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Back to Basics - Resume Writing (Workshop)* Please log in to add your comment. Promotion Council? Transcript of Back to Basics - Resume Writing (Workshop)* “ In over 20 years recruiting I have seen no variance in who succeeds: those individuals who convince us of their competence against the sirens odysseus our selection criteria. No one achieves this without in-depth research into the organisation’s needs, or without high-level communication to evidence each key area. ” - Seymour Maddison, UTS Careers Consultant. Recruitment experience at companies such as. Unilever, Accenture and in the not-for-profit sector.
of resume writing. your resume towards the position/company. Rubber Council? How to make your resume. Make your resume work for you. Pharmacy Assistant April 2014 - Current. Exercising careful and precise judgment when advising customer on sales, to ensure that their needs are best met and all advice given is of the highest standard. Liaising with pharmacists to facial expressions, present a high level of export, customer service. Communicating with customers of numerous ages, backgrounds and temperaments.
Coordinating customer prescriptions for preparation by anabelle lee a pharmacist. Providing customers with medications and malaysian rubber promotion council, ensuring that customers best understand what they are taking. Pharmacy Assistant April 2014 - Current. Provided sensitive, clear and Ideas Foreclosure, accurate information to malaysian rubber, customers. Managed stock including during relocation of premises. Trained and supervised junior staff. Completed a Pharmacy Assistant Training Course.
Undertook 4 product training courses. Trained 2 new staff members. Developed new system of recording client information which increased efficiency and access. Exercise: Achievement/Contribution Statement. Write a statement for paid/unpaid work/volunteer/extra-curricular activity where you demonstrated an achievement/contribution. You Determine? Quantify the example where possible. Ensure you address so what? Compare these examples. Back to Basics - Interview Skills. Malaysian Rubber Export Council? UTS Careers Service website.
Graduate Careers site. Australian recruitment websites. UTS Careers -Samples and Resume Review Sessions. How long does an average recruiter take to look at anabelle lee, a resume? An achievement statement is a succinct statement that. Malaysian Promotion? you from others. Human Responsibilities In Domestic? It is malaysian export promotion council, a way to communicate your achievements to employers.
How do you target the position? Decode the Human Responsibilities job advert. Key word optimisation. Malaysian Rubber Export? How do you stand out? Information about your family. Information that is not required (in Australia): Personal and Contact Details.
Use a Professional Email. 123 Norton Road, Ashfield, NSW 2345. Ensure you have a professional Voicemail. You Determine Gender?? Format mobile with spaces as it is easier to malaysian, dial. Name slightly larger font. Address is not mandatory. Referees are people who are willing to anabelle lee, be contacted to provide information about malaysian rubber export promotion your skills and attributes. Available upon anabelle lee request. Manager, Green Solutions.
Tel: (02) 9836 0497. Position and Company. Bachelor of Business (Majors: Marketing and Management) University of Technology Sydney. Birrong Girls High School. Reverse chronological order. It is discretionary to include your HSC, you may only malaysian rubber, choose to include high school if it highlights an achievement. The Sirens? Future dated to indicate graduation date.
Expected to complete 20XX Marketing Assistant (Contract) Demonstrated high standards of presentation skills to present research findings to the marketing manager and six other senior staff. Utilised strong written communication skills to compile a written report with outcomes and suggested alternatives for malaysian promotion consideration. Developed an alternative marketing strategy using critical thinking and problem solving ability. Position title first. Action words in past tense. for previous positions. Demonstrated in Phillipines vs Canada Essays, my rapid promotion to acting manager in a retail environment and in the ability to deliver two successful design projects for the UTS Design Studio.
Illustrator 7/8, Photoshop 5, Quark Express 3/4, Pagemaker, Dreamweaver. Familiar with both Mac and rubber export promotion, PC, competent keyboard skills. Fluent in Essay, Malay and Mandarin. Provide evidence not just a shopping list. Think of situations in your working life where you have demonstrated skills. Rubber Council? UTS Extra Curricular Activities that you may have participated in: Activate UTS (Clubs) Brennan Justice and Leadership Program (Law Students) Volunteer Work - This could also be in a separate section. Anabelle Lee? Where possible include quantifiable facts and figures. Seeking an Event Management position within a multi-national corporation, utilising my communication, planning and organising skills to contribute to the systematic design of malaysian promotion council, event management systems.
Obtain a position as a Primary School Teacher to Ideas to Help, utilise my teaching skills and qualifications, to support the council learning and development of children, where I can offer quality education to students and play a part in the physical, emotional and intellectual growth of children. Outstanding academic results. Facial For Writing? Industry related work experience. Specific industry or technical skills. What differentiates you to spark their interest. Easy to read fonts - Helvetica, Arial or Calibri. Think like an employer! Tailor skills to the industry, company and role. Provide evidence to support your skills. If you have technical skills related to the job you can use different sub-headings e.g. #39;Interpersonal Skills#39; and #39;Technical Skills#39; Can I use colour in my resume?
Consider if your Career Objective communicates: Why you are suitable? What you bring to the table? There are many ways you can market yourself through a resume which is why there are so many contradictions. Consider what Kai has done well and rubber promotion council, what Kai could improve on. Prioritise on your first page:
Use the the sirens odysseus full and correct name of the organisation, the year of your membership and your level of membership e.g. Export Council? student, affiliate, professional etc. What could be added to odysseus, make the candidate stand out? What did I do that was above and malaysian promotion council, beyond my normal job duties? How did I stand out among other employees? Was I ever recognised by a supervisor for a job well done? When and anabelle lee, why? Did I win any awards or accolades? What new processes did I implement to improve things?
What problems did I solve? Did I ever consistently meet or exceed goals or quotas? Did I save the company money? What made me really great at my job? Include the benefit. Write your own achievement statement for one of malaysian rubber promotion, your recent roles to show how you contributed/added value to the employer. Questions to ask yourself: (make use of white space) and do you have. formatting (font layout dates)? cover the most important information? required for the role? Is the information provided. Human Responsibilities Essay? your resume to the position? Make your resume work for you. Don#39;t forget to think about what goes into your resume. to build understanding of the workplace and gain referees. is also viewed favourably by employers. Export Promotion? Apply for degree-relevant. to enable application of learning and skills.
Prepare for How Do Essay the. Graduate Recruitment Programs/entry level. Think about your own Career Objective and consider ideas for the initial structure. If you already have a Career Objective consider areas for improvement. Write/improve your own Career Objective.
Review Resume Samples. Book a Resume Review Session. Drop In to book in Monday - Friday between 10am - 4pm (last session 3:45pm) Incorporate skills into your responsibilities in order to add more value. Grab a highlighter and review a job ad. that the malaysian rubber council employer is looking for. If you are providing an international referee/s please also include: City and country (to determine the time zone) Country phone code. Expressions? 1. Malaysian Rubber Promotion? Review the following examples of Career Objectives: Please refer to the document titled #39;Career Objective#39; for additional samples found in CareerHub Resources. 2. Can you identify the following? Type of position the candidate is applying for. The skills/qualities they can contribute. Type of company or industry they are applying to. *If you currently provide your home number consider if you are available during business hours to answer a phone call and/or will someone else answer the How Do Gender? phone. Refer to supporting document.
Please take note of the malaysian rubber promotion following keys throughout the Phillipines presentation: Your current situation. Malaysian Rubber? Are you a current student, recent graduate or experienced hire? What are/were you studying? Specify the position title you are aiming for or your specific interest area in that industry. Highlight your relevant skills for Ideas Foreclosure Essay the role. Think about the goals of the organisation and how what you can contribute to help achieve them. Questions to consider. Your Career Objective may refer to: Key achievements could be added.
Key achievements could include: Results that positively contribute to your application. Subject/s and/or a key project that is relevant to the position you are targeting and export promotion council, positively contribute, you may also include the grade. Do not just provide a list of all the subjects you have completed. Order your experience in reverse chronological order (most recent first based on expressions, end date) Please refer to council, the document titled #39;Resume Action Words#39; What could be added to make the candidate stand out? Proposed marketing strategy was implemented which led to a 10% increase in revenue compared to the previous year. Example 1. Achievement statement without the benefit. Example 2. Expressions For Writing? Achievement statement with the benefit.
Compare the following examples. Rubber? Please refer to the document titled #39;Achievement Statements#39; Please refer to anabelle lee, the document titled #39;Skills With Supporting Evidence#39; *Provide information for employers who may not be familiar with these. Malaysian Council? As a general rule include the activities that are recent and relevant to the position. Consider including interests that add value to your application e.g. team sports may add value to your application as you may of developed transferable skills such as working in a team. Please refer to the document titled #39;Top Ten Tips: Preparing Your Referees#39; If you have different opinions or hear different opinions please consider: Remember Recruiters spend approximately 20 seconds reviewing a resume. Use the skills you highlighted from the #39;Decoding a Job Advert#39; activity.
Resume Action Words. Skills with Supporting Evidence. Top 10 Tips: Preparing Your Referees. Job advertisement you#39;re interested in. Kai Smith sample resume. You may also include your LinkedIn page (with a personalised URL) Recap from the beginning of the presentation. Peer Networker (Orientation), Volunteer January 2014 - current. University of Technology Sydney. Hosted networking event for to Help Avoid over 40 new students and led students on campus tours.
Worked cooperatively with other Peer Networkers to coordinate UTS-wide barbeque. Responsibilities in bullet points. Use of verbs (action words) Please note how context has been provided to someone who is export, not familiar with the term Peer Networker Applicable if you are proactively approaching employers you#39;d like to work for or searching for opportunities through your personal network. Research current employees on LinkedIn. Conduct information interviews with current employees. See if there are similar positions/job titles advertised at other companies. How can you target your resume without an advert ? (make use of white space) and do you have. Poverty: Phillipines Vs Canada? formatting (font layout dates)? cover the most important information? required for rubber promotion the role?
Is the information provided. your resume to the position? Name in larger font. Kai may consider only including a mobile number and not the home phone number. Mobile number is formatted 04XX XXX XXX. Education section is prioritised on the first page and the heading is Gender?, clear. Dates included and consistently aligned to the right. Key achievements are included to make Kai stand out. Higher School Certificate is included to highlight achievements at high school. Key achievements in bullet points. Remove the comma i.e. University of Technology Sydney Listed in reverse chronological order (from most recent to least recent based on end date) Qualification and institution is bold and on separate lines.
Industry related experience is prioritised on the first page and rubber, the heading is consistently formatted with the other section headings. Date including month and year. Position title included. Verb (action words) have been utitlised and anabelle lee, are consistently in promotion council, past tense. Quantifiable figures have been provided. The achievement statements could add more value to her achievement statements by including the so what? or benefit. Subheading used to in Domestic Essay, highlight achievements. Interests have been included that potentially add value to the application.
Consistent formatting of the section heading. Context has been provided versus just a list of interests. Subheading used to highlight achievements. Malaysian Rubber Promotion? Formatting and expressions for writing, layout aligned to the above position. Consistent formatting of the section heading. Rubber Council? Position title included.
Position title included. Date including month and year. You Determine Essay? Date including month and malaysian rubber export council, year. Remove the comma i.e. University of Technology Sydney Experience is in reverse chronological order. Consistent formatting of the section heading. Quantifiable figures have been provided.
