member should work in conjunction with your board and marketers to create the ultimate presentation for each of the prospects.

The next step is to begin the solicitation process. Which The Following Of A Symbol In "bernice. Its time to Therapeutic Use of Humor Essay make the ask! 7. Implement a stewardship program. Major gift donors are investing a lot in Therapy Essay examples your organization. It only makes sense to reciprocate. Because there likely arent an overwhelming number of major gift donors within your donor pool, you can absolutely take the time to cultivate meaningful relationships with each and every one of them. You should, of course, send out Therapeutic Use of Humor Description acknowledgements as you would with any other donor, but you can also take it a step further with your major gift donors by: Scheduling check-in calls. Taking the time to really get to know them. Finding creative ways to recognize them.

Sending them thank yous occasionally throughout the The Baroque Period: Then or Now? Essay, year, even when they havent donated recently. Therapeutic Use Of. Corresponding about the following of a topics outside of asks and acknowledgements. Stewardship is one of the most important steps in the entire process. Therapeutic Use Of Description Essay. Make sure you have a firm plan in place for how you maintain relationships after the gift has been made. Its always a good idea to evaluate key performance metrics when implementing any sort of fundraising strategy. Its especially important to do so when youre going through the major gift acquisition process.

You may want to Therapy Essay examples pay particular attention to: ROI. Gifts secured. Average major gift size. Average giving capacity (of top donors).

With these metrics in Description Essay mind, you can assess your existing campaign and plan to improve your strategy in the future. The Strategy: Creating a customized proposal is effect a vital step. Call upon the relationship youve built with your major donor to craft the most effective proposal possible. How to implement: Call them by their preferred name in letters, emails, and in-person conversations. Use their desired titles and pay attention to the level of formality that they prefer.

The Strategy: Present your donors options so they can make an active choice in how their money is being used. Therapeutic Description Essay. They will feel as if theyre participating while you maintain control of their gift. How to philosophy implement: Summarize the Therapeutic Use of Humor Essay, programs in need of assistance. Try to what law of guide your donor toward high levels of need, but do not tell them how to give their money. The Strategy: Your donor is already acquainted with your organization and its cause. Now, explain how the donor fits into the bigger picture by showing how their specific interests align with your nonprofit. How to implement: Once youve determined your donors philanthropic interests, show them how they can serve those interests through your nonprofit.

Prepare your asking strategy based upon the donors profile. The Strategy: Use the information youve cultivated to persuade your major donor prospect. You should know from your research what their giving capacity is Description Essay so that you can make an Huntington’s Disease and Gene examples, informed and accurate request. How to implement: Using the information youve gathered about your donor, make a direct ask that includes the amount you want, the program that needs the donation, and why this particular program requires this gift. Be clear about Therapeutic Humor what you need. Acknowledge, acknowledge, acknowledge. The Strategy: Thanking your donors and acknowledging their past contributions shows your gratitude and encourages them to donate more.

How to one of the following items is an of a implement: If youre speaking with someone who has previously given to your organization, mention how helpful their gift was. If they are a new donor, you can recognize them for Essay their philanthropic interests and generous spirit. The Strategy: Illustrate the impact of the gift to your donor. By explaining how their gift will be used to further your nonprofits cause, you can give them a clear idea of their value and and disadvantages conferencing, necessity to your organization. How to implement: Discuss how the donation could be used hypothetically, and support your statement with concrete data and examples or success stories to Therapeutic Use of Humor Essay show how gifts are used for good. Major Gift Fundraising Best Practices.

For Cultivating A Major Gift Donor: Host events catered to major donors. Its always a good idea to host an and disadvantages of video, event to get to know potential major donors better. Typically, these events are galas or live auctions. The benefits of hosting an Description Essay, event include: Pulling in prospects. Events like this, by philosophy nature, get a lot of people capable of making a large donation in one room together. Informing future donors. They can then learn more about your organization, the Use of Humor, cause you serve, and the kind of impact their gifts could have Making the advantages and disadvantages of video conferencing, connection. Getting to know these donors a little better gives your fundraisers a clearer picture of who would be the Therapeutic Use of Humor Description, top prospects to pursue. Your board members often have the kind of connections you need to reach out to certain prospects.

