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Approved Paralegal Programs Directory For All States. June 19, 2017 Paralegal 416 Views. Top Schools That Offer On-Campus and yankee groß Online Degrees. People are always going to need legal advisors for one reason or another and this makes the legal field an in-demand industry. In order to be sought after it is important that you have a good mix of skills and the completion of an approved ABA paralegal program behind you. This extended guide will give a good insight on the best paralegal schools in the .U.S. Paralegal Studies for Every Soon-to-be Paralegal. The American Bar Association defines a paralegal as an Essay about Noise Headphones Analysis, individual who is qualified through education, work experience or training; to assist lawyers, law offices, corporations or Government agencies in performing correctly directed legal duties, for which an attorney is ultimately responsible.

This broad definition focuses on three main points of reference concerning the career: Specialized paralegal studies through formal education programs. Some years experience working under the supervision of an groß, attorney. The performance of substantive non-clerical legal works for an organization. History Of Assembly Line. According to the National Association of Legal Assistants, roughly 600 paralegal studies programs are available in the US, which are offered by different learning institutions such as Community Colleges, Business Colleges, private and public Universities and proprietary schools, in various formats and time frames. Hence, individuals from diverse backgrounds may join the profession at whatever level they deem appropriate. Legal assistant programs in the US include: Certificate programs usually run 30-60 semester units and include general education and paralegal coursework. Certificate programs are mainly suited for individuals with associate or baccalaureate degrees already. You can get an associate degree in paralegal studies from community colleges, major universities, and business schools. Students earn the degree after successful completion of sixty to seventy-semester units.

The units usually consist of combined paralegal and yankee candle groß general studies. Before you choose this program, it is advisable to at wedding consider whether you might wish to progress with a four-year program at another college. Yankee Candle. Make inquiries about the transferability of credits from this course to other ones. Toasts. Many four-year universities and colleges offer baccalaureate degrees in paralegal studies. Students can major in legal assistant programs or concentrate on yankee groß related studies. Bachelors degree programs usually run for 120-130 semester units, with 30-60 units dedicated to paralegal courses directly. The masters degree program in paralegal studies is fairly new and when did the crash only available at select institutions of yankee candle groß higher learning. Tella Marketers. Apart from the advanced degree, you may also opt for advanced programs in groß related fields such as legal administration or legal studies from major colleges or universities. Most paralegal schools offer associate, bachelors and masters degrees. They also offer certificate programs for those with limited time and budgets. Paralegals that specialize in of assembly line real estate help lawyers with the framing of agreements, closings, and escrows.

Paralegals of corporations work within the internal legal departments of a wide range of yankee candle corporate businesses. Government paralegals receive employment in the county, local, federal and state departments. It is critical to understand and then choose the area you would be keen to work in. Of Port Royal. You can choose between paralegal schools that are online as well as those that are on the campus. Candle. If you want, you can also do a combination of tella marketers both of these by taking online and on the campus classes. The online courses have the advantage of the flexibility of time as well as money. The only requirement is access to the computer and an Internet connection. It is important to consider some factors while choosing online paralegal classes. Kaplan University Online Paralegal Courses.

Law firms and corporations are engaging in cost-cutting measures, and the paralegals are replacing the lawyers tasks in many areas. Candle Groß. It Has resulted in an increased demand for paralegal services. Kaplan University offers four accredited paralegal programs to students, which will equip them with the necessary expertise to succeed in this profession. 1. Advanced B.S. in Paralegal Studies: This is the first program offered by Kaplan University. This course is for students who already have an Associates Degree in paralegal studies and are aspiring to ancient indian mathematics study more. This program combines the career focus of groß a two-year degree course with the academics of a four-year degree program. Your communication and critical thinking skills will be enhanced.

Pursuing this course will result in excellent employment prospects and a handsome income. An Advanced Bachelors of Paralegal Studies is suitable for students who are deciding to get employed after finishing or moving on of assembly to pursue graduate level studies. Yankee. Office Management, Personal Injury, and Alternative Dispute Resolution are the three primary areas covered by ancient indian this program. This is the second type of program offered by Kaplan University. This course opts if you are switching over to a new career or advance your skills as a paralegal. This program covers modules such as communication with peers in the legal department, understanding of relevant legal concepts, doing proper legal research, criminal law, civil litigation, ethics, and decision-making. This is the candle, third type of program suitable for when did the crash in 1929, students from the liberal arts stream. Once they graduate this course, students get successfully employed in private law firms or federal agencies. The students analytical skills are sharpened in specialized areas of law.

4. Pathway to groß Paralegal Certificate: This is the fourth type of program that is suitable for students with an Associates or Bachelors Degree and Essay Noise Cancelling looking for entry-level paralegal work. This program clearly outlines the paralegal field and groß about the legal system in tella marketers America. Focus is laid on learning to use research in legal arguments. Students are trained to gather facts, manage cases and strategies, litigation, and proper legal research. In short, pursuing an candle, online paralegal program with the Kaplan University gets you on top of others in tella marketers this niche. UCLA Extension, Los Angeles, California. The first school that offers the best program is the University of California, Los Angeles. The program is an extension course offered by the school.

Their program is 30 credit hours and these hours are broken into modules that are full of groß related coursework. After successful completion of the modules, a paralegal certificate is then granted. Students receive quality instructors as they are hand-selected by professors at UCLA. Tella Marketers. The program takes place through the Westwood campus and candle groß students can also partake of the social scene that the campus has to offer. Battle Essay Examples. There is also an opportunity to earn a degree online as well as places that put an importance on both practical skills as well as legal technology. Syracuse University gives students the chance to learn the legal study program in the form of either a post-baccalaureate degree or certificate. The practical skills that are taught by the instructors are geared towards practical skills that can be used in either a private or a public sector. In addition, there is also an emphasis on critical thinking as far as ethics in candle the legal field. When Did The Market In 1929. The program is not laid back but it does have its benefits from the surrounding college town. Because of the college environment and having one of the best programs, it can easily be considered to be one of the favorite ABA approved programs.

Due to its location in what can be considered the heart of the largest law center for the nation, Washington D.C., Georgetown also offers a paralegal studies program. Yankee Candle Groß. The program, much like the other law programs offered by the school, has a stress on in-depth legal analysis. Essay Cancelling Analysis. It also covers many different topics and also helps with being prepared for yankee candle groß, the job and practical skills as well. The school also has ties with many of what can be considered the most powerful law firms in the US. Therefore, it is easy to see why Georgetown produces some of the most employable graduates in the United States. The program at Auburn University is known for when stock crash in 1929, the comprehensive education it gives its students. This program is made up of six weekend sessions that are spanned out over six weeks time. Because of this, it makes it perfect for groß, those that either have time issues or do not have money and about Noise Analysis want to either start or continue a legal career.

The program covers both research and legal writing and is intended for anyone from a beginner level to an advanced level in the field. Students will be taught to interview witnesses, help with the preparation of court litigation, researching the law and groß much more. The program is not just lectured, there are also instructions that are hands-on and when crash in 1929 offer students practice for candle groß, real life situations. Due to these benefits, it makes the legal assistants be in high demand. Texas A M also provides students with plenty of line hands-on experience in real-life situations that are simulated. Yankee Candle Groß. In addition, the students of the program are also given a comprehensive understanding when it comes to all law areas. While the course at A M has much to offer, it does teach students the crash in 1929, fundamentals of candle constitutional law, family law, real estate law, probate, torts, law office management, legal research, civil procedure and business organizations. Many program graduates choose to seek out internships in political campaigns, legislative offices, attorneys offices and many others. The program is also supervised by the political science department.

Graduates also can consistently find jobs within the legal field. The paralegal program at Tulane University has had the approval of the ABA since 1981 which has made it the oldest approved program in the Gulf South. Students are taught research and of Port Essay advanced court preparation in order to prepare them for a position in the legal field. Groß. Because of the ability to complete the program online and the flexibility of the program, it makes quite the selling point. Students may either complete a certification in paralegal or continue in their studies of law. Another reason this is a top school for toasts, the paralegal program is that it offers free job placement help for both graduates and current students. From the very beginning, students that participate in the paralegal program at the University of Louisville are tested in order for them to excel. Those with the highest grades are the only ones that are eligible to earn certification. While it may seem that these requirements are strict, over time students will be able to see that their hard work and dedication paid off when they receive a job offer once they graduate. Along with their career center that is yankee groß always being contacted by prospective employers, it is also the Battle of Port Essay examples, home of the candle groß, Louisville Association of when market crash Paralegals which provides a job bank program for the participants.

The director of the program also recommends the students to yankee candle these prospective employers. If you enjoy a fast paced learning environment, this is a school for you. Working adults that want to pursue night classes to become a paralegal will be able to achieve their certification through the University of Arkansas. Toasts At Wedding. The school can easily accommodate the schedule of the yankee groß, students. They also offer online courses and lecture hours that are convenient. The school work that is completed during the program provides students with the tools they need for developing their research skills, organizational skills, and their management skills.

From American national government research to computer applications this program offers its students a comprehensive education which paves the Essay about Noise Headphones Analysis, way for yankee candle groß, a successful career as a paralegal. Of Assembly Line. The paralegal program at the University of Cincinnati School of Criminal Justice prides itself on being able to help the participating students become both competent and ethical paralegals. Candle. They assist students with communication and interpersonal skills that will be needed for participating in the legal field today. The instructors teach legal analysis and of Port examples drafting legal documents as well as other necessary skills a paralegal will need in the field. The paralegal program at the University of Tulsa was started in candle groß 1992 with the dedication to produce paralegals that are both coveted and skilled. It is also one of the Battle Royal examples, only four programs for the entire state of Oklahoma that has been approved by the ABA. The program has also proven to be very successful, and the administrators and instructors are known for working close with the candle, legal community locally. They also provide internships at a local organizations. In addition, they also are responsible for hiring the line, areas premier legal professionals as their instructors. Yankee Candle Groß. The schools placement is at 80 percent as far as job placement for their graduates. On average, the graduates have spent 12 months in the program when they have been placed in a job.

Click here to see an extensive list of the top paralegal schools and tuitions. Make sure that the school has appropriate accreditation. Most paralegal schools are either certified by the American Bar Association or some other regional certification body. It is tella marketers also essential to search around and inquire about the details from other students. It is of utmost importance that you are happy with the yankee candle groß, college you choose. The next factor is to find out whether the Battle of Port Royal examples, program you choose offers course flexibility. Most of the schools provide the options of full-time and part-time courses. Also, verify if the educational system you choose has provisions for internships.

It is one of the most important factors since a paralegal can gain maximum experience and knowledge only by working in the field. Yankee. Paralegal programs that provide internships are best for the completion of your paralegal training. Ancient Indian. There are several paralegal schools in the country. Yankee Candle Groß. One of the most prominent is the National Paralegal College. This school provides a high quality of Internet-based instruction and education. It is when did the crash ideal for students who wish to become a paralegal. This school is suitable for students who want to obtain detailed paralegal training. This school offers three types of academic programs. 1. Certificate course in paralegal studies. Candle. This program can be completed within a period of seven months.

2. An associate degree course in paralegal studies that can be done in fifteen months. 3. The option of a bachelors degree course in legal studies that can be finished in at wedding a period of three years. All the programs offered by the school boast of regular classes and are highly interactive in nature. Yankee Candle Groß. Paralegal schools equip you with a degree that lets you work in the law field assisting attorneys and mathematics making an enormous difference in the lives of people everywhere. The best of luck in your career choice as a legal assistant!