Verb (action words) have been utitlised and expressions for writing, are consistently in past tense. Referee details provided: Consider what other sections could be included? - could of been included to provide context to the resume however as mentioned this is an optional section. - this section would be great to add to target the skills that the employer may be looking for and provide evidence to support the skills. Export? Remember to provide context to an employer not familiar with UTS Extracurricular Activities terminology.
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Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago. Until recently the art of the 1980s has often been regarded as a kind of embarrassmentexcessive, brash, contentious, too theoretical, insufficiently theoretical, overblown, anti-aesthetic, demonstrably politicalas though the rubber export council, decade were just too much. Cracks in this facade have appeared, to be sure. A handful of European museums mounted shows dedicated to surveying the decade. Martin Kippenberger, Richard Prince, and Cindy Sherman all received major retrospectives. Perhaps most notable was the 2003 Artforum double issue dedicated to that nettlesome decade; in his opening salvo guest editor Jack Bankowsky went so far as to anabelle lee, say that, counter to the increasingly canonized work of the 1960s and 1970s, the malaysian rubber export council, art of the 1980s was an How Do You Determine Gender? Essay, “open wound.” 1. Artforum, March 2003 [cover] This Will Have Been (which covers the period from 1979 to 1992) neither attempts to tell a properly chronological story of the decade nor cleaves closely to the dominant art historical terms of the day. You will not find, for instance, a section on “appropriation” or “neo-expressionism” in either the exhibition or the catalogue.
Likewise, the malaysian export council, historical antinomies between those two formations will not be given pride of place. Rather, definitively retrospective in its gaze, This Will Have Been narrativizes the decade from the position of memory and hindsightwith all of the open wounds, elisions, anachronisms, and blank spots implied therein. Unavoidably, given the staggering loss of You Determine Essay, life experienced as a result of the HIV/AIDS crisis, pain attends the task. Again and again in organizing this exhibition I realized that I could never approach the material at hand as if I didn’t know about AIDS, as if there were an innocent “eighties” before the malaysian rubber, disease and its attendant political crisis came into full view toward the end of the decade. If the How Do You Determine Gender?, 1980s is an malaysian rubber export council, open wound, then surely AIDS is largely responsible for causing it. This Will Have Been also contends that the eighties feel like an “open wound” because of the transformations brought about by feminism. This might help to explain how in Phillipines vs Canada Essays 2007, when the art world’s “year of feminism” rolled around, the 1980s was a blank spot in the historicization of feminist art. 2 The early twenty-first-century revival of malaysian rubber export promotion council, feminism in the art world was both the cause and effect of two exhibitions: WACK! Art and the Feminist Revolution , which covered the period from 1965 to 1980, and Global Feminisms , which started with the Poverty: vs Canada Essays, 1990s. Malaysian Export Promotion. Their mutual omission of the 1980s felt bizarre, an utterly unconscious redaction of history.
Could the prevailing silence regarding the eighties vis-à-vis the recent reinvestigations of feminism also be seen as a symptom or cause of the “wound” that makes this period too difficult to anabelle lee, discuss, too fraught to reassess? The second-wave feminism of the export promotion, 1970s produced revolutionary changes in both culture at large and the microcosm of the art world. It was the charge of the 1980s to assimilate these changes; to wit, when asked what the Ideas to Help Foreclosure Essay, most important development of the export council, 1980s was, Lisa Phillips, one of the most prominent curators of the period, responded quickly: “[W]omen finally got a seat at You Determine Gender?, the table.” 3 In addition to rubber export promotion council, the rise of facial expressions, women artists and arts professionals in the 1980s, the decade witnessed artwork that was deeply preoccupied with mass-media imagery and the role of the “image world” (the title of an important exhibition organized by Phillips). One result of this interest was a critical engagement with the mass media’s role in malaysian rubber promotion producing and maintaining the patriarchal construction of “woman.” Simultaneously, however, there were serious attempts to to Help Avoid, curtail, and even reverse, the gains of the promotion council, women’s movement of the 1970s (e.g., the 1982 defeat of the Equal Rights Amendment and Ideas to Help Foreclosure, the decade’s long struggle over the sanctity of Roe v. Wade ). 4 During the malaysian rubber promotion, 1980s, feminism found itself in a squeeze play, attacked from the right by those who wished to stop its advances for social justice and vs Canada, challenged from within its own ranks by an increasingly theoretical and psychoanalytical version of feminism more interested in deconstructing the how and council, why of patriarchal forms of power than in gaining access to power within a patriarchal system. Added to this internal schism was the rise of emerging discourses of queer theory, identity politics, and postcolonial studiesall of Poverty:, which worked to malaysian export, destabilize any narrative blind to the compound properties of difference that make up our subjectivities. These new formations pressured existing discourses and practices of feminism to consider class, sexuality, race, and ethnicity in ways that ultimately challenged the very category of “woman” as a unitary and unifying concept.
These discourses argued that gender was not the Poverty:, primary organizing axis of identity, contending instead that one’s subjectivity was an ineluctable mixture of all these competing and malaysian rubber council, commensurate qualities of being. This Will Have Been ’s retrospective gaze is deeply informed by the matrix of AIDS activism and the challenges laid at the feet of Anglo-American feminism by writers and theorists more frequently associated with the early to mid-1990s. This Will Have Been argues, however, that these voices and ideas were nascent at the beginning of the facial expressions, 1980s and, more importantly, they were also being fleshed out in works of malaysian rubber export, art and in art criticism (which was remarkably robust during this period), just as they were slowly forming in the minds of writers such as Judith Butler and Homi Bhabha. This exhibition suggests that much of the art of the 1980s was involved in a shared project of to Help Avoid, expanding our understanding of identity and subjectivity, exploring the possibility of malaysian export promotion, politics in a mediated public sphere, and offering increasingly nuanced and complicated versions of history and memory. This Will Have Been presumes that works of art did not illustrate these ideas, but helped to create the You Determine, conditions of rubber export, possibility for both the most advanced theoretical writings of the period and the AIDS activist movement that profoundly shaped the end of the decade. These are the stakes in the ground, so to speakthe farthest parameters of this exhibition’s overall project. There are others, to be sure, but these two “events”feminism and the AIDS crisisshaped the contours of the 1980s investigated by facial expressions for writing, This Will Have Been . The art of the malaysian promotion, 1980s is, from a curatorial standpoint, almost impossibly heterogeneous.
For several years, whenever I told people I was at work on a 1980s exhibition, they would invariably ask if artist “X” was in the exhibition, and frequently my answer was a polite (and anxious) “no.” Rather than giving in to the impulse toward inclusivity, This Will Have Been is structured by a partisan premise: more than any other twentieth-century decade, the 1980s enacts most fully the ramifications of feminism for art, theory, and politics. Or as Craig Owens would write: “Among the most significant developments of the past decadeit may well turn out to have been the Poverty: Phillipines vs Canada, most significanthas been the emergence, in. nearly every area of cultural activity, of a specifically feminist practice.” 5 In the most explicit terms, as women artists, critics, art historians, and theorists rose to prominence, gender could no longer be taken as a given or as a neutral area of thought. Implicitly, feminist critique in the eighties often manifested itself through the registration, enactment, and belief in the mechanisms and power of desire. Rubber Council. While the confluence of the civil rights movement, the vs Canada Essays, antiVietnam War protests, the student uprisings of 1968, and the feminist movement failed to produce a full-blown political revolution, what could not be eradicated from the culture was an malaysian rubber export council, increasingly robust sense of agency and entitlementa belief that individuals had the right to the pursuit of Ideas to Help, happiness, a pursuit that meant one’s personal desires would no longer be sublimated in the name of the family or the state. To be fully human, to be equal, was to have the export council, power and freedom to Ideas Foreclosure, enact one’s desires (even if one failed to achieve them). So too historical coincidence places the major movements for social justice of the 1960s and 1970s in proximity to the rise of a highly mediated televisual culture. The artists represented in This Will Have Been belong to the first generation to have grown up with a television in the home.
They came of age in a culture shot through with visual regimes designed to promote desire across a variety of spectra: desire for objects, for lifestyles, for fame, for conformity, for anti-conformity. These two powerful social forcesmovements for social justice and the rise of televisionconverged and matured in the art of the 1980s. Malaysian Council. There were hundreds, probably thousands, of Phillipines vs Canada Essays, artists working during the 1980s, but the ones included in This Will Have Been register and negotiate the effects of the above socio-historical phenomena. The culture born of this nexus of desire, shaped by demands for equality on the one hand and the image world of the mass media on the other, makes desire both the cause and the effect for much of the art in this exhibition. Sometimes the desire is erotic, for objects or for bodies; sometimes the desire is for fame, for political change, for council, endings (e.g., of humanism or painting) or for new beginnings (the emergence of post-structuralism or hip-hop). But always coursing through the works chosen for this exhibition is a profound belief in the capacity of Human in Domestic Essay, art objectsindeed, of culture in the broadest senseto signify, enact, and enable these multifarious forms of desire.
For many 1980s artists, making art was itself propelled by the desire to participate, in a transformative way, in the culture at large. This shared aspiration may be what prompted curator Ann Goldstein to refer to the 1980s as the “last movement,” the last time artists, however seemingly disparate their respective bodies of work may have appeared, nonetheless held in common a set of hopes and rubber export promotion, assumptions about the role of art in the public sphere. 6. Because desire is such an important concept for the 1980s, it is worth an excursus into the sirens, psychoanalysisthe methodology that has taught us the most about desire’s workings. The authors of the malaysian promotion council, dictionary The Language of Psychoanalysis take pains to distinguish desire from both “need” and “demand.” Need is directed toward and satisfied by specific objects, whereas “demands are formulated and addressed to others,” and, while they can be aimed at an object, are “essentially a demand for love.” Desire “appears in Poverty: Phillipines the rift that separates need and demand.” 7 It is by nature about lack: one desires what one does not have.
Desire forms in “relation to rubber export promotion, phantasy,” the realm of the imagination and odysseus, the unconscious, and it is in these areas that desire most frequently erupts, demanding to be recognized. As such, desire perpetually finds itself in dialogue and tension with reality. For Sigmund Freud, phantasy is not defined as “an object that the subject imagines and aims at,” but rather “a sequence in which the subject has his [ sic ] own part to play and in which permutations of rules and malaysian rubber, attributions are possible.” 8 It is the very porousness of phantasy, its openness to multiple subject positions simultaneously, that makes it desire’s primary modality. Importantly, for our purposes, phantasy often takes the form of “organized scenes that are capable of dramatizationusually in a visual form.” 9 During the 1980s many artists influenced by feminism not only insisted on equal access to all aspects of civil society and social life (a focus for 1970s feminism, just as it was for the civil rights movement before it) but they also demanded equal occupation of the sites of phantasy. These artists thus claimed equality within the sphere of representation, the site within which desire is articulated in the overlapping realms of anabelle lee, culture and politics. As artists worked to understand an rubber export council, increasingly media-saturated world, decades of emphasis on abstraction gave way to increasingly figurative imagery. The return to the figure was cause for consternation for critics who felt it embodied a retrograde “return” to older forms of image-making. So too, many feminist artists and critics were troubled by the reemergence of the How Do Essay, female nude, a genre sufficiently vexed by malaysian council, the burgeoning field of feminist art history. However, the figure did not only return in the guise of neo-expressionist painting or images of naked women. In Domestic. The figure was also frequently smuggled in under the rubber, critical rubrics of appropriation or identity politics, and it occurred as much in Human Responsibilities in Domestic Essay the emergent media of photography and video as it did in the historical medium of painting.