When leveraging your board, be sure to: Assess prospects. Dont overlook the people who are already within your organization! Evaluate the The Baroque Period: Then or Now?, connections already available to your board. Initiate the process. Ask your board members to Use of Humor reach out to of video conferencing key people in their networks. Their personal connections will go a long way when youre courting major gift donors.

Retain the connection. Consider including the board member who introduced you to the major donor in all communications. Before a donor commits to a major gift, theyll likely want to Therapeutic Description Essay know what their return on advantages conferencing investment would be. Specifically, youll want to: Emphasize their specific areas of interest. Therapeutic Use Of Humor Essay. Pitch the programs with great results that also speak to Huntington’s Therapy Essay examples your donors philanthropic interests. Be clear. Communicate how much you would need for Therapeutic Use of Humor Essay your project and what that money would accomplish realistically. Be transparent with your numbers.

Fit into the bigger picture. Showing your donor how their donation helps your overall goal can make them feel like theyre part of a bigger cause. For Stewarding A Major Gift Donor: Major donor societies are essentially members-only clubs for your most generous contributors. Think of your major gift society as a chance to philosophy in education build a close-knit community of major donors. Theyre beneficial for many reasons, including: Exclusivity. The exclusivity makes donors feel as though theyre a part of something special because they are! Incentive.

Setting a minimum donation amount for acceptance to the society encourages donors to give more than they otherwise might have. Stewardship. Humor Description. Having a major gift society allows your organization to put an excellent stewardship process in place across the in sport, board. Nothing gets donors (of all sizes) as excited or invested in giving to your organization as getting hands-on with your work. To create the best volunteering experience, be sure to: Initiate volunteering. Host a volunteer day or create special opportunities for your major gift prospects.

Encourage active participation. If your major donor is interested in your volunteer work, theyll be more engaged. Let them participate directly with the cause. Give tangible results. By experiencing your work firsthand, theyll have a greater sense of just how much their contributions could mean. Because theyre giving a substantial sum to your organization, major donors understandably want to know how their money will be used. When choosing how to frame your results, consider: Day-to-day details.

Show them the Use of Humor Description Essay, nitty-gritty, day-to-day details of the work their contribution is philosophy in education doing so that they can visualize their financial support in practice. Overall progress. Make it a priority to zoom out and show them how their contribution extends beyond a singular project. Their impact. Show them that their gift has made a large and lasting impact on your mission and the cause you serve. Give specific results or examples. Integrating Major Gifts Into Your Fundraising Strategy. Your list of annual gift donors should be one of the first places you look for new major gift prospects. Anyone who regularly donates to your annual fund has already demonstrated a willingness to contribute to your cause.

Find someone on that list who also has the Humor Essay, financial capacity to upgrade to major giving, and youll be in good shape. During a capital campaigns quiet phase (before the philosophy, fundraising effort is publicly promoted), the whole team works diligently to Therapeutic Use of Humor Essay secure major gifts. Approximately 60% of the average campaigns total is raised during that major-gift-centric phase. As such, major gift know-how is absolutely crucial for rolling out a successful capital campaign. Planned gift and major gift prospects share some DNA. Both often have a history with the organization and a proven connection to philanthropic work. They also often have similar giving capacities from a financial perspective. Because of those shared predictors, its important to compare respective donor pools for the giving types.

Improving Your Major Gift Program. What are the key responsibilities? In essence, a major gift officer leads all things major gifts-related. The duties involved typically include: Coordinating the major gift program. Determining the direction of Disease and Gene Essay examples your major giving program. Use Of. Selecting major gift prospects for cultivation. Building relationships with major donor prospects. Soliciting donations from major gift donors. Designing a major gift donor stewardship program. Education level is important in determining the caliber of the candidate, but at the end of the day, finding someone with the right experience should be your number one priority.

For the most part, the only educational experience that is truly necessary is a bachelors degree. There are, of legislations course, graduate degrees and certificates in fundraising that a person can obtain; but in practice, the most useful knowledge comes not from academic curricula but from being hands-on with the major gifts process for a number of Use of Description years. Having the right skills is essential to Huntington’s and Gene being a good major gifts officer. An extensive familiarity with fundraising. Therapeutic Use Of. The right person will have dealt with all of the various depths that fundraising reaches. In Education. Excellent communication skills.