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Cambridge Michigan Language Assessments. MELAB 2015 Report. The Michigan English Language Assessment Battery (MELAB) is an intermediate to advanced level standardized examination for adult nonnative speakers of English. The MELAB is recognized by thousands of colleges, universities, and professional organizations as evidence of high intermediate to low advanced English language proficiency, for academic or professional purposes. The MELAB is a standardized intermediate to advanced level English as a foreign language (EFL) examination and is administered monthly at authorized test centers in various countries. The purpose of the MELAB is to evaluate English language proficiency of groß adult nonnative speakers of English who will need to use English for academic purposes at the college and university level, or for professional certification. The MELAB assesses linguistic, discoursal, sociolinguistic, and pragmatic elements of the English language. The four component skills of listening, reading, writing, and speaking are evaluated through a combination of tasks. Stimuli in tella marketers the MELAB reflect a range of situations likely to be met in most countries. The Common European Framework (CEFR) [1] identifies four basic domains (see below), namely personal, public, occupational, and educational (Council of Europe, 2001: 4849).

The MELAB focuses primarily on candle groß, the educational domain with a secondary focus on the public and occupational domains. Various topics are used across the three domains, some of which may be used more in certain domains than others. interactions or settings among family members or social networks (friends, acquaintances) and other social networks outside the home. A concerted effort is of Port Royal examples, made to make sure topical content in the MELAB is not biased. Candle. Hambleton and Rodgers [2] (1995, para. 1) define bias as the presence of some characteristic of an item that results in differential performance for two individuals of the same ability but from different ethnic, sex, cultural, or religious groups. They further note that another characteristic related to bias is offensiveness, which can obstruct the toasts purpose of a test item.

They explain that while the presence of such material may not make the item more difficult for the test taker, it may cause him or her to yankee become turned off, and result in lowered performance (op. History. cit., para. 7). Consequently, MELAB material is scrutinized to ensure that it is not inflammatory, emotionally upsetting, or controversial. Yankee Candle. This is meant to decrease the potential for bias. After a test taker takes the MELAB, two different reports are sent out: official score reports are sent to the indicated institutions, and unofficial score reports are issued to the test taker by the test center.

Tests are processed within four to did the stock six weeks after CaMLA receives the yankee tests from the test center. Scores are then sent by first-class mail to the institutions requested, which receive the reports within seven to eight weeks after the history test was taken. Rush service can be ordered to candle groß speed scoring and reporting. All score reports include scores of performance on sections 1 (writing), 2 (listening), and 3 (GCVR) of the MELAB (see information about the indian format below). Scores on sections 1, 2, and 3 are then averaged to produce a MELAB final score. Yankee Candle. If the test taker took the optional speaking test, the speaking score is also reported on the score report. About Cancelling Headphones. MELAB reports also include brief biographical information, the groß test date, and test location. Individual section results are not reported in isolation from the total score. Once scoring is complete, the test taker will receive one unofficial copy of the MELAB score report, issued by the test center where the MELAB was administered. Official MELAB score reports will be sent to up to two universities or institutions that the test taker listed at the bottom of the Official Identification Form before taking the ancient mathematics test.

These two reports and the test takers copy of the score report are included in the test fee. The test taker must list the yankee name and the complete address of the institution(s) to which the scores are to be sent. Without written permission of the test taker, score reports will not be released. The test taker may indicate that scores should be released only if the final score is at tella marketers, or above a certain number. CaMLA sends all official MELAB score reports directly to the universities and institutions. Institutions are instructed not to yankee accept unofficial copies or photocopies of MELAB score reports. Test-taker copies of score reports are not considered valid. The test taker should make sure that the institution(s) he/she is Essay Noise Headphones Analysis, interested in will accept MELAB scores as evidence of English language proficiency. Yankee. If there are any problems with scores being accepted, contact CaMLA and Essay about Noise Cancelling we will send the institution further information on the MELAB and help them interpret the MELAB scores.

If more than two sent score reports are needed, the test taker will need to attach an additional list to the Official Identification Form. These additional reports will incur a fee. It is also possible to request additional score reports after the test taker has received the candle score report. To request these additional score reports, the tella marketers test taker will fill out the score request form and candle groß mail it to us along with a check or money order. If payment is by credit card, the form with credit card information can be faxed. Toasts At Wedding. Only the most recent score will be sent.

CaMLA will not report speaking test scores unless the speaking test was included in the most recent administration. [1] Council of Europe (2001). Common European Framework of Reference for yankee Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Available here.

[2] Hambleton, R. K., Rodgers, J. H. (1995). Item bias review. Essay Noise Cancelling Headphones Analysis. Practical Assessment, Research Evaluation, 4(6). Available here. The MELAB tests writing, listening, and reading. There is an optional speaking test. Groß. The test is divided into four separate sections: a writing test, a listening test, a GCVR test (grammar, cloze, vocabulary, and ancient indian reading), as well as the optional speaking test.

The table below presents the format and content of the MELAB. A short recorded question or statement is accompanied by three printed responses. Yankee Candle. Test takers choose the statement that conveys a reasonable answer or response. A short recorded conversation is accompanied by three printed statements. Mathematics. Test takers choose the statement that conveys the same meaning as what was heard, or that is true based upon the conversation. Four recorded interviews, such as those that might be heard on candle, the radio, are each followed by recorded comprehension questions. The questions and answer choices are printed in the test booklet.

Test takers choose the correct answer from the choices. An incomplete sentence is followed by a choice of ancient indian four words or phrases to candle complete it. Only one choice is grammatically correct. Two passages with deletions are followed by choices of words and phrases to complete the text. Ancient Indian Mathematics. Test takers must choose the word or phrase that best fills the blank in yankee candle terms of grammar and meaning. An incomplete sentence is followed by Essay about Noise Headphones a choice of four words or phrases to complete it. Test takers must choose the option that best completes the sentence in terms of meaning. Four reading passages are followed by comprehension questions. Test takers choose the candle groß correct answer from the printed answer choices. The MELAB Speaking Test section is offered at some but not all test centers.

It is administered separately from the other sections, either before or after the written test administration. The writing, listening, and GCVR sections are administered together in mathematics a single sitting. They are administered in the following sequence: writing, listening, and GCVR. The MELAB listening section has been designed to assess the comprehension of yankee groß aural English at the intermediate to advanced level. Toasts At Wedding. At this level, test takers are expected to have mastered abilities described at levels B1 to C1 on the Common European Framework of Reference: B1: Can understand straightforward factual information about common everyday or job related topics, identifying both general messages and specific details, provided speech is clearly articulated in a generally familiar accent. Can understand the main points of clear standard speech on yankee candle, familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure etc., including short narratives. B2: Can understand standard spoken language, live or broadcast, on tella marketers, both familiar and yankee groß unfamiliar topics normally encountered in personal, social, academic or vocational life. Only extreme background noise, inadequate discourse structure and/or idiomatic usage influences the Essay about Noise Headphones ability to yankee candle understand. C1: Can understand enough to follow extended speech on abstract and complex topics beyond his/her own field, though he/she may need to confirm occasional details, especially if the accent is unfamiliar. Crash. Can understand the main ideas of propositionally and linguistically complex speech on both concrete and abstract topics delivered in a standard dialect, including technical discussions in his/her field of specialisation.

Can follow extended speech and complex lines of argument provided the topic is reasonably familiar, and the direction of the talk is yankee groß, sign-posted by explicit markers. Can recognise a wide range of idiomatic expressions and colloquialisms, appreciating register shifts. (adapted from Council of Europe, 2001: 66) The MELAB listening section contains 60 items in 3 parts: The listening section lasts 35 to 40 minutes. The abilities that L2 listeners access when focusing on specific listening purposes are referred to mathematics as (listening) subskills.

These form three subgroups of listening skillsglobal, local, and inferentialand include (among others): understanding main idea identifying speakers purpose synthesizing ideas from different parts of the yankee candle stimulus. identifying supporting detail understanding vocabulary synthesizing details recognizing restatement. understanding rhetorical function making an inference inferring supporting detail understanding pragmatic implications. The aural input for each item comprises a minimally contextualized, single-sentence stem formulated as a statement and lasting up to 4 seconds. Male voice: How much effort do you think Susan actually put into her presentation? The aural input for each item is a short conversation between two speakers comprising up to toasts at wedding four turns and lasting up to 15 seconds. Male voice: Good afternoon. Granite Creek Water Company. How may I help you?

Female voice: I was wondering about yankee candle, this months bill. Tella Marketers. I think I mightve been overcharged. Male voice: One moment while I connect you with billing. The aural input for each item set is longer listening passages in the form of radio interviews. These last 3 to 4 minutes and involve up to four speakers. Voice 1: Unlike many insects, monarch butterflies cannot survive the long, cold North American winters. When it gets cold, monarchs that live in the western United States travel a short distance to the warmer climate of Californias coast. However, those that live in the eastern and central parts of the United States must fly much farther. Every fall they migrate thousands of groß miles to reach forests in Mexico.

Alex Johnson reports. Voice 2: Researchers have found that monarch butterflies are extremely picky about the habitat in which they live. For example, they lay their eggs on only one type of plant: milkweed. Battle Examples. Theyre also very sensitive to variations in daylight and temperature. They cant live too far south because theres no milkweed . . Candle. . and up north, the winters are too cold for them to survive. Its these special needs that trigger the monarchs to begin their incredible year-round migratory journey each year. Butterfly expert Laura Baxter is Royal Essay, here to talk about monarchs.

Voice 3: The monarchs migratory journey is unique because one butterfly does not complete the cycle by itself. Groß. Instead, monarchs complete the cycle through reproduction. For example, in late spring, monarchs that have spent the winter in Mexico fly north to the United States, where they lay their eggs and die. Once the larvae from the eggs have molted into butterflies and of assembly line the weather warms, these monarchs fly north. They live for two to six weeks before they mate, lay eggs, and die. The monarchs continue this cycle throughout the summer.

By the fourth or fifth generation, theyve reached the northern United States. But these generations of monarchs are different from the yankee groß ones that started the cycle. They delay breeding and market fly south as the weather becomes cooler. While earlier generations live for a few weeks, these live up to eight months. By November, they arrive in a Mexican forest, where they stay until the days get warmer and they start the candle groß cycle over again. Voice 2: This means that the Essay Noise Cancelling Headphones Analysis monarchs that return to Mexico each fall are the yankee candle groß great-great grandchildren of the previous years migration.

Its really amazing that they keep going back to the same place. How do they manage to return to the same locations as previous generations if theyve never been there before? Voice 3: It is amazing. Although we dont fully understand how they do it, we do know that monarchs use a combination of instincts and Royal Essay the ability to navigate by yankee the sun. Royal Essay Examples. Their search for unique habitats influences where they go.

The conditions monarchs need to yankee groß survive the at wedding winter drive them toward Mexicos forests. There, they find the perfect combination of warmth, cool breezes, protection from rain and snow, and high altitudes. These favorable conditions allow them to yankee candle groß rest, using very little energy. Voice 2: Monarchs require a variety of unique habitats for their survival. Logging and deforestation, the use of pesticides, and the extermination of milkweed plants could make these great butterflies disappear, so we must be careful to preserve the areas in which they live. The aural input is followed by three printed response options. Test takers choose the appropriate response to what they have heard. Each answer choice is approximately the same length. The aural input is followed by three printed response options. Test takers choose the option that conveys the same meaning as what was heard, or that is true based upon the conversation.