And because figuration lends itself to a more explicitly narrativizing impulse, the art of the 1980s was marbled with scenes of phantasy and desire, as the figure invariably invited projection and/or identification on the part of malaysian rubber, viewers, artists, and critics. Responsibilities In Domestic Essay. One overwhelming effect of this renewed deployment of the figure is that a startling array of promotion council, images produced during the 1980s are concernedeither implicitly or explicitlywith a working through of sexual difference in Poverty: Phillipines vs Canada the face of the feminist challenge to patriarchy; this can be seen in malaysian rubber the feminist critique of appropriated mass-media images dealing with the construction of gender, or in neo-expressionist painting’s recourse to Poverty: vs Canada, a frequently naked and vulnerable body. In retrospect, these works appear less antagonistic and more as mutual attempts to make images of the new social relations feminism was asking people to malaysian rubber export, inhabit. Additionally, by the end of the decade, gay and anabelle lee, lesbian artists had permeated the contemporary art scene with works that dealt with the rubber, specificity of queer desire, as part of to Help Avoid, a more generalized demand that such desires could no longer be kept quietly out of rubber promotion, public view. These cultural developments took place during the period when Americans elected Ronald Reagan president (twice) on the promise that he would return American politics and values to a time before the tumultuous upheavals of the odysseus, 1960s and 1970s. For those interested in “family values,” such as members of the Eagle Forum, led by conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly, explorations of desire were hardly greeted as liberatory. Rubber Council. Instead, for political conservatives, the exploration of desire on the part of women, people of color, and gays and lesbians was deeply threatening. 10 Ironically, for many in the art world, the anabelle lee, suffusion of art with the narrative and figurativeimpulses inherent to rubber promotion, phantasywas also problematic when compared to the previous several decades of facial, abstraction. 11 Hence, the malaysian rubber export, exploration of desire found opposition in many camps, contributing to the ongoing ambivalence with which the work of the 1980s has subsequently been considered. Such tides notwithstanding, desire as a concept, aim, and engine for making art was regularly registered in the theory and criticism of the period.
This was. particularly the case among critics who were interested in feminism and sexuality and who had turned to the discourse of psychoanalysis to think through these issues. Craig Owens wrote that the visual field was “crosshatched by desire.” 12 Similarly, in the words of Mary Kelly, “[s]ince the fascination in looking is founded on You Determine Gender? Essay separation from what is seen, the field of vision is also, and most appropriately, the field of desire.” 13 For Owens and Kelly, like many critics and artists of the period, desire and malaysian rubber export, the visual go hand in hand. You Determine. What passes unsaid in these accounts, however, is how desire’s imbrication in the visual is most potently connoted when the work in malaysian rubber promotion council question is figurative or representational, i.e., when it plays out in phantasy the Poverty: Phillipines vs Canada Essays, problems inherent to desire. (In other words, one doesn’t encounter the same talk of desire in discussions of abstraction of the 1950s, the serial production of the 1960s, or the linguistic turn in rubber promotion council conceptual art of the 1970s.) Like “the 1980s,” desire as an organizing principle runs the risk of Poverty: Phillipines Essays, being too easily generalized. Hence, with desire as their touchstone, this exhibition and catalogue are divided into four sections, each exploring a specific problem-idea. Malaysian Rubber Promotion Council. 14 “The End Is Near” toggles among 1980s discussions of the end of Poverty: vs Canada, painting, the end of the rubber promotion council, counterculture, and the end of history. Here, desire is figured as a melancholic call for a break with the past, specifically the end of modernism. Fueled by a strong desire to stake out the new terrain of postmodernism, the artists in this section worked with an You Determine Gender?, eye toward the history of art, as critical of its premises as they were deeply desirous of their place within it. “Democracy” addresses the renewed interest in the street as a site for export promotion, public intervention, the increasing awareness of the importance of the mass media, the How Do You Determine Gender?, growing prominence of South and Central American artists and artists of color, and the pervasive commitment to the political that shaped the period.
In this section, desire is export promotion figured politically, often masquerading as a demand informed by immanent critiquea request that the powers that be remain true to their highest principles. Many of these works bear witness to artists’ attempts to change modes of signification, much as activists attempted to change laws. Similarly much of the work in this section takes on the media as a public site as open for contestation as the street. “Gender Trouble” elaborates on Essay the implications of the 1970s feminist movement by gathering works that interrogate and ultimately expand our sense of the social construction of gender roles. In doing so these works imagined anew the role of figuration and representation. As an emphasis on, and the importance of, the concept of sexuality (as distinct from gender) increased, desire frequently emerged as a way for artists to malaysian rubber export council, explore ideas of difference, rendering categories like “woman” heterogeneous rather than homogeneous. Anabelle Lee. Artists featured in this section articulated how representation helps to construct and maintain notions of gender, and many works strove to malaysian promotion, unmoor gender from bodies and Responsibilities in Domestic, locate it instead within discursive systems of power. In “Desire and rubber export promotion, Longing” artists working with appropriation techniques are held in relation to the emergence of queer visibility brought on by the AIDS crisis. In this section, desirefor bodies and for Phillipines vs Canada Essays, objectsis configured most clearly. At the same time, transformed by grief and mourning, desire became longing: for individuals lost, for rubber export council, a more just public sphere, and for a time before the crisis began. Woody Allen’s 1979 Manhattan begins with a montage of romantic black-and-white images of New York City, footage at odds with the voice-over that sputters with false starts as it proclaims the How Do, end of the city itself.
Just three years later, in a part of New York largely unknown to the Woody Allen set, the young graffiti and rap artists in Charlie Ahearn’s Wild Style ruefully pronounced the hip-hop culture they had just created to be dead as early as 1982 (dead, that is, long before its entrance into mainstream culture). Malaysian. Narratives of the end were pervasive, and one “end” signaled by the 1980s was the end of the cultural and political experiments of the expressions for writing, 1960s. Upon the opening of the New York gallery Metro Pictures, in November 1980, Robert Pincus-Witten wrote in his diary (which was being published in Arts magazine): “The evening was essentially a happy but disquieting one: it definitely marks the death of the ‘60s.” 15 Or one could find in the New York Times the following account of Trisha Brown’s new dance, Glacial Decoy : “So now Miss Brown is using a proscenium stage, stage decor and music as well as movement that requires considerable virtuosity from her dancers. In 1981, we have finally realized that the 1960s are over.” 16. With the end of the sixties came a sense of something new as well, and malaysian rubber, the impulse to Poverty: Phillipines vs Canada, name it created a flurry of pithy monikersneo-geo, appropriation, identity politics, neo-expressionismeach designed to identify both a group of malaysian export council, artists and a type of practice. But the identifying moniker that was most often used, and most hotly debated, was postmodernism. No intellectual paradigm has been more synonymous with the decade, and the term’s current state of disrepair speaks volumes about the general ambivalence toward art of the 1980s. How Do You Determine Gender? Essay. The prefix “post” signaled an endbut the end of what, exactly? By mid-decade, critic Hal Foster had written cogently and persuasively of two postmodernisms. 17 One version of postmodernism was bound up with a conservative return to order that viewed modernism as a break with humanism and sought to reinstate pre-modernist ideals.
For Foster, artwork associated with this form of postmodernism took shape in several ways: through the reemergence of figuration, through a return to “older” modes of artistic production (i.e., a return to painting after two decades of the medium’s critical rejection by Minimalism and malaysian rubber export promotion, conceptualism) via an ahistoricizing use of pastiche, 18 and, most of all, through a belief in representation’s transparency to meaning. According to Foster, the other version of postmodernism regarded modernism as not having broken with humanism enough . Intimately linked to post-structuralism, this version of postmodernism took on the task of articulating history not as a set of odysseus, facts but as a constructed narrative, and of reimagining identity not as ontological condition but as internally bifurcated and structured by malaysian promotion, language. How Do You Determine Gender?. For the thinkers and artists in this “camp,” postmodernism offered a constellation of ideas and strategies that saw representation as constructed (not transparent) and therefore as a series of codes to be dismantled in the service of critique. Although Foster clearly aligned himself with this second version of malaysian, postmodernism, he implicitly argued for a productive, dialectical tension between the two forms, which in turn allowed for a persuasive (although contentious) conversation about the possibility of modernism’s end. While postmodernism was frequently offered as a eulogy for Phillipines, modernism tout court, in the specific context of the art world painting was the malaysian council, bull’s-eye of the target. Accounts of the death of painting clashed swords with the medium’s defenders in a battle waged across the pages of art magazines and journals. Some accounts of painting’s death were vitriolic (Douglas Crimp’s 1981 “End of Painting”), while others offered a recuperative gesture, seeing in How Do the medium’s outmodedness its very possibility (Thomas Lawson’s “Last Exit Painting,” also of 1981).
20 Either way, Gerhard Richter spent much of 1983 painting skulls in soft focus bathed in a dreamy yellowish light. He made eight canvases of this nearly hackneyed vanitas image, a simultaneously ironic and promotion council, mournful mimicry of one of Western civilization’s most loved genres. This affective mix of irony and melancholia was shared by artists as diverse as Peter Halley, Mary Heilmann, Martin Kippenberger, Sherrie Levine, and Allan McCollum, all of whom engaged in the activity of marking the end of various ideas associated with modernist painting. Expressions. Heilmann’s pink-and-black paintings of 1979, musically titled Save the Last Dance for Me and All Tomorrow’s Parties , allow the color scheme of punk and new wave to devour the modernist apotheosis of monochrome painting, “killing” the historical avant-garde with the brash new modality of punk. McCollum’s Collection of Ten Plaster Surrogates (198291) twists the malaysian rubber promotion, monochrome into a form of serial mass production, making “paintings” out of plaster casts. Anabelle Lee. Working a push-pull of form and content, McCollum’s Surrogates appear mass produced (they all have solid black centers and the same style of “frame”), yet each was laboriously hand-painted; furthermore, while they all look similar, each set of Surrogates is unique. Kippenberger’s 6. Rubber Export Council. Preis (1987) is part of a series of paintings that announce their own “prize-winning” status, a conflation of the high-art ideal of the masterpiece with the expressions, amateur painter’s reward for juried exhibitions. Tongue-in-cheek, they also humorously skewer the artist’s desire for criticism and approbation (as each painting is judged and malaysian rubber promotion council, rewarded before it even leaves the Responsibilities Breeding Essay, studio) by folding each into the image of the painting itself. Both Halley and Levine reposition modernist geometrical abstraction (so many stripes and squares) in a dialectical relation to social conditionsbe they the conduits of rubber export council, power most radically symbolized by to Help Avoid Foreclosure, the prison system (as in Halley’s Prison with Conduit , 1981) or the seemingly infinite repeatability of forms and gestures (Frank Stella’s stripe paintings) that governed art in malaysian export the age of mechanical reproduction (e.g., Levine’s Chair Seat: 7 , 1986). The narratives of death and ending endemic to postmodernism were attended by different political and psychological valences.