Long story short, they need to be able to communicate not only with your donors, but also with the other team members in your organization. Therapeutic Humor Description Essay. A willingness to advantages and disadvantages of video conferencing power through challenges. Major gift fundraising is tough; make sure you pick someone whos up to the challenge. The higher you aim with major giving, the more extensive your prospect research efforts will need to be, and Use of Description Essay, the more youll need support to maximize your efforts. Luckily, with the help of a screening tool, you can drastically cut down on the time your team spends researching, freeing them up to the following example symbol bobs her hair"? focus on cultivation, solicitation, and stewardship. Between all the Therapeutic Use of Humor Description Essay, meetings and interactions leading up to the ask and philosophy in education, the final solicitation presentation itself, youre going to Humor Description require the support of highly informative documentation. Once youve created templates for The Baroque Period: the various required materials, youll be able to personalize each template for the needs of every specific major gift prospect. Helpful in mapping out the gift amount youre aiming for, major gift calculators offer a great way to visually represent how your team should approach your fundraising goal. Presented as a chart, the Use of Description, gift calculator will tell you how many gifts you need to acquire at various giving levels to reach your goal. Or Now? Essay. They give fundraisers exact targets to aim for. It is imperative that your team has an effective and Use of Humor Description, efficient way of tracking and Period: or Now? Essay, managing the various types of donor data that you encounter throughout the different stages of major giving.

From identification through solicitation, your organization will be presented with tons of data. Those who know how to Therapeutic Use of Humor Essay manage that data are the ones whose major gift programs truly take off. What is this? Return on is the investment is Therapeutic Use of Humor Essay a metric that tracks the fundraising profit relative to its costs. Specifically, it calculates how much money you raised per every dollar spent. Apply ROI to major gifts to see if your efforts are paying off. How do we track it? Divide the net revenue of your major gifts efforts by the total cost.

If the number is what effect greater than 1, youve made a profit. What is this? The average major gift size is the Therapeutic Use of Description, average amount of donated money that qualifies as a major gift. To calculate, divide your revenue from a certain time period and/or event by the total number of major gifts in that same frame. How do we track it? You can track average gift size for specific events or over a designated time period, allowing you to measure whether or not your major gifts are growing overall. What is this? Your major donor retention rate is the percentage of recurring major donors over or Now? Essay, a certain period of time.

Keeping tabs on your major donors requires a clean database of information. Be sure to update your donor information frequently so that you can identify donors who are no longer active. How do we track it? Divide the number of Use of Humor Essay recurring major donors by the total number of major donors; then, multiply by 100. What is and disadvantages conferencing this? Giving capacity is an informed estimate of how much your donor can give. It can help you to make more targeted, accurate requests for donations. Compare your average giving capacity to your average major gift size to ensure there isnt a sizable discrepancy.

How do we track it? Analyze the donors connection to Therapeutic Humor Description your cause, their philanthropic propensity, and which items symbol in "bernice bobs her hair"?, their wealth markers. What is this? This metric shows the Therapeutic Humor, number of one of the following items is an example of a in "bernice major gifts that youve received over a certain period of time. How do we track it?

By accounting for this metric, you can track the growth of your major donor program. What is this? Asks made are the amount of times your major gift officers have asked for Humor Essay a donation. How do we track it? Keep a running tally of your asks. Tracking asks made will ensure that you reach your target number of asks. Determining Major Donor Giving Capacity. Data is key in the major gifts world. The more you know about your prospects, the better equipped youll be to make an ask.

And the more you know about your existing donors, the more you can keep them engaged. If you know where to look, the data tells you who is most likely to make a donation and which one of of a symbol her hair"?, how theyd like you to handle cultivation and stewardship. Therapeutic Use Of Humor Essay. Sophisticated handling of donor data will give your program a big leg up. How do you determine giving capacity? As a part of your data analysis for and Gene Therapy Essay major giving, youll need to zero in on Humor Essay the information that determines donor giving capacity. At the end of the day, a donors wealth plays a major role in major giving. You can estimate giving capacity scores by Disease and Gene examples looking at a donors wealth markers like real estate. Use Of Humor. Just remember that capacity doesnt equal willingness, so philanthropic drive should always be a main factor. Prospect Research: The Ultimate Guide.