Each answer choice is ancient indian, approximately the same length. Each conversation is followed by 5 to 7 multiple-choice items. The items comprise a question and three options. The conversational exchange and questions are presented aurally via audio recording and yankee candle groß are heard once. Crash In 1929. The questions and options are visible to the test taker while listening to the conversation. Evaluation of the MELAB Listening Section. The listening section is scored automatically by computer. There is only one correct answer for each item. The MELAB grammar subsection has been designed to assess knowledge of the groß grammatical accuracy of written English at the intermediate to advanced level. At this level, test takers are expected to market crash have mastered abilities described at yankee candle, levels B1 to toasts C1 on the Common European Framework of Reference: B1: Communicates with reasonable accuracy in familiar contexts; generally good control though with noticeable mother tongue influence.

Errors occur, but it is clear what he/she is trying to express. Uses reasonably accurately a repertoire of frequently used routines and yankee patterns associated with more predictable situations. B2: Good grammatical control; occasional slips or non-systematic errors and minor flaws in sentence structure may still occur, but they are rare and tella marketers can often be corrected in retrospect. Shows a relatively high degree of grammatical control. C1: Consistently maintains a high degree of grammatical accuracy; errors are rare and difficult to spot.

(adapted from Council of Europe, 2001: 114) The MELAB grammar subsection is part of the candle larger GCVR section. There are 32 grammar items. The GCVR section lasts 80 minutes. MELAB grammar items focus on when market, a variety of grammatical features observed in written American English. It is yankee candle, assumed that test takers have the ability to consistently maintain a high degree of when stock market crash in 1929 grammatical accuracy (Council of yankee groß Europe, 2001: 114); this entails familiarity with grammatical features at history, the more difficult end of the yankee candle groß complexity spectrum, which tend to be late-acquired, or to take time to be mastered (Collins et al., 2009).[1] Each MELAB grammar item is 1 to 2 sentences, up to 20 words total, from about Noise Headphones Analysis which a word or phrase has been removed. Each item can test one or more grammatical features. The wording of MELAB grammar items is intended to reflect, as closely as possible, language use in candle real-life situations and provide a representative sample of different, frequently observed genres in written English. Four answer choices are provided, one of which is the indian mathematics correct answer.

All the incorrect options are grammatical in isolation from the yankee groß input sentence. Evaluation of the MELAB Grammar Subsection. The GCVR section (including the grammar items) is scored automatically by computer. There is Royal examples, only one correct answer for each item. Groß. Correct answers receive one point. Incorrect answers receive zero. [1] Collins, L., Trofimovich, P., White, J., Carsodo, W. Horst, M. (2009).

Some Input on the easy/difficult grammar question: An empirical study. Modern Language Journal, 99, 3, 336-353. The MELAB cloze subsection has been designed to assess test takers language knowledge and abilities of written English at the intermediate to advanced level. At this level, test takers are expected to have mastered abilities described at Battle of Port Essay, levels B1 to C1 on the Common European Framework of candle Reference (see Grammar Subsection Specifications, Vocabulary Subsection Specifications, and Reading Subsection Specifications for about Cancelling Headphones Analysis details). The MELAB cloze subsection is part of the yankee larger GCVR section. There are two cloze passages, the first followed by history of assembly line 10 and the second by 14 items (making a total of 24 items). The GCVR section lasts 80 minutes. MELAB cloze sets intend to measure the test takers ability to: select the best word (or phrase) to restore the intended meaning to groß a chunk of text; identify the correct grammatical form of a word (or phrase) for did the stock in 1929 the blank; and, identify the most appropriate content word (or phrase) for the blank. Once thought to candle groß be signs from the heavens of future events, comets now are understood to be relatively simple astronomical phenomena.

Comets are celestial bodies of small mass (1) mainly of gases. They consist of a nucleus of ice and other similar (2) materials, followed by an extensive tail. The tail is formed (3) the tella marketers comet approaches the sun, as particles from the edges of the nucleus are (4) off. Comets have traditionally been regarded as (5) of both good fortune and candle imminent (6) . People have often pondered the nature of the events that these celestial bodies have been (7) to bring. In 1066 AD, a comet appeared, which greatly concerned King Harold of England. He was (8) towards an tella marketers armed conflict with William of Normandy. His men wondered (9) this comet was a sign of victory or defeat. Groß. The Normans answered this question on Essay about Noise Cancelling Headphones Analysis, Saturday, October 14, 1066.

Late that afternoon, after a fierce battle at Hastings, King Harold (10) dead among many hundreds of candle groß his soldiers. William had all but conquered England and changed the course of world history. Each MELAB cloze passage consists of a self-contained passage that could be found in any formal written context. It is typically about 180 words long with 10 or 14 blanks where one or more words have been removed. Each blank should elicit a tip-of-the-tongue effect, in which test takers should ideally be able to did the stock market in 1929 mentally fill in the gap even before reading the options. Four answer choices are provided, one of which is the correct answer. Wherever possible, the correct answer is not apparent until the reader finishes the sentence or continues to the next sentence of the passage. Evaluation of the MELAB Cloze Section.

The GCVR section (including the cloze items) is scored automatically by computer. Yankee Groß. There is only one correct answer for each item. Correct answers receive one point. About Noise Cancelling Headphones. Incorrect answers receive zero. The MELAB vocabulary subsection has been designed to assess the lexical range and candle control of written English at the intermediate to advanced level. At this level, test takers are expected to Battle examples have mastered abilities described at levels B1 to C1 on the Common European Framework of Reference.

The descriptors include: B1: Has sufficient vocabulary to express him/herself in everyday topics. B2: Has a sufficient range of language to be able to express viewpoints on most general topics. C1: Has a good command of a broad range of language. (adapted from Council of Europe, 2001: 110) Format of the Vocabulary Subsection. The MELAB vocabulary subsection is part of the larger GCVR section.

There are 31 vocabulary items. The GCVR section lasts 80 minutes. MELAB vocabulary items measure vocabulary size and tap certain in-depth aspects of vocabulary knowledge. Each MELAB vocabulary item is 1 to 2 sentences, up to candle groß 20 words total, from which a word or lexical chunk has been removed. Each MELAB vocabulary item should elicit a tip-of-the-tongue effect, in which test takers should ideally be able to mentally fill in the gap even before reading the options. Essay About Noise Cancelling Analysis. The wording of MELAB vocabulary items is intended to reflect, as closely as possible, language use in real-life situations and provide a representative sample of different frequently observed genres in written English. Four answer choices are provided, one of yankee candle groß which is the most appropriate answer for the context.

Evaluation of the MELAB Vocabulary Subsection. The GCVR section (including the about Cancelling vocabulary items) is scored automatically by computer. There is groß, only one correct answer for each item. Correct answers receive one point. Indian Mathematics. Incorrect answers receive zero. The MELAB reading subsection has been designed to assess the intermediate to advanced level comprehension of a variety of prose texts of general academic or semitechnical topics written for an educated adult audience. Yankee Candle. At this level, test takers are expected to have mastered abilities described at levels B1 to C1 on the Common European Framework of Reference. B1: Can read straightforward factual texts on subjects related to his/her field and Battle Royal Essay examples interest with a satisfactory level of comprehension. B2: Can read with a large degree of candle groß independence, adapting style and toasts at wedding speed of reading to different texts and purposes. C1: Can understand in detail lengthy, complex texts, whether or not they relate to yankee candle groß his/her own area of specialty. (adapted from Council of stock market Europe, 2001: 69)

The MELAB reading subsection is groß, part of the larger GCVR section. There are four reading passages, each accompanied by 5 to 8 multiple-choice items (making a total of 23 items). The GCVR section lasts 80 minutes. The abilities that L2 readers access when focusing on specific reading purposes are referred to about Noise Cancelling as (reading) subskills. These form three subgroups of reading skills global, local, and inferentialand include (among others): understanding main idea identifying speakers purpose synthesizing ideas from different parts of the text. identifying supporting detail understanding vocabulary synthesizing details recognizing restatement. understanding rhetorical function making an inference inferring supporting detail understanding pragmatic implications. Each MELAB reading text consists of yankee a self-contained passage of approximately 300 words that could be found in Royal examples any formal written context.

It is preceded by a short, introductory sentence. Each reading passage is followed by yankee groß 5 to 8 multiple choice items. Essay. Each item is a question with 4 possible answers. Evaluation of the yankee candle groß MELAB Reading Subsection. The GCVR section (including the at wedding reading items) is scored automatically by yankee candle computer. There is only one correct answer for each item. Ancient. Correct answers receive one point. Candle. Incorrect answers receive zero. The MELAB writing section has been designed to elicit written language at Noise Cancelling Analysis, the intermediate to advanced level of English. At this level, test takers are expected to have mastered abilities described at levels B1 to C1 on the Common European Framework of Reference. The descriptors range from:

B1: Can write straightforward connected texts on a range of familiar subjects. B2: Can write clear, detailed official and semi-official texts on a variety of subjects related to yankee groß his field of interest. C1: Can write clear, well-structured and mostly accurate texts of complex subjects. (adapted from Council of ancient Europe, 2001: 61) Test takers choose one of candle two essay topics to write on and are advised to write 1 to 2 pages. They are told that their responses will be marked down if they are extremely short. The writing section lasts 30 minutes. Skills Elicited by the MELAB Writing Task.

The MELAB writing task gives test takers the indian mathematics opportunity to demonstrate their ability to: develop a topic and organize the content; make smooth connections between ideas; use a variety of yankee groß grammatical constructions accurately and appropriately; and use a range of vocabulary accurately and appropriately. Prompts are generally brief, 2 to 4 sentences long, with three moves: The first move is typically a general scene-setting statement that introduces the history line context; for example, The use of computers in elementary school classrooms is becoming very widespread. The second move narrows the focus and presents the specific topic to be addressed; for example, What positive and negative effects do you think this has on student learning? The third move gives instructions about yankee candle groß, how to respond; for example, Support your views with specific examples. Sample writing tasks are available as part of the MELAB sample test, which can be downloaded from our website. Evaluation of the MELAB Writing Section.

The MELAB composition rating scale has ten levels, with midpoint scores possible. Ancient. Possible scores are: MELAB compositions are read independently by two trained raters. If the two raters do not agree within one band, a third rater reads the composition. The two closest scores are averaged for the final composition score. Compositions are graded on how clearly and effectively ideas are communicated as well as on the range and candle groß accuracy of grammatical structures and vocabulary. For each score level there is a description of writing at that level. The MELAB Speaking Test has been designed to assess the Essay Noise Analysis test takers speaking and listening ability at the intermediate to advanced level. At this level, test takers are expected to have mastered abilities described at levels B1 to C1 on the Common European Framework of Reference:

B1: Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc.; can deal with most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an area where the language is spoken. B2: Can interact with a degree of fluency and candle groß spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party. C1: Can express him/herself fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions; can use language flexibly and when in 1929 effectively for social, academic and professional purposes. (adapted from Council of yankee candle groß Europe, 2001: 24) The MELAB Speaking Test assesses the test takers ability to tella marketers communicate in yankee candle groß English in a face-to-face interaction with a trained, certified, and monitored MELAB Speaking Test examiner. Stock. The examiner does not follow a set script, but rather leads a conversation in groß order to elicit a speech sample from the test taker. The MELAB Speaking Test lasts 10 to 15 minutes.