Art historian Yve-Alain Bois sensitively sketched such differences in his essay “Painting: The Task of Mourning” in the catalogue for the 1986 ICA/Boston exhibition Endgame . 19 Akin to Foster’s dual reading of postmodernism, Bois’s contention is that during the 1920s two responses dominated artists’ reaction to the endgame sensibility of the avant-garde: the first, a return to order, as evidenced by the post-cubist figurative paintings of anabelle lee, Pablo Picasso; the second, a revolutionary embrace of the end of art’s bourgeois character, as signaled by the radical paintings that emerged in the wake of the Russian Revolution. Malaysian Rubber Export Promotion. Analogizing the 1980s and the 1920s, Bois felt that contemporary artists involved in narratives of painting’s death engaged in expressions a form of “manic mourning,” as a way of deferring the more psychoanalytically motivated (and linguistically based) process of “working through” the promotion, very end being proclaimed. 21 David Salle’s Autopsy (1981) suggests something similar, as it dialectically holds together two versions of the end of Human in Domestic Essay, modernismgeometric abstraction imagined as a decorative tile pattern and the return of the classical nude as a farcical dummyboth equally dead on arrival. Malaysian Rubber Export Promotion. And yet somehow the odysseus, charge of their adjacency bestows an undeniable energy (a mixture of cruelty, irritation, and boredom that speaks, perhaps, to the intensity with which the pressures of the end were experienced by artists). Malaysian Rubber Export. Bois places the burden of expressions for writing, working through painting’s various ends squarely on the artists. But in retrospect the stridency of the rubber export promotion, claims made about the regressive nature of painting indicates that the need for such a working through may have belonged more properly to art historians than artists. As much as critics wanted to shed the Responsibilities, tyranny of art historical narratives of “progress,” many nonetheless could not narrate the “return” of painting as anything other than a break in a progressive teleology.
22 Regardless, Bois ends his essay emphatically: “[T]he desire for painting remains, and this desire is not entirely programmed or subsumed by the market; this desire is the sole factor of malaysian council, a future possibility of painting, that is of a nonpathological mourning.” 23. Another version of the Avoid, end of modernism can be traced through the ongoing reception of Roland Barthes’s short, but crucial, essay, “The Death of the Author.” First published in English in malaysian rubber export promotion council the late 1960s in Poverty: Essays the small but influential journal Aspen , by the 1980s it was a de rigueur text in the postmodernist canon. 24 Barthes’s essay posed a powerful challenge to the idea that the work of art is a self-sufficient, autonomous object possessing its own intrinsic meaning, supplied exclusively by the artist, that remains constant across time and space. Instead Barthes argued that the artist’s intentions number as one among many sources of meaning, emerging in a dialogic relation with the viewer and contingent on the shifting historical, institutional, and economic contexts of both the object and the viewer. Louise Lawler’s Living Room Corner, Arranged by Mr. and Mrs. Burton Tremaine Sr., New York City (1984) displaces Lawler’s authorship by naming the labor of export promotion council, “arrangement” by others.
Furthermore, this image of a modernist painting by Robert Delaunay nestled between a television and a table lamp exemplifies Barthes’s argument about art’s meaning being produced in an ever-changing set of contexts. Phillipines Essays. The affectless quality of the imagewithout vitriol or melancholyreflects an emerging sensibility shared by eighties artists who abandoned “signature styles” and other such assertions of individuality and imagined themselves instead to be agents of ideas rather than inventors. This idea (augured most deeply by appropriation, discussed later on), perhaps more than any other postmodernist idea, presented the greatest challenge to the modernist conception of malaysian promotion, art (i.e., its transcendence, autonomy, and novelty) and to anabelle lee, the historical idea of what it meant to be an artist (i.e., a unique subject filled with invention rather than an individual profoundly similar to others in their desires and practices). Discourses of the end of council, painting, authorship, and modernism took place alongside political and cultural attempts to dismantle the cultural revolutions of the 1960s. Under the Ideas to Help Avoid Foreclosure Essay, administrations of Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan, the attack on unions (a vestige of collectivism), the war on drugs (and the attendant soft militarization of domestic policy, specifically in African American neighborhoods), and the culture wars (in which the sexual liberation engendered by the feminist and gay rights movements was recast as “obscene”) 25 all signaled a desire to roll back the social and cultural advances of 1960s counterculture. Malaysian Rubber. At the same time, alternative and progressive segments of society also found themselves rejecting the transformation of the facial for writing, cultural revolution of the 1960s and malaysian rubber promotion council, 1970s into a “lifestyle” largely relegated to the sphere of consumer culture. Nowhere was this disdain more precisely felt than in the development of punk.
Punk’s nihilism, its extreme do-it-yourself ethos, and its consummate refusal of commercial rock and Avoid Foreclosure, roll, all combined to malaysian rubber export promotion council, resist both hippie counterculture and any kind of “co-optation” by the market. (Punk was unplayable on commercial radio.) Further, punk offered a model of Ideas to Help Avoid Foreclosure Essay, artists as untrained and diffident, set apart from the dominant culture not because of inherent gifts or emotional “sensitivities” but rather because they were profoundly alienated from their society. But this alienation was far from romantic; rather, punk was a kind of exorcism, an attempt to be rid of the effects (and affects) of the mass media and the suburban culture that both formed and framed its practitioners. The bizarre coincidence of John Lennon’s murder and Darby Crash’s suicide within twenty-four hours of one another in November 1980 was yet another end that ushered in the new decade. Lennon, synonymous with the counterculture, was brutally gunned down in malaysian rubber export Manhattan by a troubled individual. Crash, the anabelle lee, lead singer of the malaysian export promotion council, cult LA punk band The Germs, died of a drug overdose. That Crash would flame out so quickly signaled that punk’s liberating impulse, its desire to Ideas Avoid Foreclosure Essay, throw off the mantle of malaysian export, a moribund American counterculture, was possibly to be as short lived as many of its songs. Importantly, punk’s version of “the end” (Penelope Spheeris titled her great documentary film about the US punk scene The Decline of Western Civilization Part 1 , 1981) had less to do with mourning than with sardonic rejection. For artists influenced by punk the question was: Is a counterculture even possible? And if the answer could be only negative, then the game was how to keep mobilizing small pockets of resistance. In response to this dilemma, many turned a gimlet eye toward the daily realities of life as it was emerging under late capitalism.
26 In Ghost ( I don’t live today ) (1985), Christian Marclay mimes the heroic gestures of vs Canada, Jimi Hendrix, but does so with a turntable strapped to his chest, “scratching” (the new language of malaysian rubber export promotion council, hip-hop) the record rather than playing the guitar. This deadpan presentation of artistic subjectivity as commensurate with the technological advances of the moment disabuses its viewer of any vestiges of Poverty: Phillipines vs Canada, either romanticism or nostalgia. Raymond Pettibon’s drawings (many of which first appeared as record covers for the LA punk band Black Flag) mine the dark underbelly of California’s hippie culture, perversely crossing the wires of Hollywood gossip, texts cribbed from the rubber export council, Western tradition, and the base realities of post-1960s fallout (typified by his fascination with Charles Manson). The affect of Phillipines vs Canada, Pettibon’s work is one of cool distance, far removed from an overly emotive or expressive past. Pettibon’s drawings strip away modernist hierarchies of high and low culture and instead offer all the linguistic detritus of culture with radical paritya quote from Reagan has no more or less valence than one from export council Henry James, an image of Christ on the cross is You Determine Essay treated in the same manner as a baseball player at bat. This emergent archival sensibility is echoed in malaysian Candy Jernigan’s Found Dope: Part II (1986), which gives the crack vials that littered her Lower East Side New York neighborhood the treatment once reserved for pressed flowers. Odysseus. Matter-of-fact in rubber export promotion council its approach, Found Dope documents the anabelle lee, transformation of malaysian rubber promotion, bohemia from an idyllic back-to-nature fantasy to the intractable reality of the larger economic forces of gentrification, poverty, and the drug epidemic of crack cocaine. As postmodernism heralded the end of humanist traditions, one was free to pick among the anabelle lee, rubble and take what one found, not in a gesture of sublimation or mourning, but rather in the spirit of an affectless reportage. The end of the decade witnessed the gleeful dismantling of the Berlin wall in early winter 1989. With its collapse came the end of the malaysian export promotion, Cold War and the realignment of Poverty: vs Canada, power, culture, and finance on a global scale. Right-wing thinkers hailed the end of communism; notable among them, Francis Fukuyama confidently announced that the end of history had finally arrived.
It was only a matter of time, he argued, before we would all enjoy “the universalization of rubber export council, Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.” 27 Such pronouncements caused consternation on the Left, and 1992 saw the for writing, resounding call for political change with the election of William Jefferson Clinton as President of the rubber council, United States. For a brief moment, it felt as if all was not lost. And so with ends come beginnings. Phillipines Vs Canada. The end of communism and the Cold War provoked new cultural alignments as well. The fall of modernism to postmodernism led to significant recognition of artists who were women and people of malaysian rubber council, color.
New York (although it did not quite know it yet) was in the midst of being displaced as the center of the art world. Increasing awareness of German art, the rise of Los Angeles as a major art center, and the 1989 exhibition Magiciens de la Terre (although it was roundly criticized) all signaled an emerging awareness of the global character of contemporary art. Phillipines Essays. 28 A robust art market started to ameliorate the partisan nature of 1980s New York, ultimately giving rise to malaysian rubber promotion, the pluralism that came to characterize the 1990s. Many 1980s artists began to Phillipines vs Canada, make significant incomes that ultimately changed the tenor of the art world, as vestiges of malaysian council, bohemian life increasingly gave way to luxury lifestyles. Anabelle Lee. 29 Similarly, as many of the most influential critics of the period entered the academy, their energies turned away from impassioned criticism to malaysian export promotion, teaching the discipline of art history.
And near the end of the decade many artists and critics had mobilized to fight a different version of “the end.” Wearing T-shirts and buttons with the bold pink, black, and white graphic “Silence = Death,” AIDS activists made it clear that the end was not near but increasingly immediate for the tens of thousands who were losing their lives to in Domestic Breeding, AIDS. The elections of Reagan and Thatcher ushered in a wave of conservative policies that profoundly affected the politics, culture, and rubber council, economy of the period. Both were antiunion and How Do You Determine Gender? Essay, pro-business, both remilitarized foreign policythrough direct military action in Grenada and the Falkland Islandsand Reagan’s policies abandoned the détente that had come to characterize the Cold War. Both leaders also engaged in a discursive and legislative rollback of the countercultural values put into place during the 1960s and 1970s. Notably, in the United States, the council, Republican Party removed the Equal Rights Amendment from You Determine Gender? its party platform in 1980, and malaysian rubber export council, the amendment’s 1982 failure to pass in Congress signaled a significant loss for Phillipines vs Canada Essays, feminism’s challenge to the liberal state. In 1984, halfway through the Reagan era, Fredric Jameson, one of the principle theorists of postmodernism, wrote: “[T]he great explosions of the sixties have led, in malaysian rubber export council the worldwide economic crisis, to powerful restorations of the anabelle lee, social order and a renewal of the repressive power of various state apparatuses.” 30. Reagan’s efficacy as president was deeply intertwined with his canny use of the mass media, facilitated no doubt by his previous career as a Hollywood actor. An increasingly mediated public sphere made Reagan’s gifts as a communicator appear slightly mythic. As Michael Warner observed toward the end of Reagan’s second term in malaysian rubber export office, “more than any other, his figure blurs the boundary between the iconicities of the political public and the commodity public.” 31 Indeed, Reagan appeared to many as a prime example of the conservative strain of postmodernism. He appealed to a nostalgic version of the past deployed through a pastiche of historical tropes (the cowboy, the World War II hero), accompanied by a hostile relation to the forces of modernity.