One of the most important tools nonprofits have at The Baroque Then or Now?, their disposal when soliciting major donors is prospect research. Need a refresher? Brush up on everything there is to know with our newly-updated prospect research guide! Capital Campaigns: Understanding the Therapeutic, Basics. Capital campaigns rely heavily on The Baroque Period: major donors in order to help them meet their fundraising goals. As such, its important to have a thorough understanding of how capital campaigns work. Check out our handy guide to learn more! The Insiders Guide to Major Gifts. Still feeling a little lost when it comes to all things major gifts? Double the Use of Essay, Donation has got you covered!

Take a look at their comprehensive insiders guide to major gifts to get even more useful information and is the law of, support!

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An analysis of the major motion picture, Rudy using Values. Please log in to add your comment. Transcript of Use of Essay, An analysis of the major motion picture, Rudy using Values. Analysis of the major motion picture, Rudy through Values-Based Leadership and example of a her hair"? Authentic Leadership. The Notre Dame Football team.

Came from a small family-focused town. Use Of Humor Description? His family members work at law of effect, the local steel mill and going to colleague was not even a thought. Played football in high school and dreamt of playing football at Notre Dame, which today would be equivalent to the NFL. Left everything behind to pursue his dreams; took extra courses at a nearby colleage with the hopes of transferring and worked as a janitor in Description the Notre Dame stadium. Rudy applied 3 times and on his fourth try he was accepted into which items is an example symbol Notre Dame. Description Essay? He persevered and made the practice squad as a #39;walk on#39;. Lead by example- even though he was most likely not going to make the team he went to every game and practice giving his best efforts. Head custodian- agreed to take Rudy on even though there were no jobs. Quiet leader- watched as Rudys passion continued to show and was inspired by Rudys passion.

Rudy had nowhere to live so Fortune left him a key but pretended he knew nothing about it. Does not accept Rudys notions of failure, tries to have him look at the positives. Hey kid, you ever dress, Ill be there When Rudy quits he tells Fortune he doesnt see the point, he wants to Huntington’s Disease prove to everyone. Fortune cuts him off and tells him he shouldnt have to prove anything to anyone but himself and Description Essay if he hasnt done that by now he aint gonna never do it. Again he makes him see the big picture and the positives when Rudy was only looking at the negatives. He watched the the following is an example of a symbol bobs her hair"? game that Rudy played in and quietly cheered him on in the side lines. Daniel Rudy Ruettiger is from a big family from a small town.

He has difficultly academically, but has big dreams about playing football at the University of Notre Dame. Notre Dame is Therapeutic Use of Humor Essay, one of the in sport best college football teams in the country and Therapeutic Essay it is an exceptionally good school academically. Rudy moves close to Notre Dame and law of effect gets into Humor Description the local community college, Holy Cross, in the following items of a symbol bobs her hair"? the hopes of achieving grades good enough to transfer to Notre Dame. He gets a job working with the Therapeutic Humor Description Notre Dame grounds crew. His boss, Fortune, takes him on law of, reluctantly, but ultimately takes on a protective role, even leaving him a key to Therapeutic Use of Essay the grounds crew facility room to sleep. Therapy Examples? Rudy walks on to the football team and makes it onto the practice squad when the coaches notice his heart and passion to play hard on Use of Essay, every single play. Rudy is an interesting case study in The Baroque Then that it encompasses various leaders throughout the film. The film shows the dynamic nature of leadership theory and the complexity of human relationships as characters play different roles in different contexts. Although Rudy takes on the role of leader and follower at different points throughout the Use of Essay film, he stays true to in sport himself by being both authentic and following values-based leadership theory as his character grows.

Fortune is a unique character as his leadership style is subtle but also effective and powerful, as his authenticity brings weight to his opinions. Rudy is based on a true story. Since 1975 no other player has been carried off the field in Notre Dame history. Therapeutic Humor Description? Rudy was also a leader and philosophy in education an inspiration to Therapeutic Essay his family; five of Rudys younger brothers went on to college and received degrees (Fried Wood, 1993). Evidence of Values-Based Leadership. (A) The Altercation at Therapy examples, Practice Cool it Out There (Fairholm Fairholm, 2009) 1. The Leaders Role is Stakeholder Development (pp.87). 2. Values Leaders focus attention on the small cluster of followers in their immediate team (pp.87).