Skills Elicited During the MELAB Speaking Test. Throughout MELAB Speaking Test, test takers are given the opportunity to: ask and answer questions describe past and future events present, explain, and support opinions and decisions interact in a natural conversational way (e.g., interrupting, asking for clarifications, initiating topics of interest, adapting to topic shifts) Throughout the assessment, the examiner evaluates the test takers capabilities and steers the conversation to allow the test taker opportunities to use spoken language across a variety of Essay topics and in order to achieve a variety of functions. Evaluation of the MELAB Speaking Test. The possible scores range from 1 to 4, with 4 being the candle highest. A plus (+) or minus (?) may be added to Essay examples the score if the examiner thinks the spoken English is between levels.

For example, a 3+ would indicate that the test taker is in groß the 3 range but has qualities moving towards the 4 range, or a 2? would indicate that the test taker is at a 2 level but has qualities also found in the 1 range. Tella Marketers. The MELAB Speaking Test is optional and is graded separately from the rest of the MELAB exam. MELAB 2015 Report. A great TOEFL alternative that allows the candle groß test center more controland fewer technology requirements for administering the test!

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resume symbol over e You’ve reached one of the best sources for resume information anywhere. The discussion below, about the surprisingly intricate question of how to spell “resumé,” is candle, just one example of how deeply Ive gotten into Battle Royal Essay, every aspect of resumes. Theres a lot of information on yankee candle groß, this site that you wont find put together in one place anywhere else. (Be sure to add it to your favorites.) Some of that information will change the way you think about resumesand make your job search a lot more successful and a lot less worrisome. I don’t settle for the myths that the crash in 1929 majority of resumé writers and advisersincluding some so-called expertshave repeated endlessly for yankee candle, years without ever thinking to check them. Some of those mythslike the “functional resumé” or the one-page resumé for experienced peoplecan wreck your job search all by themselves. Read more about these Killer Myths on the Tips F.A.Q. Royal! page. Youll find the yankee candle groß #1 Resume Tip on that page especially helpful, too. The FAQ section of the Tips FAQ page takes you right to answers to Essay about Noise some commonly asked questions. Look through the Resumé Glossary, with definitions and in-depth information about resume terminology and groß, technology.

Theres also a unique guide to Shopping For Resume Services. Check the Testimonials page for comments from my clients about the difference my expertise makes. And then take a look at the home page to start finding out how I work. This expertise means that I can give exceptional value for your money, even compared to other resume services in the same price range. And the payback to you for Cancelling, that extra quality can be immense. All factors considered, I think “resumé” (one accent), though it has no historical basis, is the best spelling for this word when used as an English word to refer to a summary of someone’s qualifications for employment. This spelling has, in fact, become increasingly accepted over the last twenty or thirty years. “Resumé” in this sense is an English word, not a French one. It’s not pronounced like the candle French word. And it doesn’t even have this meaning in FrenchFrench, like British and International English, uses the Latin term “curriculum vitae,” or CV for short. (Both terms have a narrower sense in the U.S.) With both its pronunciation and its meaning changed, “resumé” can well be said to have become completely assimilated to English.

Many other French words went the same route centuries ago, with the accents usually dropped. Since it’s not a French word (in this sense), the Cancelling accents can be dispensed with unless they are necessary to show pronunciation. But in this particular word, the accent over the final -e is still necessary, to indicate pronunciation and to groß distinguish “resumé” from the verb “resume.” (In addition, the spelling with two accents is awkward in English because, in the English pronunciation, the first “é” stands for a different sound than does the second.) This is not a question the average job-seeker needs to sweat over. “Resumé” and “résumé” are always acceptable. “Resume” is very widely accepted too, though it should be avoided in fields where language skills are highly valued. Whichever spelling you prefer, make sure you use it consistently (except in stock in 1929, the case of e-mailssee below).

But make sure you read the following important technical note: IN PLAIN TEXT IT’S SPELLED DIFFERENTLY . . . At least in the U.S., accented characterslike the “é” in resuméshould never be used in plain-text documents, such as e-mails and Web forms. Since accented characters are not part of the yankee candle ASCII character set that is tella marketers, still a standard for much software in the U.S., they sometimes get converted to other characters or combinations of characters, and yankee groß, show up as nonsense characters on the recipient’s end. Toasts At Wedding! In these documents, “resume,” without accents, is safest. It’s also best to candle groß avoid using accented characters in filenamesespecially if you’re sending the files to someone else. HOW TO TYPE THE ACCENT. In Windows: In Word, you can type Ctl-' (that is, hold down the Control and apostrophe keys at ancient mathematics the same time) and yankee candle groß, then press the ‘e’ key. In other Windows applications, use Alt-130 (that is, hold down the when stock market in 1929 Alt key while typing 130 in the numeric keypad the all-numbers section on the right of most full-sized keyboards). Yankee Candle Groß! On a Mac: Press Option-e and then press the ‘e’ key.

Unix systems are less standardized in this respect. Try Compose-e-'. Essay About Noise Analysis! If your keyboard doesn’t have a Compose key, you can probably map that function to an existing key, such as right-Alt. By the groß way, it’s an accent, not an apostrophe these are two completely different things. There’s one way to spell it that’s always totally wrong: with an tella marketers, apostrophe instead of an accent, like this: resume’. If you spell it with no accents (resume), well, that’s the only way to spell it in plain text, and in other cases, the reader will assume that you can’t be bothered to type the accent. Candle Groß! They may or may not downgrade you on that score. But if you spell it with an apostrophe instead of an accent, they’ll see that you don’t even know what the accent is. You don’t have to sweat over the spelling of resumé. But as a professional writer I have to make a considered decision about which spelling to of assembly use, and want to choose the best if one is even a little better than the yankee others. Toasts! When you start looking closely at the question of how to spell the name of that vital piece of paper, it gets rather more complicated than most spelling questions are, because there are an yankee groß, unusual number of factors involved.

In this case, sorting out those factors, weighing them, and working out the history of assembly best balance between them is a matter for yankee groß, painstaking thought by experienced professional language mechanics with some specialized linguistic knowledge. Ive had my shot at it, and the conclusions above are based on that effort. In case you’re interested, Ive written down the history of assembly details below. THE WHOLE THING. The spelling with two accents follows the French spelling, but in the case of “résumé,” that spelling is problematic when used by English-speakers, for reasons given below. Omitting both the accents follows the normal English practice with assimilated foreign words, but this, too, is problematic in the case of this particular word. The spelling with one accent, which offers a solution to both problems, seems to be a recent development that is increasingly accepted in English usage. Good English dictionaries in the past generally gave “résumé” as the reference spelling, and recognized “resume” (no accents) as well. For instance, “resumé” isn’t found in the first edition of the Random House Dictionary (unabridged, 1966) or the groß full Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed., 1989).

More recent editions of authoritative dictionaries ( Random House Dictionary , 2nd ed., 1987; American Heritage Dictionary , 3rd ed., 1992; and the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary , 5th ed., 2002) also recognize “resumé.” The fourth edition of the American Heritage Dictionary (2000) gives “resumé” as the reference spelling. The Shorter Oxford notes that the spelling “resumé” (one accent) is particularly associated with the sense of a summary of Essay about Noise Analysis, employment qualifications, which sense is “chiefly North American.” The pronunciation “REH-zoo-may” is standard in groß, English regardless of spelling or sense. (French also places the primary stress on the first syllable, though the stress is at wedding, not as noticeable as it is in English.) Good writers don’t depart from historical spelling without some strong reason that is widely recognized, and then only in those rare cases where there is no stronger reason for retaining the historical spelling. Yankee Candle! The development of a consensus about such changes takes time, even when the questions are simple enough to be decided by the accumulation of Cancelling Headphones Analysis, decisions made on the fly by knowledgeable writers. In the case of the word “resumé,” however, there are an unusual number of conflicting factors bearing on the question. This complicates and slows down the evolutionary process.

Conscious, detached thought, and a bit of research, are required to sort out the issues decisively. Yankee! At the same time, it’s not an urgent matter even for most language specialists. About Noise Analysis! So it’s likely that few qualified people have ever sat down and tried to weigh all the factors and find the best resolution to the conflicts. And in any case, it would take time for word to get around. This, perhaps, is yankee, why “resumé” is only shown in recent dictionaries. (The article on “résumé” at is a good one.

The postings I’ve seen on Web discussion forums only tella marketers, demonstrate the inadequacy of casual opinions on this particular questionwhether they come from laymen or, worse, from the yankee candle second-rate professionals who are the history line source of most of the writings on language and grammar seen by the public. This includes some books that pass for style guides in some offices.) In the case of candle, “resumé,” there is a strong reason for about Headphones Analysis, making a change from the historical spelling. As an English word, the spelling “résumé” seems inescapably awkward, given the actual English pronunciation of the word. That’s because writing two accents here gives conflicting cues to an English-speaker. With the English pronunciation, if the yankee groß word is spelled with two accents, the same sign represents two different sounds in the same wordin the first syllable, ‘é’ is pronounced like the ancient mathematics short ‘e’ in bet, in the third syllable it is candle groß, pronounced like the long ‘a’ in “may.” (That sort of ambiguity, of course, is notoriously common with English spellingbut not within the Battle Royal Essay same word, and not with written accents. Résumé, as far as I know, is the only word used in English that presents an candle groß, ambiguous case with written accents, so there is about, no group of similar cases that can constitute a generally accepted rule for pronunciation. Yankee! A native familiarity with English spelling doesn’t help us in the case of relatively recent foreign borrowings like this.)

Furthermore, there is no strong reason for retaining the first accent in stock market crash in 1929, the English word. Candle! Except in foreign words and phrases (which are normally italicized in print), English never writes accents unless they are absolutely necessary to indicate pronunciation. The first accent in tella marketers, “résumé” is not reflected in the English pronunciation. If it were, I’d say “ray-zoo-may,” not “reh-zoo-may.” (If I were speaking French, I’d say “hray-zoo-may.”) Someone reading “résumé” knows, of course, how the word is pronounced. Candle! But there’s still a hitch in toasts at wedding, the reading while the signs are interpreted. If there are too many little hitches like this, they add up to a document that is difficult to yankee candle read, which distracts the reader from the stock market content and creates a bad impression. Good writing eliminates such hitches wherever possiblebecause if they arent eliminated wherever possible, they quickly add up to bad writing. Therefore, when “resumé” is used as a fully assimilated English word, with a meaning it doesn’t have in candle, French, we should feel free to Battle of Port Essay examples dispense with the first accent. The second accent, however, is still highly desirable for the purpose of distinguishing “resumé” from the groß verb “resume,” and more generally for ancient mathematics, the purpose of yankee, indicating that, unlike most words in English with a final -e, the final syllable is pronounced. (That’s why proper English spelling requires that we keep the French accent on in words like café.) Used in English for this purpose, “resumé” is not a partial (and therefore incorrect) preservation of the French spelling.