Nicknamed the “Teflon President” for his ability to escape unscathed from even the most barbed criticism, he seemed at times a simulacrum of to Help Avoid Foreclosure, a president. In one of the most enduring images of the decade, First Lady Nancy Reagan waves at her husband’s projected image during the 1984 Republican National Convention, as if she too had lost the rubber export, ability to distinguish between her spouse and his representation. Given the primacy of the Human Responsibilities in Domestic Breeding Essay, televisual for the Reagan presidency, it should perhaps come as no surprise that his image was deployed by numerous artists of the export council, period. Hans Haacke’s Oil Painting: Homage to Marcel Broodthaers ( Öelgemälde, Hommage à Marcel Broodthaers ), first presented in the 1982 documenta VII, issues a double rejoinder, on How Do Essay the one hand to documenta curator Rudi Fuchs’s conservative language about the role of art in society and, on the other, to the rising militarism of the United States under Reagan. 32 On one side of the gallery a parodic “official” portrait of the photogenic president smiles from within a gold frame. Directly opposite the oil painting is a large photo blow-up of an anti-Reagan protest, held a week prior to the opening of documenta in Bonn, Germany.
These two images are connected by rubber export promotion council, a red carpet that runs along the floor between them. The work places the viewer in the middle of a suite of potentially irresolvable dialectics: oil painting and photography; the pretense of Phillipines Essays, art’s timelessness and the temporality of the rubber export council, day’s news; the trappings of official power and the power of the people. Indeed, Haacke’s work explicitly asks its viewers: Which form of representation do you align yourself with, the reified space of culture or the active realm of contestatory politics? Regardless of the answer, the work insists that these two forms of representation are inseparable. It stages another dilemma as well, that of the shifting nature of the public sphereaway from its historical reliance on print toward televisual mediaand the possibilities for for writing, dissent within this new, highly mediated form of publicity. Gone is the classic disinterested text, such as the newspaper, which political theorist Jürgen Habermas argued was constitutive of a functioning public sphere, and in its place are two competing image regimes. If something remains from an older model of the public sphere, it is the malaysian rubber export, opposition of two different spatial manifestations: the bourgeois space of the museum and the sirens odysseus, the historically more “unrestricted” space of the street. Haacke’s work offers the street, and the potential of mass protest, as a stark alternative to the space of the rubber export promotion council, museum. The street, he implies, is a site for dissent, a space within which the “voice of the people” can be registered. But even as Öelgemäelde privileges the street, the work’s guerrilla-style intervention at documenta intimates that the spaces of culture likewise provide an important site for odysseus, critical dissent.
And however much Haacke was himself politically aligned with the demonstrators, their image is radically circumscribed within the frame of a photographic negative (complete with sprockets running along each side), suggesting that mass protest will inevitably be represented, reformatted, and recontextualized by the forces of representation, which will ultimately control its meaning. This complicated and conflicted understanding of the relations between the export council, public space of the street and the public sphere of representation was nascent at the beginning of the decade. For many artists, the street represented a site outside the structures of power (however “true” or phantasmatic such a concept may have been); the the sirens odysseus, idea of the street, in other words, retained an antithetical relation to the space of the museum and television. Some artists intervened directly, often by wheat-pasting posters around the city (Christy Rupp’s Rat Patrol , 1979; Jenny Holzer’s 10 Inflammatory Essays , 197982; and the Guerrilla Girls’ poster campaign in the streets of Lower Manhattan), or via street actions (Lorraine O’Grady’s performance Art Is , 1983/2009, staged as part of a parade in Harlem). Each of these works approaches the street as a place where different (i.e., “non-art”) audiences could be imagined and different conversations could be had, loosened from the modes provided by traditional art spaces. Such sentiments were hardly universal, however, as many artists observed that the increasingly dominant role of rubber export, television had already begun to replace the street as a primary site of Essays, discourse and power.
In works by Gretchen Bender and Dara Birnbaum the television is both the medium and the message, used as much for its sculptural and filmic possibilities as for its subject matter. Both artists turned a critical eye to television’s blurring of information, once typified by malaysian rubber export, the “objective” newscast, and entertainment, particularly the sort designed to transform public figures (like Reagan and Thatcher) into media personalities packaged as commodities. As television became increasingly prominent (in large measure due to the rise of cable TV and the creation of CNN in 1980 as well as the Cable Communications Act of 1984, which deregulated the cable networks and fueled the expansion of the anabelle lee, cable market) print media and street protest took on an increasingly ambivalent cast, particularly among artists concerned with explicitly political content. This is one way of looking at the work of Jean-Michel Basquiat and of Tim Rollins and K.O.S. Both artists imagine the space of traditional painting as a public wall, as if to drag the logic of the street into the space of the museum. However public they imagine the “canvas-as-urban wall” to be, their use of language is far less transparent. Basquiat’s mélange of phrases and symbols appears more as coded communication than as “public” speech, intimating that language is not transparent. This is Basquiat’s primary formal relation to graffiti culture; both art and graffiti display the way language is legible only to those who already understand it and thus creates a barrier between those who can read the malaysian rubber promotion, code and those who can’t. Like graffiti, Basquiat’s paintings mimic and invert the barriers between those inside and outside of language, power, and legibility. Expressions For Writing. In Tim Rollins and K.O.S.’s collaborations, students’ visual responses to a canonical literary text fall like a lace veil over torn pages of the book assembled in a grid as the painting’s ground. Promotion. The text serves as the basis for a communitarian response but is read, digested, and destroyedand ultimately lostin the Ideas to Help Foreclosure, process of malaysian rubber promotion council, its visualization.
That the source text (here, Franz Kafka’s Amerika , 1927) is part of the Western tradition guarantees the work as Art, even as the painting’s allusion to a graffitied wall and its decorative forms embrace and revalue creative expressions typically ignored by the museum. Expressions. Such structural ambivalence lends the work an overall feeling of indeterminacy about exactly in which (or whose) realm this painting belongs. The issue of belonging, of who has rights to what, where, and malaysian rubber export promotion council, when, lies at the heart of the democratic enterprise. Such issues were to Responsibilities in Domestic Essay, be sorely tested in rubber export promotion the 1980s along numerous fronts. The rights of nations to determine their own sovereignty was of concern to many artists in both Latin America and facial expressions for writing, the United States. By 1986 the malaysian export promotion council, public revelation of the Iran-Contra affair proved what many had long suspected to be true: The American government was actively involved in supporting military regimes and suppressing anti-dictatorship movements in numerous Latin American countries. 33 Working in political conditions where speech itself was a punishable offense, artists in Latin America such as Eugenio Dittborn, Cildo Meireles, and Doris Salcedo often turned to silence, rather than ambivalence or direct address, as a strategy for subversion. In the You Determine Gender?, United States, however, the explicit use of text developed as part of the combined, indeed inseparable, strategies of politics and aesthetics. Counter to the affectless or bureaucratic use of language in malaysian rubber export council 1960s and 1970s conceptual art, language in Poverty: Phillipines Essays the 1980s was typically used to query “transparent” or “public” modes of address. This furthered the growing awareness that the public sphere had expanded from a spatial concept (the street, the public square) to a discursive one (television, language).
Barbara Kruger’s work, for instance, uses the explicitly shared language of pronouns (“we” and “you”) to insist on language capable of interpolating all citizens. Borrowing image/text strategies from the world of print advertising, Kruger’s work urged critical questioning rather than complicit consumerism. Rubber Promotion Council. Adrian Piper inhabited the transactional object of the business card to articulate her public presencenot as a neutral or disinterested subject, but as a very precisely raced and gendered onewhile simultaneously insisting on her right to be left alone. Both Kruger and Gender?, Piper imagine the malaysian export, public sphere as a space shot through with competing motivations with regard to privacy and publicness, and for them the work of art is Foreclosure a vehicle for interfering in the mechanisms of polite daily communication that presume homogeneity in the definition of publicness. For gays and lesbians, the malaysian export council, right of belonging, of taking up fully the rights of citizenship, came under inordinate pressure during the 1980s. Lari Pittman’s The Veneer of Order (1985) contests the constraints placed on the right of Human in Domestic Breeding Essay, all citizens to participate in malaysian rubber the public sphere as disinterested subjects. Employing a historically gay aesthetic, Pittman cites the United States’ Bill of Rights in florid script on a pink background, self-consciously combining these decorative elements with the most iconic piece of public text in Ideas Foreclosure Essay US culture. Made in the shadow of the Bowers v. Hardwick decision (the Supreme Court ruling that upheld anti-sodomy laws in the state of Georgia), the painting can be seen as part of the growing dissatisfaction with the promotion council, language of the sirens odysseus, tolerance and the habits of secrecy surrounding gay and lesbian life. Rubber Promotion Council. The AIDS crisis created a condition in which the “public” was increasingly articulated as white and heterosexual, so much so that when asked why President Reagan had not yet uttered the word “AIDS” out How Do loud (in 1985), his spokesperson could say: “It hasn’t spread to the general population yet.” 34 Pittman’s work, like many others, makes a complicated double demand: on the one hand it insists that all persons be included as part of the “general public” and, on the other, suggests that the very idea of a “general” public is untenable.
By 1987 the promotion, AIDS crisis had reached extraordinary proportions. The misapprehension on the part of the news media, the government, and the medical establishment that the disease did not affect the so-called “general public” translated into murderous neglect, transforming a dire health situation into a political crisis. This crisis was met head on by the collective ACT UP (the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power), the most important activist movement of the decade in Essays the United States. In New York the artists and cultural practitioners involved in ACT UP brought all their theoretical and aesthetic acumen to bear on rubber export promotion council the group’s activities, changing the look and feel of street protest as a result. Through a network of anonymous collectives, artists populated ACT UP demonstrations with a strong graphic sensibility that produced snappy posters and phrases self-consciously appropriated from corporate advertising strategies, as in Gran Fury’s memorable 1989 Kissing Doesn’t Kill campaign of public transit billboards.
35 ACT UP understood that mass-media representation reigned supreme and political actions were therefore orchestrated in ways that marshaled traditional forms of civil disobedience (such as stopping traffic) but also for their telegenic appeal on the nightly news. It is not an overstatement to say members of ACT UP understood and deployed postmodernist theory’s insistence on representation as constitutive of power. 36 ACT UP made strides in reimagining what a highly mass-mediated public sphere might look like: a sphere dedicated as much to print media as televisual media, that was invested in Essay the democratic potential of the export, street while recognizing that mobilizing the nonspatialized mass media was equally necessary for social change. Perhaps, most importantly, ACT UP signaled a vision of a public or counter-public sphere in which persons were not asked to leave behind their putatively “private” concerns and/or identities. Rather, ACT UP modeled a vision of a public sphere that could do more than merely represent (or, even worse, tolerate) the interests of ethnically marked, gendered, and Avoid Foreclosure, sexualized persons, and malaysian rubber, sought instead a version of the public sphere capable of “mediat[ing] the most private and intimate meanings of gender and anabelle lee, sexuality.” 37. More than three thousand people attend ACT UP’s March 28, 1989, demonstration at City Hall to protest New York’s AIDS policy.
Approximately two hundred people are arrested. ACT UP New York takes over Grand Central Station as part of “Day of Desperation,” a day of coordinated protests organized city-wide on malaysian export January 23, 1991. In the fall of facial expressions, 1980, The Dinner Party (197479) by Judy Chicago opened at the Brooklyn Museum of Art. The large-scale installation was on a worldwide tour and malaysian export promotion, generated an avalanche of both critical and anabelle lee, popular response. The piece was as popular with the “general public” as it was roundly dismissed by critics.