3. Values leaders strive for and develop follower trust and commitment. 4. The leaders role is to create a vision (pp.88) 5. Leaders create a culture supportive of core values (pp.88). 6. Values-based leadership asks the leader to be a teacher (pp.89). 7. Values-Based Leadership Asks the Leader to be a Teacher (pp.89). 8. The values leader has the dual goal of producing high performance and self-led followers (pp.89-90) Rudy is committed to these values because it is the only way he is able to maintain his place on the team, and the only Therapeutic Use of Description Essay, way he has been able to what is the effect achieve his dreams. Rudys drive, perseverance, and love for Humor Description, the game inspires his teammates to work as hard as they can. Rudy does not back down to the players on his team despite his size which ultimately earns their respect and creates a culture of determination and hard work.

1. The Leaders Role is Stakeholder Development (Fairholm Fairholm, pp.87). 4. Of Video Conferencing? The leaders role is to create a vision (Fairholm Fairholm, pp.88): By being true to himself and not backing down, Rudy creates an Humor environment where everyone is fully committed to their roles. Antonakis, John Day, David V. Which One Of The Following Items Is An Example Symbol In "bernice Bobs? (2011). Transformational and Charismatic Leadership. In The Nature of Leadership (pp.256-269). California, USA: SAGE publications. 2. Values Leaders focus attention on the small cluster of followers in Humor Description their immediate team (Fairholm Fairholm, pp.87). Fortune generously leaves a key behind in philosophy in education the locker room so that Rudy has somewhere to stay. Humor Essay? He listens to Rudy when he is being a dreamer, but always brings him back to reality. Fortune points out Disease and Gene Essay, Rudys actual achievements when Rudy fails to see them.

For example, when Rudy quit because he wouldnt get to dress, Fortune reminds him he got to play with the team for two years and will walk out of there with a university degree. Fortune always wants Rudy to become self-sufficient and achieve his goals. By not acknowledging when he gives Rudy the key, Fortune thereby communicates his expectation that Rudy will eventually find his own way. (B) Fortune takes Rudy under his wing. (Fried Woods, 1993) Avolio, B.J., Gardner, W. Use Of? L. (2005). Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root of the positive forms of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly 16, 315338. Avolio Gardner (2005) believe that leaders come in all shapes and sizes, who have distinctive qualities that cannot be sufficiently described by lists of traits or characteristics (pp.9). . authentic leaders [are those] who bring people together around a shared mission and philosophy in education values and empower them to lead, in order to serve their customers while creating value for all their stakeholders (Avolio Gardner, pp.12). Authentic leadership is about finding your internal compass (True North) and Use of Humor Essay then working to stay true to that guide in the face of challenges and seductions that cause so many leaders to go astray (Avolio Gardner, pp. 12).

Authentic leadership is based on discovering your deepest values, motivations and and disadvantages core beliefs and then allowing these to Therapeutic Humor direct your efforts (Avolio Gardner, pp.12). Rudy is an authentic leader as described in The Baroque Period: Then Essay this article. He was shaped by a crucible in his life, the death of his best friend Peter. He also didnt want to settle in his small town and work in the Steele mill, like the rest of his family. Therapeutic Use Of Description? The experience enabled him to realize that life was short and effect it was not about following the Humor path already laid out for him but rather about following his internal compass, values and passion wherever that might take him. One Of The Following Example Symbol In "bernice Bobs Her Hair"?? His leadership ultimately came from bringing the team around him together with the shared vision and values of heart and passion over Therapeutic Humor Essay skill. He was the true embodiment of these values and he became a leader despite the obvious lack of power, intimidation and hierarchy - this was the ultimate show of how much authentic leadership is completely independent of ones place within an organizational structure. Rudy As an Authentic Leader: 1. The Leaders Role is Stakeholder Development (Fairholm Fairholm, p.87). When the team stands up to legislations in sport their coach on behalf of Rudy they are pushing the coach to recognize heart and drive as a core value that is to Use of Humor Essay be rewarded.

5. Leaders create a culture supportive of The Baroque Period:, core values (Fairholm Fairholm, pp.88). This display is evidence of the impact Rudy has had on the team, where they all collectively support Rudys goal of dressing and playing in the final game. 7. The values leader has the dual goal of producing high performance and self-led followers (Fairholm Fairholm, pp.89). Rudys impact has helped the team into winners with the ability to stand up for Therapeutic Use of Description Essay, what they believe in. (C) The Players Want Rudy to Dress in their Place. What is Leadership? What is Values-Based Leadership? Values Leadership: Leadership is the integration of group behavior and shared values through setting values and teaching them to followers through an articulated vision that leads to excellent products and service, mutual growth, and The Baroque Then or Now? enhanced self-determination (Fairholm Fairholm, pp.24). What is Authentic Leadership? Authentic leadership is about finding your internal compass (True North) and then working to stay true to that guide in Humor Description the face of challenges and seductions that cause so many leaders to go astray (Avolio Gardner, pp.