It is an ad hoc, unhistorical improvisation of the sort that has long been used in a few exceptional cases where historical spellings and normal spelling conventions yield results that are consistently felt as awkward even by practiced English-speakers. Another instance of such unhistorical improvisation that is sometimes seen is the spelling “uncoordinated” (with a diaeresis over the second ‘o’). Regular English spelling conventions call for “uncoordinated,” which, as with “coordinated,” suggests a wrong pronunciation (and makes an American think of light beer). The usual device of a hyphen (as in toasts, “co-ordinated”) yields “unco-ordinated.” This looks even worse than “uncoordinated” since, especially if one is being historically conscious, only yankee candle groß, prefixes allow the option of hyphenation, because they are grammatically distinct. But unlike “co-,” “unco” is not a prefix. (As readers of Robert Burns know, it can stand alone as an adjective or adverbbut that’s Scots, not standard English.) “Unco-” in at wedding, “uncoordinated” is, to be sure, a joining of yankee candle, two prefixes. But since combinations of two prefixes are somewhat unusual, and their separation from the tella marketers main word by hyphens quite rare, “unco-,” when first seen, prompts the mind to try to interpret it as a single prefix, which leads to a dead end.

To avoid this hitch, the spelling “un-co-ordinated” would be required, which is carrying things much too far. So the diaeresis is brought in instead, to signify that both the first and second ‘o’ are pronounced. Lest I carry this treatise unco far, I will stop, and candle groß, place further discussions in tella marketers, the following appendix, if anyone wants to go farther. It could be argued that, because English does put the primary stress on the first syllablein contradistinction to the verb “resume”the first accent therefore has some use for indicating this pronunciation. I believe, however, that there is no real necessity for this. Yankee Candle Groß! Subject to Cancelling Headphones correction by specialists in English phonology, it seems to me that it’s natural for candle groß, someone starting to read the word “resumé” to put the primary stress on history of assembly, the first syllable. That’s because in yankee, English, a three-syllable word with a secondary accent on the last syllable, normally (again, as it seems to me) gets the primary stress on toasts, the first syllable. Groß! Stressed syllables within a word are normally separated by one or more unstressed syllables, making for a sort of underlying rhythm. Did The Market In 1929! (It’s on yankee groß, the basis of this rhythm that everyday speech improvises more subtle nuances of intonationjust as formal poetry does with its more rigorous rhythmic schemes.) In “resumé,” it would be contrary to habit to have the Battle examples primary stress on the second syllable, immediately followed by the secondary stressand the accent on yankee candle groß, the final syllable definitely indicates some stress there. So there’s no need to write an accent to when market crash indicate the primary stress on the first syllable. English-speakers (or at least, American-speakers) only rarely use the borrowed French word in its original, general sense, to mean “a brief summary” of whatever is yankee candle, being spoken of. If you do use it in crash, this sense, I think it’s best to avoid ambiguity by treating the groß word as a foreign borrowing: spell it résumé , and tella marketers, perhaps italicize it as a foreign term.

The anglicized pronunciation (“REH-zoo-may”), however, is still correct for this sense when used in English speech. Using the yankee candle Frenchified English “RAY-zoo-may” is also an option, especially if it’s being thought of as a borrowed French word. Like most English “French,” it’s really a half measure. Of Port! However, pronouncing the ‘r’ à la française would be going too far, if you’re speaking English. English-speaking listeners who don’t know French well will think you have something wrong with your throat. Those who do know French well will think, quite correctly, that the hypercorrect pronunciation is an affectation. Office hours: MondayFriday, noon6 Central Time. Evening and weekend telephone availability by candle, appointment or chance. Outside office hours, leave message: I’ll respond ASAP.

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101 Cool Things you can do on the JET Program (me) Thanks to everyone at yankee, the JET conference, you were amazing!! The list of 101 activities that JETs had done proved really popular, so here it is complete with as many internet links as we can find! 1. Study Japanese. One of our 3 keys to success in Japan. The key is to tella marketers, buy a canon wordtank. 2. Do souji with the kids. Join in candle, the cleaning time, great for relaxed chats with the kids. 3. Go on the CLAIR course and learn to teach Japanese. 4. Create an English language newsletter. At Wedding. 5. Create an English language noticeboard.

Keep the content new and fresh, try the google image search. Great for motivating the kids even if you're not at the school all the groß, time. 7. At Wedding. Write lesson plans and send them to Genki English. That's one of the reasons I started the website, to share with other people great lessons that I could only use once myself. Pop them on groß the Readers Games page for of assembly line all to see! It makes a huge difference if you know the yankee groß, kids names! You might need to get a teacher to write out the kids names in Romaji. Or try the at wedding, high tech way and yankee video all of the kids saying My name is. and then watch it over and over so you know them all! 9. Collect realia. Will amassed a collection of Maccas containers, aluminium cans and shopping catalogues (great for shopping games).

I brought over market crash hundreds of 1 pence stamps, they're great for the kids to take home and treasure and best of all is the candle groß, price, only 1 pence! Great for building up friendly relations with the kids and teachers, and a bit of daily exercise never hurt anyone. This is a 1 million yen Hokkaido wide English video competition for JHS and SHS. Designed by ALTs to encourage communicative English and increase awareness of the role of ALTs in language education. Students train one-on-one, they video their performance and the winner gets a 10-14 day homestay worth up to 400,000 yen! 12. Do a school yearbook. Being from England I'm not entirely sure what these are, but apparently they make a good JET project. Remember all your fond days on the JET program. 14. Make a video to illustrate an English point.

In Ochi gun (collection of towns and villages) every JET made a short video to illustrate each grammar point in the JHS textbooks. Ancient Indian. It was great fun to make and the kids loved seeing their ALTs using english in real life! It's amazing how some of the shy kids come alive on groß camera! It's also great to show your students how much they have improved over the year. 16.

Do the English voice over for your towns PR video. Of Port Royal Essay Examples. As done by Deb Simpson in Hokkaido. 17. Yankee Candle Groß. Make a compost heap. 18. Visit Kindergartens.

When my schools had holidays I had to go and tella marketers teach in kindergarten everyday (no summer off in the office for candle me!). Many other JETs visit regularly. It's great for the kids but be prepared for the most tiring experience you'll ever have on JET! 19. Organize a homestay programme. Start out small and just send a few friends or students to stay with your parents. Then use the experience to plan a full on homestay. Many JETs have done this and really enjoyed giving something back to all the people who helped them in ancient indian, Japan. 20.

Hold lunchtime or summer Eikaiwa classes for kids going abroad. 21. Search for ideas on the web. Wefve heard that is rather good. 22. Act as interpreter for local visitors. Offer your newly found bilingual talents to your town! You'll get to meet lots of interesting people and if there is a big special event on you might find yourself hired by a TV network from back home (as many JETs found out during the Japan World Cup and the Nagano Olympics) 23. Catch and remove snakes from the school grounds. 24.

Make listening test tapes. Give the kids some extra listening practise and they can enjoy your beautiful voice everyday. 25. Join a cooking class or a PE class or a Japanese class, or any class. Ever fancied being the center of attention when all the JETs gather round a summer bonfire.

All schools have racks and racks of guitars just waiting to be played! It's easy! Do a search for how to play the yankee, guitar on! 27. learn to play the piano. The piano's also cool to learn to play, but not so good for campfire sing-a-longs! Get a group of when did the mates together and form a band! I did this and candle groß we got quite a few gigs and it was a lot of fun! 29. Release a CD and get on TV.

A JET band in Sendai called Monkey Majik did this, or you can find some of the songs my band made here. 30. Get 30 didgeridoos from Oz and of assembly line hold a class in your town. Remember these are all true stories! A JET from Ehime, also called Richard, brought a load of didgeridoos over and taught classes in his city, it even got him into candle, the local paper. 31.

Learn Taiko and play at the opening of a superstore. Quite a popular instrument amongst JETs, get all that tension out by banging a big drum! I spent two years learning the o-koto, it sounds just soooo Japanese that it's mega cool. If you'd like to have a try, click here. 33. Essay About Noise Cancelling Headphones. Write a book.

JET is a cool job and people want to hear about it, have a look at Bruce Feiler's Learning to candle groß, Bow. ALT Joel Bacha wrote his lesson ideas up in his Teachers Kids book. And Nicholas Klar wrote My Mother is toasts at wedding a Tractor 34. Mark papers. Put lots of ticks and watch the kids cry. In Japan the tick mark is used when you get something wrong! It's an groß, interesting cultural point to teach! 35. Battle Of Port Essay. Join the bunkasai and yankee groß sing and dance. Will did a Morning Musume number with the maths teacher. The kids will never forget that.

36. Learn at least one Japanese song. Makes you popular with the teachers and of assembly line makes great kanji practise! 38. Go on the school trip. If necessary beg. 39. Join a town ekiden team. Lose gracefully. Lots of ALTs and CIRs do this, for yankee groß example the Chippubetsu festival in Hokkaido, or the festival we attended in Akagi, Shimane. 41.

Invite your family to your town and have them join classes. 43. Invite your teachers over at wedding and cook them something spicy. Yankee. 44. Run extra Orientations for new JETs.

This is a biggie, and probably the tella marketers, single biggest contributor to me having such a good time on JET. Yankee. Basically the 2nd and 3rd year JETs got the phone numbers of all the new JETs in the area and gave them a ring on the 2nd day - it's so good to hear a friendly voice! They then organised a meal for us on the weekend and then the following week we had 2 days of workshops organised by the JETs. One was for JHS and one was for Essay about Cancelling elementary school and we just spent the candle, day going through ideas and stuff. History. It was so cool to groß, do this and it meant that we ended up hitting the ground running in September. 45. Organize welcome camp for new JETs. When Did The. But it's not just seminars, Ehime JETs also organised a beach party and candle groß a trip down to the local gorge - great for getting to know everyone!

46. Learn a martial art. Kendo, Karate, Judo, Aikido, there are so many! Most teachers would love you to join and just think how cool it is to say to your mates back home Oh yeah, I learnt Karate from a Japanese master! 47. Or if you already know a martial art Teach it. Will taught his kids at toasts at wedding, shogakko.

An Ozzie teaching Japanese kids Karate, an interesting twist on the Internationalisation theme! If you fancy getting into yankee candle, the industry back home, get some practise for tella marketers your CV! Local stations would be cool with a real foreign talento and some places might even be cool for you to do your set all in English! 49. DJ at a local night club. Obvious choices are JET parties, but a few ex-JETs have been known to head off to candle, some top venues. 50.

Teach an evening eikaiwa class and get Friday afternoons off. A lot of town/village ALTs teach adult English classes in the evening. As this is still part of Essay Cancelling your work, you should get time off in lieu (called daikyu in Japanese). I worked Wednesday evening and got Friday afternoon off and one JET friend in Ehime taught a few nights per week and also got a couple of hours off Monday morning, so he could go and surf in yankee groß, Kochi every weekend! 51. Teach French. Tella Marketers. I got another French speaking ALT to pop along to my adult class one week and we taught them French! It's not something they'd get the chance to yankee candle, do everyday and so they jumped at the chance. 52.

Teach/Learn Chinese. If you don't speak it, why not learn it? Starting another language from scratch puts you in your students shoes - great experience! 53. Teach Korean. Similar to above! 54. Do email exchanges. Check out the email exchange projects I have on the site for stock market in 1929 Elementary School - pets project, school lunch project.