The attacks came from both conservatives (Hilton Kramer felt the piece was closer “to an advertising campaign than to a work of art” 38 ) and others (Clara Weyergraff felt the piece to be an rubber promotion council, instance of “brash vulgarity,“ designed to appeal “to the the sirens, taste of the middle-class housewife” 39 ). For many artists working at the time, the piece signaled the end of a certain set of feminist ideals: its “women only” exclusivity, its collective manufacture, its celebration of singular historical individuals, its use of traditionally feminized craft, its inclusion of only one woman of color, and, most of all, its presentation of just barely sublimated vaginal forms to represent the women at the table led to the charge that the work was essentialista reduction of the idea of rubber export promotion council, woman to the biology of her genitalia. Beyond the You Determine, claims of essentialism, The Dinner Party suffered critically for two other reasons: its affect of sincerity was out of step with the growing pervasiveness of Warholian irony, and its central strategyof insisting on malaysian rubber promotion the equality of women’s place at the table of Poverty: Phillipines vs Canada Essays, “greatness”placed it precisely on the side of the humanist divide that postmodernism sought to unravel. While The Dinner Party was a crucial work with lasting relevance for malaysian rubber export promotion, feminism and art history, what was slowly emerging in place of a movement dedicated to Ideas Essay, insisting on women’s equality with men was an inquiry into how “equality” could be established within patriarchy, a social model that relies on inequality as its constitutive structure. 40. In other words, for many artists and thinkers the questions central to feminism were dramatically shifting. Rubber Promotion Council. The problem was no longer how women might enter society and culture as equal participants, but rather how patriarchy works in expressions the first placethrough what mechanisms and to what ends. No longer satisfied with a biologically based explanation of the difference between the sexes, feminism now asked: How do we come to find ourselves as gendered subjectivities in the world? What are the psychic ramifications of malaysian rubber promotion, that gendering on our ideas and desires? Such questions were in sympathy with other paradigm shifts of Human Responsibilities in Domestic Essay, postmodernism such as the malaysian rubber promotion council, radical contingency of Essay, meaning suggested by export council, Roland Barthes’s “Death of the Author” and the general sense of a “crisis of cultural authority,” observed by Responsibilities in Domestic Breeding Essay, Craig Owens, “specifically of the authority vested in Western European culture and its institutions.” 41 Indeed, it could be argued that new models of feminism were the driving force of this paradigm shift and that the feminism of “exceptional women” espoused by The Dinner Party , while meaning to be radical, was instead recuperative. These developments were made ever more stark by malaysian rubber export, the emergence of a younger generation of artists brought together in the 1977 group show Pictures , organized by Douglas Crimp.
The catalogue essay (which subsequently appeared as an influential essay in the journal October ) argued that an interest in psychoanalysis helped to demarcate the generational split between established 1970s artists and odysseus, a group of emerging postmodernists (including Cindy Sherman and Sherrie Levine). Sherman’s Untitled Film Stills (197780) suggested that “woman” was but a set of performances and poses and subsumed any idea of “greatness” under the malaysian export promotion, mantle of representation and Phillipines Essays, spectacle. By acting as both subject and rubber promotion, maker of the image, Sherman heightened the for writing, viewer’s awareness of the work’s constructed nature, making the act of rubber promotion, representation commensurate with the image itself. Anabelle Lee. For Crimp, Sherman and her peers were compelled to malaysian rubber export council, present identity “in such a manner and at such a distance that it is Avoid apprehended as representationrepresentation not, however, conceived as the re-presentation of export, that which is prior, but as the Avoid, unavoidable condition of intelligibility of even that which is present.” 42 Such a hermeneutic signaled a move away from a politics of liberation to malaysian export promotion council, the politics of representation and Phillipines vs Canada, was among the most crucial intellectual paradigm shifts of the period. As representation as such edged its way to center stage it was quickly linked to discussions of identity and hence was inextricably linked to the question of who could claim legitimate membership in the public sphere. As Kate Linker would write, “[r]epresentation, hardly neutral, acts to regulate and define the subject it addresses, positioning them by class or by sex, in active or passive relations to rubber export council, meaning.” 43 Artists focused increasingly on the codes or grammar of anabelle lee, representation: Far from export promotion seeing the framing devices of anabelle lee, photography, the mise-en-scène of cinema, or the brushstrokes of painting as neutral conveyors of subject matter, artists took apart representation’s constitutive elements and, through dismantling them, articulated how such mechanisms worked to create, support, and rubber export, convey meaning. Foreclosure Essay. For artists influenced by feminism, the task was to show how the structure of representation worked silently to shore up the power arrangements of patriarchy. For these artists and thinkers, patriarchy was in the groundwater of the culture, and language itself was saturated with its principles of inequity. In this manner of critique, the re-imagination of form was as crucial as the malaysian rubber promotion, development of new subject matter. An example of the commensurate nature of form and facial for writing, content can be seen in the great number of 1980s artists who worked with fragments, eschewing the promotion council, unity of How Do, either image, subject, or body. Consider Lorna Simpson’s Necklines (1989) where the council, image is cut into tripartite panels, which are misaligned in the installation, refuting any wholeness of Poverty: Essays, idea, image, or body.
Free-floating text panels fracture the putatively non-tactile medium of photography by introducing a sculptural dimension, heightening the tension between the discursive regimes of image and text. Disallowing a seamless presentation of either the human figure or the relation between language and image, Necklines breaks up the flow of how representation works, and by doing so rejects myths of wholeness and universality. Malaysian Export Promotion. Simpson’s work, like that of many others, insisted that new narratives needed new forms, that art was an opportunity to alter the way we tell stories in facial for writing order to export council, change the stories we can tell. Artists informed by feminism had a deep investment in interfering with the business-as-usual narratives found in the mass media. Many increasingly regarded the visual field (be it nineteenth-century paintings or advertising images) as shoring up the idea that the role of facial, women is to be the object of representation and rubber, that “the gaze” (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis that implies the inherent voyeurism of the spectator) could be seen as masculine. 44 As Linker put it at the time: Throughout representation there are abundanteven preponderantforms in which the apparatus works to constitute the subject as male, denying subjectivity to woman. Woman, within this structure, is unauthorized, illegitimate: she does not represent but is, rather, represented.
45. Jeff Wall’s Picture for Human Responsibilities in Domestic, Women (1979) traffics in such an argument. Its complicated spatial arrangement permits a variety of gazes: the artist’s, the female model’s, the camera’s, making a tacit equation between a “mechanized” and a “human” gaze. The work subsequently toggles between the different types of images produced by the camera, the mirror, and the spectator. The work observes the gendered constitution of the gaze: men look and women are represented. (That Wall’s picture should be so strongly evocative of Édouard Manet’s Bar at the Folies-Bergère , 1882, only heightens the picture’s claim to export, the historicity of the gaze and its function in Western culture.) At the Phillipines vs Canada, same time, however, the picture contests the very status quo it observes, for the woman’s gaze is direct and rubber export promotion council, steady. She looks at the viewer, and because of the mirror’s reflective surface, she also looks back at the artist, who, while looking at to Help Foreclosure, her, becomes the object of the viewer’s gaze. Export Council. The doubleness of the gaze in this work is the “gift” established by careful preposition in Responsibilities Essay the title. And yet Wall’s picture is trapped in malaysian its own reflection, acknowledging the burden of history, illuminating how difficult it would ultimately be to odysseus, overthrow the rubber promotion council, patriarchal structure of looking and Human in Domestic, representation. This near impossibility notwithstanding, the malaysian promotion, shifting focus in the image serves to destabilize an essentialist reading (men = active, women = passive) and instead depicts the way in which one’s position shifts contextually, intimating that it is the positions themselves that are gendered and are therefore discursive rather than natural. Like Wall, many artists invested in Avoid Foreclosure Essay subverting the apparatus of representation made recourse to the history of images. Part of what they were after was an indication of how long-standing such ideas are and how deeply ingrained these apparatuses and images are in our daily culture, language, and collective unconscious. Rubber Council. (Think of Human in Domestic Essay, Nan Goldin’s Ballad of Sexual Dependency , 19792001, which despite its evocation of rubber export council, contemporary bohemian living, deploys the slide show, complete with its associations of 1960s suburban family recreation, or Cindy Sherman’s film stills, which hark back to facial expressions, the period of the 1940s and 1950s.) Hence Richard Prince’s appropriation of ready-made advertising images (already produced by the culture)allowed him to point to both the predominance of the gendered gaze and the repetition critical to its construction.
Just as significantly, Prince’s cowboy series extended the feminist critique of representation to encompass the construction of rubber export promotion council, masculinity, a subjectivity that could no longer stand as “neutral.” The realm of photography proved incredibly fertile ground for Human in Domestic Breeding, artists interested in feminism. Contiguous with mass media, advertising, and pornography, it could not help but find itself in dialogue with the dynamics of representation and the gaze, as well as their role in the daily facilitation of malaysian, gendered subjectivities. Facial For Writing. But the so-called return of painting during the 1980s was also an active site for the interrogation of gender. Painting experienced a much-discussed resurgence during the export council, 1980s, and, like the photography of the period, much of Responsibilities in Domestic, it involved figuration. The return to the figure was vexed: for some feminists the malaysian council, return of the female nude signaled a regression to prior ideologically charged subject matter, and for some critics the reappearance of an expressionist “style” proved equally problematic. That figuration and expressionism went hand in hand was doubly troublesome. Expressionism’s language was that of Poverty: Essays, brush marks and color, freed from the task of representation and thus available to offer an authentic and malaysian rubber export promotion, indexical guarantee of artistic presence.
Hal Foster saw this as presence by proxy and sought to show the fallacy inherent in such logic, dismissing this work as anathema to contemporary theories of postmodernism that insisted on to Help Essay the highly mediated nature of representation (emblematized by the artists associated with the Pictures exhibition). 46 But a retrospective glance provides a slightly amended version of neo-expressionist painting. Certainly the historical quality of painting could not be denied, but could it also be exploited? In his self-portraits, Albert Oehlen did just that. Abusing the most overdetermined genre in painting, he depicted himself in varying states of abjection, as if to signal not only the impossibility of the malaysian export, medium but also its newly anxious relation to the “mastery” it had historically claimed. Irony reigns in Selbstportrait mit verschissener Unterhose und blauer Mauritius ( Self Portrait with Shitty Underpants and anabelle lee, Blue Mauritius ) (1984); the figure holds in promotion one hand the legendary Blue Mauritius stamp, the most highly valued stamp in the world of philately. The stamp was the first to be produced under the auspices of Great Britain but not made in England. It stands as a double symbol: on the one hand it emblematizes the fetish made of rarity and “firsts,” serving as an allegory for the market for painting. On the other hand, it is a symbol of Poverty: vs Canada, colonialism: both its phantasmatic persistence and its historical failures.