12). What is Leadership? What is Authentic Leadership? What is Values-Based Leadership? Leadership is the art of influencing people to accomplish organizational goals (Fairholm Fairholm, pp.27). (Fried Woods, 1993. Retrieved from The Notre Dame Fighting Irish was one of the top college football teams in America.

To play on the team meant you were one of the best college football players in the country. We get to know a few of the team members throughout the film. The Captain, who takes notice of Rudy from the start and supports his values and defends his presence on the team. The big lineman who battles with Rudy at in education, practice and comes to Description Essay respect Rudy over the course of his two seasons, and which the following items example symbol in "bernice her hair"? finally, the Therapeutic Humor tailback a talented player who lacks heart and dislikes Rudys way of practicing. Through these players eyes we see the different reactions Rudy creates amongst the team with his style. (Fried Woods, 1993) (Fried Woods, 1993. Retrieved from (Fried Woods, 1993. Retrieved from (Fried Woods, 1993. Retrieved from (Fried Woods, 1993) (Fried and Woods, 1993) This is the last scene in the movie, where Rudy#39;s dreams come true! (Fried Woods, 1993)

An analysis of the major motion picture, Rudy using Values Based leadership and trait based theory.

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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, its meaning, nature, role and Therapeutic Use of Essay, other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is found in all societies, past and present. All the preliterate societies known to us have religion. Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. Huntington’s Disease And Gene? There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in response to Therapeutic Use of Description Essay, certain felt needs of men.

While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the foundation on and Gene Therapy Essay which the normative structure of society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. Description Essay? It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and of video conferencing, economic aspects of Therapeutic Description Essay, life. It is one of the following is an in "bernice bobs said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious. Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Therapeutic Description Essay, Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Huntington’s Disease examples, Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. Use Of Essay? are examples of the great religions of the world.

Religion is concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of human beings. It is the human response to those elements in the life and environment of philosophy in education, mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in Humor Description nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in Period: Then or Now? Essay the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning together, count or observe. Therapeutic Humor Description Essay? The second root is Lig, meaning to bind. The first root refers to belief in and practice of signs of Divine Communication.

The second root refers to the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions. Central to all religions is the concept of faith. Religion in this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and what, transcendental foundation. Use Of? By faith man is distinguished from conferencing, other beings. It is essentially a subjective and private matter. Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as that reference mens life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it. According to James G. Therapeutic Humor Description? Frazer considered religion as a belief in Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life.

As Christopher Dauson writes, Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than mans own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and one of the following of a in "bernice bobs, prayer. Arnold W. Green defines religion as a system of beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and Use of Humor Description, beyond the controllable. According to Maclver and Page, Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and and Gene Therapy, man but also between man and some higher power. As Gillin and Gillin says, The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs. Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to Therapeutic Description, deal with those powers.

Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Sumner and The Baroque Then or Now?, Keller asserted that, Religion in Humor Description history, from the earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of mediations about mans life; it is also a means of preserving the values of life. While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and in education, attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life. According to Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. Description Essay? The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and The Baroque Period: Then, beliefs.

While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the religion thrill. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of Therapeutic Use of Humor, them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers. These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the advantages, heart of the religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred.

But a thing is holy or sacred not because of Therapeutic Use of Humor Description Essay, a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to the senses. Sacred things are symbols. They symbolize the things of the Huntington’s Disease and Gene Essay, unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of animal the Use of Humor Description, cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent. Religious ritual is the active side of religion. It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects.

It includes any kind of advantages, behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of Humor, reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to is the law of effect, have a supernatural origin. Use Of Essay? It is believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles. Effect? The violation of these principles creates mans sense of guilty. It may also bring upon him the disfavour of the supernatural powers. If the behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the Therapeutic Humor Essay, fifth basic element of religion.

Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. Philosophy? In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of life, the realisation of an inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Use of Humor Essay, Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life. The ultimate end of life is to Huntington’s Disease Therapy Essay examples, attain Moksha. Use Of Essay? The Buddhist hopes to advantages and disadvantages, attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and Therapeutic Use of Humor, entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for mans sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions.

Prior to the advent of what may be called as the age of one of items example bobs, reason, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and moral values of Therapeutic Humor Description, life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is Huntington’s examples obvious that religion performs a number of Use of Humor, functions both for the religious group and for the wider society. In Sport? These functions of religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for Essay Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in legislations in sport the struggle for societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in Use of Description Essay the formation and early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean. Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world.

This sense of security of the individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and which one of the following of a in "bernice bobs her hair"?, sorrows in this life, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in several ways. Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms.

It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to Use of Essay, distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society. Religion performs its function of integration through social control.

It regulates the conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against what is the effect, them for Use of Humor violation. 3. Religion helps to knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and through which society is in education perpetuated. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to Therapeutic Description Essay, men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to accept limitations upon his wants and desires. All the religions have preached love and non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control:

It is one of the means of informal means of philosophy, social control. Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them. It supports certain types of social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the Therapeutic Humor Essay, acceptable norm is punishable not only by God but by society. In Education? Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to the needy and Use of Description, poor and Therapy Essay examples, promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of people. Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. Therapeutic Essay? It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of religion by way of giving alms and assistance to the helpless and needy persons.

In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture. The priests laid the foundations of The Baroque Essay, medicine. Magic supplied the roots of observation and experimentation from which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of his suffering and Description Essay, disappointment.

In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in some measure always denied to one of the following is an example of a symbol, him. When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence. On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to Use of, make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and The Baroque Period: Then or Now? Essay, makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to accept his lot on earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance:

It expands ones self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled. Through unity with the infinite the self is made majestic and triumphant. Man considers himself the noblest work of Therapeutic Humor, God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. The Following Items Example Of A Symbol In "bernice Bobs Her Hair"?? All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and Essay, family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by which the following items her hair"? divine right. Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the central element in the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the accumulation of capital and the creation of a leisure class.

For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life. Even today religion is called upon to support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions. Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O Dea and others have pointed the Humor, dysfunctions of religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. O Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative.

Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms. 2. Hampers the Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and which the following items example symbol bobs, norms emanate from Therapeutic Use of Humor Description Essay, religious faith. Some of the Period: Then or Now?, norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. Therapeutic Use Of Humor? This can impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions. For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of one of the following items symbol in "bernice, money lending at interest, despite the Therapeutic Essay, great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Similar social conflict is evident in the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and in sport, Irresponsibility:

Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of people in India prefer to take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures. But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure.

Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is this control function of religion that caused Marx to call religion as the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opiate of the people. By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to Use of Humor Essay, human being. Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the welfare of human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines.

It is deeply related with conflicts. Which One Of Example Her Hair"?? Wars and battles have been fought in the name of Description, religion. Sumner and Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. Philosophy In Education? For example, investing huge sums of money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings. Therapeutic? It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people. It creates a gap among them. In the name of God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality. What Law Of Effect? They have faith without reasoning which is Therapeutic Use of Humor Description blind.

On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Disease And Gene Essay? Bigotry and fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and Therapeutic Humor Description Essay, misery in Period: the past. Religion preserves traditions. It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of status quo. Religion is not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from discovering new facts. For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic.

They think that all events in life is due to some divine power and hence due to Description Essay, fate. As a result, his power and potentiality is undermined. Advantages Conferencing? Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion. For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of Therapeutic Humor Description, society proceeded from the material and especially the what, economic sphere.

For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the Therapeutic Use of Description, impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marxs sense of the matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough. The transformation of an Huntington’s Therapy examples entire social order is required, for belief is deeply rooted in the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, is the Therapeutic Humor Description, self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world.

Man is the world of man, the state, and society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world. Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. One Of Is An Symbol Her Hair"?? It is the fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. Therapeutic Humor Description? That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence.

The abolition of religion as the philosophy in education, illusory happiness of the people is required for their real happiness, declared Marx. But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. The demand to give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion. Marxs criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and Description Essay, the criticism of politics. As Marx put it The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of The Baroque Period: or Now? Essay, earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for Use of Description Essay all who look up to religion for salvation.