My Junior High school kids were once studying about Korea, so I set up an exchange where every kid would write a question and we'd send them to a class in Korea. Yankee Candle. One of the tella marketers, kids wrote What do Korean people think of Japan? and the answer came back Many Koreans hate Japan, but I think it's quite nice. My student then asked Why does she say many Koreans hate Japan?. a nice topic for the social studies teacher I feel! 55. Do a live webchat with a school abroad. Find a school with, choose a topic to talk about and use Yahoo messenger to groß, do a video phone chat. When Did The Stock Crash. It's free!!

56. Set up your own sports club. Many JETs are masters of a whole range of yankee sports. Try introducing your passion to the kids. Distance learning programmes are quite popular amongst JETs. Did The Stock. 58. Do English classes for candle groß your teachers (especially in shogakkou) Quite a few JETs do this and report it increases the relations with their teachers immensely. You may have to stay back after school for an hour or so but the benefits are worth it. Crash In 1929. Many schools have special optional classes (called sentaku in yankee candle groß, Japanese) where the kids can learn a whole range of different classes. Some JETs use this to tella marketers, teach purely conversational English, and I used it to teach the kids how to learn songwriting.

They got together in groups, wrote a song each, recorded it on my recording gear made a CD and performed them at the towns cultural festival. For a 15 year old, having your own song on CD is yankee candle groß pretty cool! 60. Of Assembly. Write a comic strip and get it published. Earth Bennets hilarious Every Situation Is Different column is very popular, check it out here. 61. Set up a football team and play against schoolkids. Here we have the Nagasaki team Champon United.

In the words of member Peter Plamping: We're so talented that we've managed to lose against junior and senior high schools throughout Nagasaki-ken. Sometimes things don't follow the script and we actually win a game - I think the kids take pity on us, or something. In any case, everyone always has a good time and the kids really enjoy it. They get a chance to yankee groß, practice all that eigo they learnt during the world cup (doubt if they learnt any in indian, our classes..) We get all sorts of weird and wonderful ALTs playing for groß us (as you can see from the photos). We allow just about anyone to play, with the exception of toasts at wedding Manchester United supporters. Oh, alright, we even let them play too. Groß. I exchanged jobs with the next town's ALT for Royal a week or so. It was a lot of organising, but the kids got a kick out of seeing someone from a different country. 63. Teach yourself how to use a computer.

If you don't have computer skills, now is the time to groß, learn! 64. Teach yourself how to use a Japanese computer. Knowing the kanji for did the stock market crash delete is very very useful! (I learnt it the hard way) 65. Hold a computer training class for teachers. Many teachers would love to use the net, but don't know how. Why not set up a simple after school seminar to show them some of the tricks of the trade.

Even showing them very basic stuff could get you a lot of brownie points! 66. Write the school website. I decided I wanted to learn how to write a website. So for one week (during exams) I sat down everyday from 8 till when the kyoto sensei had gone home and in candle groß, a week I had a basic wesbite! I felt very proud!

67. Wire up a network so your teachers can get on the net from the staff room. Ryan Harvey in Essay Cancelling, Sendai has a degree in computers and isnft afraid to use it. He wired up the staffroom and in his words: gIt's extra work, but the benefit is good and it earned me a lot of respect here at school. Candle Groß. 68. Organize your own Mid Year Conference and tella marketers invite Genki English. Yankee Candle. Many prefectures (such as Ehime) only have one conference every year. But some, including Aomori, Nagasaki and Hokkaido have several! They organise it themselves and not only get another great party session, but learn a heck of a lot of new ideas as well. And of course, please feel to invite us along to history line, either do the key note speech and/or the Elementary School Workshop.

69. Give your keitai email to your students and exchange emails. We got this idea from Millie Linville in Ibaraki. The deal is if the students email the ALT in English, she'll reply! Great for shy kids. 70. Answer phone lesson plan.

This is a cool idea of Will's. You teach the kids answerphone English and for homework they have to ring up your machine and yankee leave a message! The kids get a real kick out of hearing their voices on the tape! 71. Get a groups of ALTs together and visit an orphanage on your day off. A bunch of Ehime JETs do this once a month. For those kids it is the best day they have all month. 72. Get a groups of ALTs together and visit a special needs school on your day off. We did a show at a special needs school where 25 Shizuoka JETs gave up their Saturday to spend time with the when did the crash in 1929, kids. 73.

Get together a group of mates and bicycle from Hokkaido to Kyushu to raise environmental concerns. ( Without going to a single convenience store.) A great project, why not join this year's ride? 74. Hold a pottery exhibition. Gunma JET Anitra Donald studies Japanese pottery and has exhibited her work in galleries in yankee candle groß, Gunma prefecture. 75. Hold a photo exhibition.

As organised by Battle of Port Royal Kagoshima ALT John Gunn and Aichi ALT RaeGina Covington. Paul Reid down in Fukuoka runs the candle groß, Tagawa International Short-film Matsuri. Over the last 2 years they have shown 277 short films from over 22 countries! 77. Invite Genki English to your school.

I'll show your Elem School Teachers a fantastic seminar ( in Japanese) and for the kids great show (even if it's a mega tiny, or mega huge school.) 78. Join AJET or become an AJET officer - It's FREE! AJET do some really cool stuff from organising great events, to publishing books to line, helping out yankee groß, with social gigs at conferences. It's free to join the national AJET, and if you'd like a challenge and something cool for your resume, become an officer! 79. Tella Marketers. Do the go en campaign. This is a brilliant project that raises money by teaching about issues in developing countries and collecting strings of 5 yen coins. 80. Do habitat for humanity. Build houses in the Philippines. Yankee Groß. 81.

Go and do a teacher training workshop in Thailand - 100% recommended. I did this in July 2002 and it was a brilliant experience. The teachers really want to ancient indian, learn new techniques and appreciate the time you give so much. It's volunteer based, you pay your own air fare and many JETs have joined in in the past. Yankee Candle Groß. (see if you can spot me in the photos on the site! : ) 82. Go and build a school library in ancient indian, Thailand. Yankee Groß. For the when market crash in 1929, final day in Thailand we helped out with this project to build a school library! If teacher training's not your thing, maybe you can give this a shot! 83. Write and groß perform a play in English for kids D. Or perform one of the classics.

The Hokkaido players did Westside Story. 84. Toasts. Get your own weekly TV show. We know two CIRs, one in Ehime and one in Shimane who have their own show on local TV and yankee groß alongside several other ALTs I used to appear every week on NHKs Teregoji programme. That was great fun and history of assembly line thoroughly recommended if you fancy a career in TV! 85. Write a sociolinguistic study of the JET community as a precursor to a masters thesis.

86. Do a cooking lesson. Something simple as a break for the kids. 87. Enter a sumo tournament. Very popular amongst JETs! 88. Have your students do a quiz show. Kumamoto JETs English club did their own Who Wants to yankee candle groß, Be a Millionaire? 89. Clean a beach.

Organise it yourself or join in line, one! 90. Start up a phone company and become a millionaire. Yankee Groß. JET. Freetime. Millionaire. You do the stock crash in 1929, math. 91. Become arm wrestling champion of Shikoku.

Ehime JET Frank did just that! 92. Teach a science class. Yankee. If science is Essay about Noise Cancelling your major, why not use it in class, the teacher maybe glad of a little specialist knowledge. I taught about the planets in Elementary school and did the NASA Moonlink project in Junior High School.

93. Teach an candle, art class. There are so many talented JET artists out there, and maybe of them use their talents to give the kids another perspective on their art lessons. 94. Toasts. Hold a taste testing competition. Candle Groß. Get some weird foods, blindfold the kids and when did the they have to guess what they are. 95. Groß. Develop a new thing called gEigorobicsh. Courtesy of ALT Cheyne Sandercoe. 96. Set up your own Education company and do a tour of Japan in a campervan.

Nah, this would never work. Ancient Mathematics. 97. Candle Groß. Form a theatre group and tour around performing a play in the local dialect. The Kochi Genki Seinenkai performs plays in Tosa-ben all over Kochi. Of Port Royal. The JETs have a ball and the locals get off hearing a bunch of candle JETs speak in dialect. 98. Start your own Morris Dancing Club. Toasts At Wedding. A group of yankee candle groß hard drinking, British JETs did this and toured the country with it! 99. Get your local McDonalds to do everything in English.

Matsuyama ALT Andy organised for of assembly his kids to visit McDonalds and order everything in English. It took a lot of hard work, but was well worth it. Yankee Candle. 100. Indian Mathematics. Do an internet science project with NASA and candle get a minor planet named after your town. Yep, this ones mine.

And here's the proof of Tamagawa getting minor planet status! (it's number 13207) 101. Write a list of 101 things a JET can do and present it at the Kobe Recontracting Conference. Or help me compile the next list of 101 cool things!

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conclusion ww2 essay WW2 swords may or may not have a tang stamp. Some of yankee groß, these tang stamps may represent traditionally made swords. This issue is however hotly debated, and some of the arguments below may be considered controversial by some. There are those that argue that all tang stamps indicate a non-traditional sword. However, this argument does not stand up to analysis. Not all tang stamps are equal. The star stamp, for tella marketers, example, was used to indicate blades made by smiths of the Rikugun Jumei Tosho (Army approved swordsmiths). Similarly, the Minatogawa Kikusui mon indicates the blade was made at the Minatogawa Shrine. The Minatogawa Shrine forged traditionally made blades, i.e. gendaito, for the Navy. Groß! Minatogawa swords are relatively rare as only a few hundred were made, and they are avidly sought by collectors.

The same applies to market the Yasukuni Shrine swords, which were made for the Japanese Army. Only 8,100 of these blades were made, and they are also considered rare. Any sword made at the Yasukuni Shrine forge by a Shrine smith is, by definition, a gendaito. Yankee Candle Groß! These blades are considered to be among the best quality traditionally made blades of the WW II era. A list of Yasukuni Shrine swordsmiths is available at Chris Bowen's Tokyo Kindai Tosho Index. Swords of the tella marketers WW2 period which have received origami (authentification papers) from the Nihon Bijutsu Token Hozon Kai (NBTHK) or Nihon Token Hozon Kai (NTHK) are also considered gendaito.

However, not all of candle, a smith's blades are gendaito simply because one blade amongst many has received origami. It was not uncommon for smiths to make both gendaito and showato during the war. Again, each blade must be judged on its own merits, and not just on the signature of the swordsmith. Which brings us to the common tang stamps, such as Showa, Seki and Mukden stamps. When Did The Market In 1929! There is a popular view that these swords are all (a) machine made (b) rubbish. Whilst there is some truth in this argument, it is yankee candle groß far too much of an over-generalisation. I first came across this argument thirty years ago. I had a sword with a Showa stamp, and there was a Japanese togishi in London. I, being the very new to the field, took my sword to see the did the stock crash togishi, to see if he would polish it.

He wouldn't. He took a cursory glance and handed it back. Rubbish! he said, machine made from a single piece of steel. No hamon! So I asked him about sharpening it. His advice was that I could safely sharpen it the same way as a western knife or sword, since it was made the same way. So I got out my whetstone and oilstones and yankee, sharpened it up - and Noise Cancelling Analysis, sharpened straight through the yankee skin metal.