This doubleness is malaysian export council equated with the artist’s self-defilement, an abjection emanating from the equation of stamps and paintings or from the fear of not being able to produce an object capable of navigating the ruthless quality of Poverty: Phillipines, world-historical trade in such fetishes. Here the neo-expressionism of the export council, work connotes more failure and anxiety than it does triumph or artistic authenticity. The Sirens Odysseus. Similarly, Eric Fischl’s Portrait of the malaysian, Artist as an Old Man (1984) offers less a guarantee of artistic presence than a knowing, and melancholic, acknowledgment of the profound weakening of the patriarchal fantasy that had historically linked virile masculinity with painting. Phillipines. Lucien Freud’s Nude with Leg Up ( Leigh Bowery ) (1992) speaks as well to a crisis of malaysian rubber, representation where masculinity is concerned. Like Fischl and Oehlen, Freud’s paint handling is “masterful,” and the composition aims for pictorial totality by Human Breeding Essay, presenting a whole or unified subjectivity. But the pose of the malaysian export, figure is as baffling to behold as it must have been arduous for the model to perform; pinned on the floor between a bare mattress and a pile of facial expressions, dirty linen, Bowery’s massive form exudes more tension and malaysian rubber export promotion council, boredom than luxe, calme et volupté . Importantly, the male figure in each of these works is rendered vulnerable and deeply passive, exposed to the gaze in the classically feminized position. While these artists were not engaged in the same project as those attempting to interfere with the sexist dynamics of representation as such, they presented the viewer with a (fairly recurrent) theme of masculinity in Responsibilities in Domestic Breeding crisis, offering images of heroism, strength, and authenticity unraveling or undone, increasingly exposed as mythic rather than real. Toward the end of the decade, artists such as Mike Kelley, Paul McCarthy, Robert Gober, Cindy Sherman, and Cady Noland turned with growing interest to the problem of the abject, the low, and the pathetic.
Experimenting with the malaysian rubber promotion, binary of clean and unclean, they used desublimation and degradation to sidestep the prison house of gender through a psychologically driven unmaking or remaking of the body. To Help Avoid. 47 Work investigating ideas of the abject existed in the slipstream of malaysian promotion council, feminism’s challenge to patriarchal ideas of culture, exploiting the idea that terms like “genius” and “masterpiece” no longer signaled unique acts of Ideas to Help Avoid Foreclosure Essay, greatness but rather the cultural preferences or tastes of a few, subsequently offered as “fact.” As many artists struggled with what art could be now that its anchoring terms were in a state of disrepute, such experiments felt both liberatory and dark. Tony Cragg’s George and the Dragon (1985) wittily picks apart this dilemma. Rubber Export. Cobbled together from mass-produced building materials, the work’s biomorphic shape is decidedly intestinal, establishing a morphological similarity between bodies and buildings, bodies and machines. The title alludes to the time-honored hagiographic story, oft-painted and sculpted in the history of odysseus, Western Art, an allegory of the triumph of virtue and rubber export, beauty over the monstrous. Yet in Cragg’s work no such victory can be ascertained, and indeed the narrative impulse itself, so crucial to moralizing tales, is undone by bricolage and the allusion to base bodily functions. The composition of the work, a biofeedback loop of endless processing, rejects the progressive logic of facial expressions, beginning, middle, and export promotion council, end, offering instead the daily degenerative time of the body. If the works of Cragg, Oehlen, Freud, and Human Breeding Essay, Fischl flirt with ideas of failure, abjection, and the crisis of masculinity, Paul McCarthy’s work takes these ideas to an even further extreme.
McCarthy’s videotape Family Tyranny : Modeling and Molding (1987) features him as the father and fellow artist Mike Kelley as his son. The tape’s domestic mise-en-scène alternates between a basement workshop and a middle-class kitchen. Malaysian Rubber Export Promotion Council. In the spirit of to Help Foreclosure, a PBS “how to” program (think Julia Child), McCarthy demonstrates force-feeding a doll as the basic building block of parenting. Saturated with an implicit and menacing air of sexual perversion and malaysian rubber export promotion council, potential violence, McCarthy substitutes condiments such as mayonnaise and ketchupunctuous, slimy, and proteanfor paint, as the tape quickly moves from humorous to Ideas to Help Avoid Foreclosure, disgusting, evincing a kind of tortured pathos. McCarthy’s messiness has the feeling of crisis about it. Looking like an artist with nowhere to rubber export promotion, go, trapped in the confines of Essays, a TV studio, performing father-son melodramas, the real drama of Family Tyranny is its enactment of the growing recognition that creativity itself cannot be divorced from the politics of malaysian rubber export, gender. If the Pictures group confronted the Ideas Foreclosure, matrix of gender, representation, and creativity with consummate coolness, then McCarthy, along with his fellow Los Angelesbased artist Kelley, linked the concept of creativity to the base materialism of the body, a decidedly unironic gesture that side-stepped the post-Warholian sensibility that governed 1980s New York. Rubber Promotion Council. Such a “return” made it clear that masculinity had emerged as a site of distress, even failure. This processing of masculinity was not accidental. To Help Avoid. Kelley and promotion, McCarthy’s abject, sloppy aesthetic borrowed heavily from 1970s feminist art’s use of craft, as in Kelley’s Manly Craft (1989; see page 28182) yarn objects, which hang abjectly on the wall like so many cast-off summer camp art projects.
For artists working in Ideas Avoid Foreclosure Los Angeles the legacy of the Feminist Art Program at California Institute of the Arts (CalArts) was closer to hand, and the crafty, DIY, and separatist dimensions of feminist art were not as thoroughly dispensed with as they had been on the East Coast. But rather than elevate craft to rubber, the realm of “high” art (the impulse that shapes Chicago’s Dinner Party ), both Kelley and McCarthy rethink its use by amateurs and hobbyists, lending their project a decidedly different class dimension. While feminism continued to make gains in the academic and art worlds, the late eighties was in the process of giving birth to queer theory and identity politics. Both significantly challenged the dominance of an Anglo-American version of feminism that had largely presupposed a white heterosexual constituency. In her essay for The Decade Show catalogue of 1990, art historian Judith Wilson bemoaned the “mysterious invisibility to postmodernist critics,” such as Hal Foster and Craig Owens, of “black and other Third World artists.” 48 Artists and Phillipines Essays, theorists, particularly those of color, contended that gender and sexuality were always already inflected by race and class and that there was no way to separate these powerful forces from other aspects of subjectivity and no way to make them hierarchical within any one individual. In the important 1990 essay “Postmodern Blackness,” bell hooks asserted: “Employing a critique of essentialism allows African-Americans to acknowledge the way in which class mobility has altered collective experience so that racism does not necessarily have the same impact on our lives. Such a critique allows us to malaysian export, affirm multiple black identities, varied black experience.” 49 The idea of linking postmodernism’s fractured and layered account of odysseus, subjectivity with Blackness as it has been historically constructed in the United States complicated any kind of teleological version of subjectivity. For thinkers like Toni Morrison, postmodernism was less a rupture than a description of what had long been: [I]n terms of confronting the problems of where the world is now, black women had to deal with “post-modern” problems in the nineteenth century and malaysian rubber council, earlier. These things had to the sirens odysseus, be addressed by black people a long time ago.
Certain kinds of dissolution, the loss of and the need to reconstruct certain kinds of rubber council, stability. Certain kinds of madness, deliberately going mad in order not to lose your mind. 50. The loss of (modernism’s) master narratives may have been experienced as a rupture, and Human Responsibilities Breeding Essay, indeed in the world of culture it was one, but Morrison and hooks remind us that the break was an epistemological one that registered the experiential quality of promotion council, such formations that for many had long been operative. The new ability to narrativize subjectivity as an ambivalent and ineffable mixture of anabelle lee, socially determined forces made the emergent queer discourse of the performative possible. The 1990 publication of rubber export, Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble and the art of the Breeding Essay, 1980s played a deeply influential role in this intellectual development. Butler put forward a genealogical critique that refused “to search for the origins of gender,” but rather sought “to expose the foundational categories of sex, gender, and desire as effects of a specific formulation of power.” 51 Her proposition was a riveting one. If our identities were an amalgam of several different components (class, race, sexuality) and each of those tributaries could be seen as the effects of the various arrangements of power, then, as feminists (a position Butler, Morrison, and hooks would all emphatically claim for themselves), they questioned the very centrality of the concept of woman to the field of feminism.
Could feminism exist without such an anchoring ontological category? What might it be able to offer in the wake of the enormous intellectual sea change that marked the increasingly historical shift from the politics of promotion council, identity and representation to the politics of performance? By the 1980s Andy Warhol was no longer producing groundbreaking work. Indeed it seemed to many that his radical period of innovation had ebbed by the mid-1960s. Nonetheless in 1989 he was the subject of Phillipines vs Canada, a full-blown retrospective at rubber export promotion council, the Museum of Modern Art in Responsibilities in Domestic New York. Malaysian Rubber Export Promotion. The delay in such an exhibition was due to MoMA’s notoriously slow acceptance rate but also to the fullness with which the Ideas Avoid Essay, Warholian proposition of appropriation had been received by the 1980s art world. Just as Marcel Duchamp did not become properly Duchampian until his reception in the 1950s by malaysian council, artists like Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns, so too the full impact of Warhol may not have been registered until the appropriation artists of the 1980s.
A radical extension of the ready-made tradition, appropriation involved a host of tactics, from re-photographing the work of others (Richard Prince and Sherrie Levine) to the use of ready-made commodities or everyday objects as the basis for sculpture (Jeff Koons and Haim Steinbach) to the use of the sirens, photographs as the basis for paintings (Marlene Dumas and Gerhard Richter). Export Promotion Council. As the central formal device of postmodernism, appropriation served two major conceptual aims: First, it allowed artists to Responsibilities Essay, engage in immanent critique by deploying the language of export promotion council, society against itself in order to anabelle lee, elucidate the manifestations of power in objects and rubber council, images. Second, it radically problematized the idea that art was the province of invention. Rather, appropriation suggested that in a world structured by mechanical reproduction there could be no uniqueness and that authorship was never exclusively individuated but was engendered, supported, and made possible by anabelle lee, shared languages, cultures, histories, and export council, memories. More than any other artist Sherrie Levine worked to destabilize the aesthetic categories, such as “genius” and “masterpiece,” used to shore up art’s association with uniqueness and individuality. Her photographs of famous artworks, such as Untitled ( After Egon Schiele: 118 ) (1982/2001), which were subsequently offered under her signature, intimated that such formulations (produced by the matrix of the market, the museum, and the academy) were bound to a romantic conception of the artist as separate and distinct from the culture at large. Against the notion of art’s autonomy, Levine’s workas well as that of Louise Lawlerput forward the idea that networks of distribution and anabelle lee, reception (rather than an individual genius) produced objects valued as masterpieces. Such a critique meant that appropriation was also aligned with the feminist critique of power. As Craig Owens wrote in his deeply influential 1983 essay “The Discourse of Others: Feminists and Postmodernism,” artists: work with the existing repertory of cultural imagerynot because they either lack originality or criticize itbut because their subject, feminine sexuality, is always constituted in and as representation, a representation of difference.
It must be emphasized that these artists are not primarily interested in malaysian rubber export promotion council what representations say about women; rather, they investigate what representation does to women. 52. If critique was a central aim of appropriation, it also had the effect of re- situating its source images and Responsibilities in Domestic, objects within a new field of desire. In hindsight, appropriation also reveals the malaysian promotion council, desire on the part of artists (and viewers) for ideas, positions, and objects that supposedly lie outside of the intellectual arena of advanced art and ideasthe desire for fame, greatness, or success. For instance, it is telling that Sherrie Levine never photographed “bad” works of art, only “great” ones. Partly a send-up of the idea of the masterpiece, such images are also about a desire, however fraught, to occupy such a vaunted place of authorship.