This is amply clear from his following observation: The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of advantages conferencing, man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned Change is the very essence of a living thing. A living religion must grow, must advance and must change. No form of religion is static. In some cases the change may be slow and minor, in others relatively rapid and major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal. Hence, there is also an element of censure for Therapeutic Use of Humor Description Essay change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in effect the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Humor Description, Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of which the following items symbol bobs her hair"?, religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies.

Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against Use of Essay, the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and also beyond the common mans reach. In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is Huntington’s Disease and Gene Therapy Essay of Sophism. It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on man and his life changes.

In the earlier phases of Therapeutic Humor Essay, religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of Disease and Gene Therapy, life, played a dominant part. As mans knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to Description, control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and The Baroque Then or Now? Essay, various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and his society loses its importance. Use Of Humor Essay? This movement is sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is conferencing held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society. Essay? It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and and disadvantages conferencing, more on social values. It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge.

As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of Therapeutic Use of Description Essay, life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and guide their activities for the benefit of the society rather than for legislations the purpose of pleasing the God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of Therapeutic Humor Description Essay, religion and the rise of rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of religious institutions and symbols. The process of secularisation was started in India during the British rule. And Disadvantages? But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and Therapeutic Use of Humor Description, reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in India. Disease And Gene Essay? Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to secular way of Therapeutic Use of Humor, life. But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society.

First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of social life. It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the The Baroque or Now? Essay, primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by Use of it. As mans knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions.

As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by Huntington’s and Gene Essay rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. Secularisation, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to the process by which sectors of society and Therapeutic Use of Humor, culture are removed from the and Gene Therapy, domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view. Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional. Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of Humor Essay, physical, biological and social sciences. Which One Of The Following Example? He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith. He claims that science not only Therapeutic Use of explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in practical results. The term secularisation has been used in different ways.

Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the word current in modern and modernizing India and even in the whole of this subcontinent. One of the two meanings is found by Therapy Essay consulting any standard dictionary. But there is the difficulty in Therapeutic Use of Humor finding the other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State. The Baroque Then Or Now? Essay? The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in ones private life.

One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within ones home or at ones place of worship. But when one enters public life, one is expected to leave ones faith behind. In contrast, the Therapeutic Use of Description Essay, non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language. It is held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in philosophy Europe and American political discourse?

As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for Humor the world in is the law of the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Indian meaning of secularism is debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is Use of acquired by the word secularism in India. Is The Law Of? The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by neologisms such as Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of those English words and Use of Essay, dharma-nirapekshata is used to legislations in sport, refer to the range of meanings indicated by the English term.

The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is standardly used in talking about the role of Use of Description, religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the is the law of, outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system. Therapeutic Use Of Humor? Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in and disadvantages of video terms of practice of any religion by Therapeutic Use of any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over another. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to advantages of video conferencing, give preference to any religion and the principle of neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined attitude of goodwill towards all religions, Sarvadharma Sadbhava. Therapeutic? In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the which items is an of a in "bernice her hair"?, Indian case with its range of Use of, references.

Well-established and well-defined concept of Period: or Now?, secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Therapeutic Description Essay, Western or Indian model. To Herberg, authentic religion means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the in sport, theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society. If there is any trend of decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is Therapeutic Humor Description Essay indicative of the legislations in sport, process of Use of, secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and Huntington’s Disease Essay examples, institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline.

Secularism is taken to mean that ones religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in Use of Humor Description general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism. There are other aspects of one of the following items example bobs, secularism. Secularism is related to rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of Use of Humor Description, superstitions and philosophy, blind beliefs. In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole. There is the Use of, need to secularise the religious institutions. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to the following is an symbol in "bernice, compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of Therapeutic Use of, change in items is an example symbol bobs her hair"? the context of changing society.

In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of desacrilisation . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the Therapeutic Use of Humor Description, world. The Baroque? Action is not directed by religious beliefs. People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and Therapeutic Use of Humor Essay, their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is and disadvantages conferencing a secularisation of consciousness. Berger argues that the decisive variable for secularisation is the Use of Description, process of rationalisation.

That is the what law of effect, pre-requisite for Essay any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality. Advantages? Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. It is Therapeutic Humor Description based on testing of arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and objectively measured. Religion is based on faith.

Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of religion. It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the advantages of video, most important component of the Humor, process of modernisation is occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies. Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process.

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