One screwed Japanese sword. You see, the when in 1929 problem was that it wasn't made of a single piece of steel. Candle! It had core and toasts at wedding, skin steel. Etching subsequently demonstrated that it had a gunome hamon, although it had been obscured by the wartime polish; I never had a chance to candle groß find out if it was water tempered. For all I know, it may have been laminated. The togishi had relied upon the assumption - unfortunately incorrect - that showato were all machine-made rubbish. That after all was and often still is the received wisdom. I for my part assumed that he was correct because he was the authority on swords. As a result, I have learned that I should never believe in authorities, no matter how well established or revered.

With hindsight, the Essay Noise togishis reaction was unsurprising. Yankee Groß! Most Japanese, togishi included, have never seen such swords because they are illegal in Japan. They therefore know little about ancient indian, them, apart from assumptions and yankee groß, received wisdom. In fact most of the research in ancient these swords has been conducted in the UK. Nevertheless, the argument is still influential and widely accepted. Yankee Candle Groß! However, as my old academic mentor once remarked, if data disagrees with theory, then theory is wrong, no matter how attractive the theory is. In this case there is evidence to contradict the theory as a general case, and none - apart from assumptions - to support it. Line! If someone feels the need to candle justify the received wisdom, they are going to have back up their argument with statistical data from a statistically significant sample. Battle Essay! The practice of saying that it is candle groß so because a certain authority said it was so should have gone out with the when did the stock market crash medieval period.

Tang stamps are found on some of the poorest blades the Japanese ever made. However, the purpose of tang stamps was only indicate that the swords manufacture was non-traditional in some way. To be considered traditional, the starting material must be tamahagane, and the sword must be forged in the traditional manner, and differentially tempered using yakire and water as a quenching agent. Candle Groß! If only one of those things is mathematics non-traditional, then the sword as a whole is candle groß not considered traditional. If, for example, the starting point is not tamahagane, but foreign imported steel, then the of assembly sword is not traditional; it is candle not a nihonto. From 1933 onwards, swords that were not traditional were required to be stamped with a tang stamp. Since the war swords with a tang stamp have been regarded as poor swords by virtue of history of assembly line, being non-traditional. As we shall see, there are serious problems in candle groß applying this argument in all cases. For now it should be noted that the use of non-traditional materials is neither new, nor is the result necessarily inferior to a traditionally made sword. To argue otherwise is simply evidence of prejudice. Tamahagane is about Noise not the most ideal starting material for a sword; the perfection of the Japanese sword is down to yankee candle groß the ability of generations of Japanese smiths to overcome the limitations of their starting material.

Japanese smiths were, like any perfectionists, always on the lookout for anything to improve their swords. The Edo period smith, Yasutsugu, was the first to use foreign steel rather than tamahagane, and proudly marked this fact on mathematics, his tangs. It meant a better sword. Yankee Candle Groß! By today's rules, Yasutsugus swords would not be considered traditional because of the inclusion or use of foreign iron. If they had been made during WW2, the law would have required them to did the stock in 1929 bear a tang stamp. These days they would be classified as showato and yankee groß, regarded as inferior. They are however considered traditional because they are antique and are regarded as superior examples of nihonto. Spot the illogic. To enquire further into the issue of tang stamps, we must first understand the methods of sword manufacture used in Japan prior to the end of WW2. Richard Fuller describes nine manufacturing methods: 1. Tamahagane gendaito.

Fully hand forged and differentially hardened in the traditional manner using water as a quenching agent. Possesses an active hamon and hada. 2. At Wedding! Mill-steel gendaito. Fully hand forged from mill steel or (more often) 19th century railway tracks made from Swedish steel. Candle Groß! Differentially hardened in the traditional manner using water as a quenching agent. Possesses an active hamon and hada. 3. When Stock In 1929! Koa-isshin Mantetsu-to. Made from Manchurian steel by a special process. Yankee! Partly forged, partly engineered, and differentially hardened in the traditional manner using water as a quenching agent. Possesses an active hamon and hada.

4. Han-tanren abura yaki-ire-to. Partially forged from mill stock, some folding, differentially hardened using oil. Of Port Royal Essay Examples! Does have a hamon although it is nowhere near as active as a water-quenched sword, but lacks hada. 5. Sunobe abura yaki-ire-to. Drawn down, forged to shape, not folded. Differential hardened using oil, may have a fairly inactive hamon, but no hada. 6. Mantetsu-to. Rolled from Manchurian railway tracks. Differential hardening using oil, may have a fairly inactive hamon, but no hada. 7. Murata-to. Rolled or drawn, oil hardened but not differentially hardened.

Yakiba but no visible hamon and no hada. 8. Groß! Tai-sabi-ko. Stainless steel, oil-hardened, no grain, no hamon, possible yakiba. Made for the Imperial Japanese Navy to toasts resist salt corrosion. 9. Groß! Machine made. Noise Cancelling Analysis! Serial number in the blade. No forging; stamped out and quenched in oil without differential hardening, assuming that they are hardened at yankee candle, all. No hada and no hamon. At Wedding! Some may in fact be plated, and in groß the worst cases the hamon may be acid etched onto the steel.

The classic example is the NCO swords. On a par with Chinese fakes, and tella marketers, the most commonly faked sword. Only the yankee candle tamahagane gendaito is considered traditional, i.e. a nihonto. Essay About Cancelling! All the rest, including the mill steel gendaito, would have to bear a tang stamp. Candle! Whilst mill steel gendaito can be very, very good indeed, the non-traditional group includes some pretty awful examples of swordmaking. As a result, the whole group tends to be known by the worst examples. This is probably unsurprising; the bulk of this group consist of oil-hardened blades (abura yaki-ire-to). That doesnt mean that the entire group followed this pattern. The mill steel gendaito radically differ from the abura yaki-ire-to; they are like chalk and indian, cheese. The 'mill steel' gendaito could be regarded as following the precedent set by Yasutsugu and his use of namban-tetsu.

The best mill steel gendaito are made from mid-19th century railway tracks that were manufactured from groß Swedish steel and indian, exported to yankee candle Japan. Swedish steel has been highly prized for its excellence and Noise, purity for centuries. In the groß 19th century it was puddled to produce sponge iron of exceptional quality. The sponge steel was then forged into bars and subsequently baked for weeks with an appropriate quantity of charcoal. This resulted in blister steel. The carbon content of blister steel was very unequal, so the bars of blister steel were broken up, forgewelded together, and the block then folded and repeatedly welded to produce a consistent carbon content of of Port Royal, about 0.7%. The block was then rolled and heat treated to produce pearlitic railway tracks. The metal also contained some manganese, which made the tracks tougher and harder than straight carbon steel. As a result of the yankee groß manufacturing processes, the when did the crash in 1929 rails had an inherent grain. This was due to the forgewelding process, and the steel having slight variations in groß its carbon content.

As a result, a polished rail of the period has a grain resembling a coarse hada, for exactly the same reasons that a tamahagane sword has a hada. In short, the process of history of assembly, making the tracks was analogous to the earliest stages in making a sword from tamahagane. Yankee Candle Groß! However, the average Japanese sword has a carbon content of tella marketers, 0.5%. Some particularly vicious cutters have a carbon content of 0.7%, but these are unusual, and are probably Koto blades. The use of good Swedish steel therefore meant that the smith could make a blade that was potentially in the same category as the candle groß highest performing traditional blades.

Furthermore, the presence of manganese means that the metal is line tougher than straight carbon steel. Add traditional hand forging and construction techniques, plus decarburisation of the steel forming the candle groß core, and you have a blade that would be likely to outperform all other WW2 blades except, possibly, a Koa Isshin blade. However, even a Koa Isshin blade would have a run for its money. All it requires is the smith having the ability to realise the full potential of this material. I have a sword made this way. Tella Marketers! It is a work of yankee, art.

It has a lovely skilful hamon and a hada. It is also beautifully balanced and in full polish. Oddly enough, the smith has used the sugata of a Koto blade, rather than the Royal standard WW2 design. Anyway, I had it out the other day, and set the yankee candle bare blade down to study it. It slipped a couple of inches, and sliced cleanly through a canvas bag it encountered on the way as if the history line bag were not there. In skilled hands it could easily take off a leg, and arm or a head without noticing. Similarly good results may be achieved by yankee candle forgewelding together a lamination of differing grades of mill steel. This method has been perfected in the post-war period by American smiths, and at wedding, has also resulted in blades of prodigious performance. Such swords have a hada and an active hamon, although they are usually more easily distinguished from yankee candle nihonto.

I am, however, unaware of any WW2 Japanese smiths doing this, although it should be said that most smiths never documented their methods, and refused to talk about their wartime work in the post-war period. Some perceived, rightly or wrongly, that there might be some repercussions for being part of the Japanese war machine. Manchurian steel was highly esteemed by Essay about Noise Analysis WW2 swordsmiths. In fact the candle Dairen Manchurian Railroad Factory (Mantetsu) thoroughly analysed the Battle Essay examples Japanese sword with a view to yankee improving it, including reducing its susceptibility to cold fracture in extreme climactic conditions. The resulting protype subjected to an appraised cutting test. The prototype was, as a result, appraised in error as a Koto sword forged by indian Tadayoshi of Hizen, on the grounds that only a Tadayoshi sword could cut like that (more preconceptions!). Encouraged by yankee this, in 1937 Mantetsu went on to manufacture the Koa Isshin sword, turning out history some 400 a month. Koa Isshin swords are not traditionally made swords, and yankee candle, are therefore not art swords. However they are, from an engineering point of when did the market crash in 1929, view, superbly made. The cutting edge has a hardness of yankee candle groß, Rc 72 (far in excess of all western blades and tella marketers, many Japanese swords), whilst the construction is far more consistent than many traditionally forged Japanese blades. The result is not an inferior sword at all, but a superb, high quality, cutting instrument that exceeds all but the very best Koto art swords for effectiveness.

Koa Isshin swords are therefore highly valued by martial artists. Or to put it another way for groß, my re-enactment friends, practical tests indicate that a sword edge of mid-Rc 60s hardness will cut chainmail. A Koa Isshin sword at did the stock crash, Rc72 would, in all probability, make mincemeat of chainmail and candle groß, would probably seriously damage modern plate armour. I doubt that it would affect medieval tempered plate to when stock crash in 1929 a serious degree though. I might note in passing the yankee candle similarities in Essay Analysis steel manufacture between the Koa Isshin swords and the swords made from Swedish steel.

Both start with extremely pure sponge iron. Candle Groß! The former, and possibly the when did the market in 1929 latter, cut as well as the best Koto art swords. The secret of making Koto swords has been lost for centuries, and Japanese smiths have spent generations trying to recover it. It would be ironic if the Japanese had rediscovered the secret without knowing it. You see, the Chinese had puddling furnaces (chaolu) by groß the 1st century AD at of Port examples, the latest, and tamahagane would be an ideal feedstock for such a furnace. Yankee Candle! The Chinese had also discovered how to accurately control the mathematics carbon content of steel. Groß! Perhaps the secret of ancient indian mathematics, Koto blades lies in yankee groß the method of steel manufacture, rather than in the subsequent forging of that steel. Both Koa Isshin swords and mill steel gendaito are therefore superb cutting implements despite or rather because of their non-traditional elements. Are they however quality swords? Well, it depends upon what we mean by quality.

The quality of a Japanese sword is when did the in 1929 judged, not on its cutting ability, but on the evidence of yankee groß, craftsmanship that it shows. Performance and quality are however usually related; as a general rule (and bearing in mind the exceptions), the lower the craftsmanship, the poorer the sword, and the poorer it performs. Tella Marketers! This is candle groß true regardless of whether the sword is made from indian tamahagane or not. It is a bit like judging breeds of candle groß, dogs; points are awarded for the craftsmanship shown in Cancelling Analysis creating the shape of the sword, the hamon, the hada and all the other bits that go to make up a traditional sword. By definition, oil tempered swords, which make up the bulk of the non-traditional swords, will lack essential elements. The more elements they lack, the poorer they are. A Koa Isshin sword is a simple, workmanlike piece that was designed to function as an yankee candle effective cutting tool. Ideas of artistry were very secondary. Mill steel gendaito were however crafted by skilled smiths who brought all their skill and artistry to bear in making them. Fullers list is organised in terms of at wedding, descending quality. Koa Isshin swords and mill steel gendaito probably perform equally well, although the latter has a marked edge when it comes to candle evidence of Battle of Port Royal examples, craftsmanship. Fuller also places mill steel gendaito lower than tamahagane gendaito as far as quality is concerned, although the yankee candle former can probably, as a general rule, outcut the latter.

In fact the difference in quality between tamahagane and mill steel gendaito probably isnt that high. True, tamahagane gendaito generally show greater quality when taken as a whole . However, the tamahagane gendaito class includes the work of Japans top smiths, who had an ancient indian mathematics uninterrupted supply of tamahagane, and candle, therefore did not experiment with mill steel gendaito. No doubt they could have done so, but tradition was against tella marketers, it. The smiths who made mill steel gendaito did not work in such a rarefied atmosphere. There was probably little difference in quality between the gendaito produced by an individual smith, regardless of the starting material. In swords, as in statistics, one should compare like with like. The proof of the pudding is, in this case, in the legislation. Tang stamps were introduced precisely because swordsmiths and yankee, collectors could not distinguish the Royal best quality non-traditional swords (i.e. mill steel gendaito) from traditionally made swords.

It was discovered that, as a result, some smiths were forging replicas of older swords, giving them false signatures (gimei), and passing them off as the real thing. Several smiths were subsequently arrested. Amidst mounting concern, the government passed a law in yankee 1933 requiring all swords that were non-traditional in when stock market in 1929 any way to be marked with a tang stamp, although the actual stamp used was left to the manufacturer. These stamps should not however be confused with the candle smiths personal seal or kokuin. The system was not fully implemented until 1940. That means that there could be a fair number of swords of non-traditional manufacture not bearing tang stamps, of of Port, which some will be mill steel gendaito. It would be fairly easy to differentiate between an oil-hardened sword and a traditionally made sword, even if the former lacked a tang stamp. However, there would probably be little or no chance of differentiating between a mill steel gendaito and a tamahagane gendaito. Yankee Candle Groß! It is at wedding not impossible that some examples have since received origami.

Again, a togishi can remove a tang stamp so that it looks as if one was never there. Some smiths stamped their tangs very lightly, thus complying with the law, but making it easier for yankee candle, their customers to remove the stamp. The legislation produced a profusion of of Port Essay examples, stamps, ranging from sword factory stamps, to the stamps of sword sellers. The commonest are illustrated at the beginning of this essay. The best known of yankee, these is the well known Showa stamp. This is indian a general army stamp; contrary to received wisdom, it is not an arsenal mark. The earliest known example dates from May 1940. The Showa stamp seems to have been restricted to swords that were sold off-the-peg through the Army Officers Club (Kaikosha). Here we already have a potential element of confusion; does a Showa stamp necessarily indicate a non-traditional sword, or did it simply indicate a sword that was sold off-the-peg via a certain organisation, the bulk of the swords sold being non-traditional in some way?

In short, were the yankee candle groß swords stamped because they were off-the-peg, regardless of history of assembly, method of manufacture, or were off-the-peg swords limited to non-traditional swords. If the former is true, then some swords with a Showa stamp may indeed by traditional swords. More research is needed. The Showa stamps were superseded in yankee groß late 1941-early 1942 by the various arsenal marks. Japan had moved to a war footing following Pearl Harbour, and tella marketers, now needed to supply its army and navy with as many swords as possible as quickly as possible.

As a result, swords with arsenal marks are almost certainly always oil tempered, because it was the quickest method of manufacture. I qualify the preceding remark however, because you can almost always find an exception to the rule with Japanese swords. Yankee! However, you are highly unlikely to find a good sword amongst them, and stock market in 1929, the quality drops as the war goes on. The machine-made swords, and the end of yankee groß, war swords are possibly the worst swords ever made in Cancelling Japan, and are pretty much overlong butter knives. The former can be recognised by the serial number near the habaki. WW2 tang stamps are thus a far more complex subject than they might appear to yankee groß be at first sight. Each WW2 sword needs to Battle Royal be closely examined on its own merits, with assumptions put aside. There is however one important consideration to bear in mind. If a blade with tang stamp is shipped into Japan it will be seized, and it may be destroyed. This is because Japanese law classifies it as a weapon, rather than as a work of yankee, art.

A gendaito on the other hand is a cultural asset. As a result, one may occasionally find swords in which the Showa stamp has been obliterated in order to toasts send it to Japan for polishing or assessment. The distinction between the traditionally made sword as art, and the non-traditional sword as weapon was originally enshrined in yankee groß law by General MacArthur. Whilst there is a long history of the Japanese sword being considered art, in Noise Cancelling Analysis my opinion its primary function as a weapon often gets overlooked. Yankee Candle Groß! As a bottom line, the samurai werent too fussed about a sword being pretty. They were far more concerned about its effectiveness; their lives depended upon when crash in 1929, it throughout much of Japanese history.

Generally prettiness indicated a high quality sword that was also extremely effective. As a result, and given the lack of yankee groß, Rockwell testing equipment in medieval Japan, signs of craftsmanship became revered as an indication of blade quality. Mind you, the Japanese of that period were also pragmatic; test cutting was also a good indication - preferably on criminals condemned to be executed. The problem is that, in the more peaceful Edo period, prettiness was sometimes elevated for its own sake, without reference to ancient indian mathematics the primary function. For example, some people admire large nie inclusions. However, nie is the visible evidence of a enlarged grain structure at the transitional zone of the hamon. It means that the steel was held for yankee candle groß, too long at critical heat, and the grains enlarged. The larger the grain is, the weaker the sword. History Of Assembly! Thats basic metallurgy, and yankee, is the reason stainless steel blades snap unexpectedly in use. However, the end result looks very pretty, particularly in the ji, and some people like it.

Nevertheless, swords exhibiting strong, large nie should probably not be used for tameshigiri. The view of the Japanese sword as art has become somewhat entrenched since WW2, particularly following MacArthur's intervention. When Market Crash! From my point of view however the sword cannot be separated from its primary function as a weapon. Groß! Form follows function, not the other way about. The modern Japanese smith is also further constrained. Legislation has locked him into when did the crash using materials and methods that have remained unchanged since the 16th century. Yankee Groß! There is also a limit on the number of swords that can be made each month.

Any departure from the traditional is forbidden since the smith would then be making a weapon and not a cultural artefact. As a result, Japanese smiths cannot follow Yasutsugus example and use foreign steel. Essay Noise! It should however be noted that some add old steel to their mix, and this old steel may well be of candle, foreign manufacture. Technically speaking, that makes such swords non-traditional. As for the prevalence of this practice well it has been observed that many Japanese swords are harder than they were a generation or two ago. American swordsmiths do not operate not under such constraints. Mill steel gendaito produced by American mastersmiths such as Walter Sorrels are amongst some of the most formidable blades ever produced, and they are still improving. The quality of their work, as defined by Japanese standards, is also high and improving all the when stock time there have been occasions when a sword made by an American smith has been mistaken by a Japanese expert for a nihonto. Swords made by the American smiths are, however, not cheap; they may set you back 2,000-3,000. They are not however Japanese swords, because those have to be made in Japan, by a Japanese smith, and by traditional methods.

If you want a sword for collecting, then it also comes down to whether or not you care about whether it is classed as a true nihonto or not. Yankee Groß! Collectors of nihonto find the question absolutely central and at wedding, will ignore swords bearing tang stamps. On the other hand, the question is candle completely irrelevant as far as collectors of militaria and students of Essay about Cancelling Headphones Analysis, gunto are concerned. And as far as martial artists are concerned, all swords exist to yankee candle be used; the only question is, how good is the sword as a cutting tool, and what sort of Battle Royal Essay examples, balance does it have? Whilst I think it unlikely that any martial artist would turn down a gift of a nihonto, they would probably be equally happy to candle groß receive a mill steel gendaito or a Koa Isshin blade. To recap, if there is a hada, an active hamon, and no evidence of a tang stamp being removed, then you almost certainly have a tamahagane gendaito. Almost - but not quite. You see, before the about Noise Analysis 1933 law was brought in, it was not necessary to stamp the tangs to indicate a non-traditional sword. A very high grade early 'mill steel' gendaito (the sort the government was worried about) may not be marked. Yankee Groß! That's why I'm often very cautious in describing something as a nihonto unless I have definitive evidence and opinions that it is not an early mill steel gendaito.

OK, so this is being picky, and other people would rightly point that if it hasn't got a tang stamp, and it has got a hada and toasts at wedding, active hamon, then its a gendaito by definition, and thus a nihonto. Ah, but there are those pesky very early non-traditional swords that lack tang stamps to take into account, some of which will be mill steel gendaito. Unfortunately there's no way to distinguish these from the yankee candle tamahagane versions that I know of. Battle Royal Examples! The only thing I would suggest is to examine each sword minutely and judge it on its merits. Even that may not suffice. Of course, you could do a metallurgical analysis for manganese, but I suspect that some people might not go for this, since they might not like the results. It is not impossible that a few papered WW2 gendaito from the 1930s were actually made from Swedish steel and not tamahagane. Yes, mill steel gendaito can be considered that good if you remove the tang stamp, or if they were made before the law required them to have a tang stamp. To put it another way, imagine a cutting ability comparable to the Koa Isshin allied with the craftsmanship of the candle tamahagane gendaito. If you have an active hamon but can't see a hada (not uncommon given wartime polish and a very tight hada), and there's no tang stamp, chances are reasonably high that you may have a gendaito, although see the arguments above. If you have very high class mounts as well, it is pretty certain.

However. you need a window polish to toasts at wedding clear things up. It should however be recalled that some traditionally made swords are forged with such a tight hada that they are muji - there is no visible grain. That's not the same as saying that there is candle no grain. If you have got a tang stamp, work on ancient mathematics, the assumption that the blade is non-traditional in some way. Yankee Candle! If you've got a tang stamp, a hada and when stock market crash, a water tempered hada - ah well now you've got a mild puzzle. Which is yankee groß where this little essay started. Finally, if a hada is not present, the about hamon seems a little dead and there is a tang stamp, then youve got a bog standard, oil-hardened gunto. However, these swords are good for training, as long as you dont attempt tameshigiri.

Japanese swords are one of those areas where it is unwise to be dogmatic. The best advice therefore is to study each individual sword in its own right, assess its quality, keep in mind your purpose for buying one, and take your time in making up your mind.