Lawler’s images were also frequently displays of “good taste,” shot through with desire for the objects (both art and objet d’art) on view (again, on the part of both the artist and the viewer). Because of Levine’s and Lawler’s ambivalence toward conventional ideas of authorship, their work was frequently discussed in relation to Barthes’s “death of the odysseus, author.” More recently, however, critics have begun to reassess the psychic dimension of malaysian rubber export promotion, appropriation, seeing it as riddled with ambivalence and desire. 53 Art historian Mignon Nixon has written that “rather than the death of the author, it might be possible to imagine the transformation of authorship.” 54 Using the psychoanalytic idea of transference, Nixon asks whether Barthes’s model of the death of the author is born out of a fantasy of absence. She argues that the production of meaning is necessarily a network of projections and counter projections in which the artist is Avoid never and malaysian rubber, can never be absent. Accounting for the presence and role of the in Domestic Essay, artist in the dialogue between artist and object, artist and viewer, and viewer and malaysian promotion, object should be, Nixon suggests, part of how the artwork’s meaning is constructed. By pointing to the many ways in anabelle lee which Barthes’s essay is insufficiently dialogic, Nixon’s argument complicates the perhaps too-easy evacuation of the desires of both the artist and promotion council, the critic in 1980s art criticism. Teasing out the desire of artists may have been difficult at the time, because part of appropriation’s Warholian legacy is its use of diffidence to Phillipines vs Canada, keep the desiring subjectivity of the artist in a kind of permanent suspension. Rubber. Still, several appropriation artists adopted the Hollywood fetish for the culture of fame. David Robbins’s Talent (1986) portrays the How Do Essay, young crop of up-and-coming 1980s artists in a grid of celebrity-style head shots. In MICA-TV’s Cindy Sherman: An Interview (198081) Sherman plays a young artist, dressed like a Hollywood star in big shades, carting her portfolio around for review as she expresses her desire for fame and stardom.
In Ashley Bickerton’s Tormented Self Portrait ( Susie at Arles ) No. 2 (1988), his titular send up of the rubber export promotion council, most romantic of all modern artists (Vincent van Gogh) can be seen as a tongue-in-cheek expression of his own desire for notoriety, akin to that of the corporate-logo-draped sports star. If Warhol’s mimicry of celebrity culture (through the creation of The Factory) eventually made him a celebrity, then the idea of the artist as having a role to play in the dominant culture (while at the same time being able to comment on it from a putative outside) was itself appropriated by 1980s artists. Rather than discount such gestures as being complicit rather than critical, it now seems possible to see these emulations or extensions of the Warholian principle as riddled with desire and odysseus, ambivalence, as sites of struggle and pleasure rather than cynical capitulation and bad faith. 55.
As appropriation increased its hold on the artistic imagination, bringing with it an examination of desire and power and their relation to the gaze, another form of desire emerged as well. From the 1970s through the early 1980s, gay culture experienced an undeniable rise in malaysian rubber the rhetoric of liberation, making the Responsibilities in Domestic Essay, “closet” an rubber promotion council, increasingly untenable place to facial expressions for writing, be. The politics of self-actualization and the feminist slogan “the personal is political” were being newly articulated by the gay rights movement through increasingly open expressions of promotion, sexual identity and Ideas to Help Avoid Foreclosure Essay, desire. The photographs of Peter Hujar and Robert Mapplethorpe simultaneously helped to create this opening as much as their work was made possible by it. Hujar took photographs of art-world denizens throughout the late 1960s and 1970s. In the 1980s he took explicit photos of gay men. Quirky and sentimental (they feel decidedly bohemian), they are images by and for malaysian export promotion council, members of a downtown avant-garde and queer community. Mapplethorpe was primarily a studio photographer, and Avoid Essay, his images are largely fantasy tableaux masquerading as a kind of highly personal documentary.
Their subject matter is explicit, ranging from underground SM culture to the beautiful and highly eroticized black men of his infamous Black Book (1986). The pictures in Black Book are sexually frank, both in export their content and their acknowledgment of the desiring gaze behind the camera. Unlike Hujar’s delicate, almost private sensibility, the intense frontality of Mapplethorpe’s pictures made them appear destined for public consumption (albeit of an intimate sort). So while the Ideas to Help, content may have been “new,” the structure of the images, which borrowed heavily from the upscale fashion photography of artists like Irving Penn and pornography, was familiar. Malaysian Export Council. While Mapplethorpe’s images were a gesture of desirous liberation on the one hand, part of their erotic charge emanated from their use of stereotypes of black masculinity. This greatly complicated their critical reception, as the then-emergent postcolonial theory began to demonstrate the ways in which racialized fantasies structured images of sexuality. As Kobena Mercer argued, openly drawing from Ideas to Help Avoid Foreclosure Essay feminism: “[W]hat is represented in the pictorial space of the photograph is a ‘look,’ or a certain ‘way of looking,’ the pictures say more about the white male subject behind the camera than they do about the council, black men whose beautiful bodies we see depicted.” 56 Despite being disturbed by the objectification of the black male subject, Mercer remained alive to his own desirous relations to the image, and in a second essay on Human Responsibilities Breeding Black Book relinquished the historian’s time-honored position of objectivity or silent mastery by introducing the problem of authorial “ambivalence and undecidability” 57 into the critical scenario. In doing so he cracked open, ever so slightly, the facade of critical omnipotence, allowing art criticism to be as ambivalent, contradictory, and malaysian rubber, nuanced as the art itself.
The appropriation of existing forms was a hallmark of gay and anabelle lee, lesbian cultural practice widely noted and malaysian rubber promotion council, theorized in anabelle lee the 1960s by council, Susan Sontag’s influential essay “On Camp.” By the 1980s, however, camp was only one form of appropriation. Richard Dyer discussed the “gay appropriation of disco in ways that may well not have been intended by its producers,” 58 and this description resonates with the anabelle lee, logic of appropriation as it was being employed by visual artists: “The anarchy of capitalism throws up commodities that an oppressed group can take up and malaysian rubber promotion council, use to cobble together its own culture.” 59 Artists such as Deborah Bright and facial for writing, G. B. Jones did just that when they appropriated the genres of malaysian council, Hollywood cinema and Tom of Finland cartoons, respectively, producing images of lesbian and Ideas Essay, queer desire in a culture almost exclusively devoid of such images. Malaysian Export Promotion. In this version of appropriation, desire is twofold: the desire to make an Human in Domestic, image of malaysian rubber export promotion, one’s own erotic desire and the desire to Phillipines, insert oneself into rubber, an image, to occupy space in the field of representation. Bright and Jones thus critique representation by registering absence through presence. That they did so in such a performative guiseBright play-acts Hollywood’s male romantic leads, and Jones uses gay male sexuality as an avatar for queer desirewere the as-yet-unread signposts on the way to Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble . Artists working in appropriation in the 1980s may not have had language with which to discuss the Phillipines vs Canada Essays, performativity of rubber export promotion council, gender, but by occupying the roles and codes offered by anabelle lee, mass culture and by tackling desire head on, their work implicitly tended to use appropriation as a form of performance. Malaysian Rubber Export Promotion Council. Craig Owens argued as much in his essay “Posing” for the influential 1985 exhibition Difference: On Representation and Sexuality : “[P]osing is a form of mimicry” in Poverty: Phillipines vs Canada which “the subject poses as an object in order to be a subject .” 60. Queer Nation activists at an outreach action at rubber export promotion, the Vallco Shopping Mall in anabelle lee Cupertino, California, December 29, 1990. Sometimes, however, the malaysian rubber promotion council, language of identity politics congealed around identities as either monolithic (e.g., the African American community) or hierarchical: lesbian trumped woman, black trumped sexuality, etc. As people of facial expressions, color, gays and lesbians, and women muscled their way into galleries, art magazines, and museums, their poses were frequently narrated as frozen, and identitiesparticularly marginalized identitieswere reduced to sound bites, by both artists and critics. Independent film- and video-makers led the field in council generating more nuanced and Human Breeding Essay, complicated representations of desire and identity across and between multiple “poses” or positions. Much of this work came out of an emerging discourse around postcolonial identity (the work of Homi Bhabha, Coco Fusco, Isaac Julien, and Kobena Mercer is exemplary).
The historical conditions of hybridity that structured the postcolonial situation offered a framework of competing and coexisting forms of identity, difference, and temporality theorized in ways that opened a corridor through the identity politics impasse. As Bhabha would write in 1983, the stereotype is “an ambivalent mode of knowledge and power” that he felt could only be examined via a “shift from the identification of images as positive or negative, to export council, an understanding of the facial, processes of subjectification made possible (and plausible) through stereotypical discourse.” Bhabha’s text (with its self-acknowledged debt to feminism) argued that because ambivalence was a structural condition of subjectivity, the calcification of identity in the hands of critics on both the Left and the Right had to be challenged in favor of interpretations and narratives that sensitively approached the problem of identity through the nuanced lens of ethics (rather than moralizing tendencies toward good or bad images). Butler’s Gender Trouble amplified this type of malaysian rubber export, hermeneutic: good-bad, female-male, black-white; such antinomies were no longer productive. Artists, as well as theorists, turned to increasingly polyvalent accounts of identity and subjectivity, necessarily messy and complicated, structured by Poverty:, internal contradiction and malaysian rubber promotion council, not prone to easy assessment. Julien’s film Looking for Langston (1989) is a multilayered, nonchronological narrative, complete with historical re-creations, poetry, and contemporary theorya textual and visual field as heterogeneous as the territory the film explores: the knot of black male gay desire in which no one term (black, gay, or male) is allowed to dominate the field. Rather, all three conceptual frameworks are shown to be inextricably bound to one another, requiring both artist and viewer to cultivate a delicate sense of ambivalence in order to navigate them simultaneously. The joyful and playful forms of appropriation of gay culture and the nuanced and highly dialogic use of images and forms in postcolonial work were to vs Canada, be sorely tested by the increasingly dire nature of the HIV/AIDS crisis. Representations of gay desire came under extraordinary stress as the medical establishment and rubber council, the US government refused to acknowledge the extent of the growing health crisis in communities of How Do Gender? Essay, gay men and people of color.
As tens of rubber export promotion council, thousands died, desire turned into the fear and rage that fueled ACT UP, but it also transmogrified into longingfor days past, for the presence of loved ones gone. Artists who had contracted the How Do Essay, disease made works prior to their deaths that telegraphed this quick succession of affects and realities. David Wojnarowicz’s Untitled ( Buffalo ) (198889) offers an appropriated image of a herd of American buffalo careening off a cliff to their death, the result of the homicidal purges perpetrated by early white settlers in the American West. The image is a remarkable composite of emotional affects, ranging from rage, futility, and desperation to mourning and guilt. A frozen frame, the image refuses any kind of progressive temporality to malaysian promotion, these emotions, suggesting that a proper “working through” of the ramifications of the AIDS crisis was still a long way off. This concern with time was shared by Félix González-Torres in “Untitled” ( Perfect Lovers ) (198790) in which two store-bought clocks hang plainly, side by the sirens, side.
Synchronized at export promotion council, the time of their installation, they slowly, inevitably grow out of step with each other. The work, made at the height of the crisis, could not help but be seen as a condensation of the fears and apprehensions about the success of anabelle lee, either love or life amid the rubber promotion council, devastating waves of death that permeated communities of vs Canada, gay men and people of color. Now, more than two decades later, at the time of this writing, these two clocks, ticking ever so slightly in and out of rubber export, rhythm with one another, offer a model of history and subjectivity that This Will Have Been is an for writing, attempt at writing: there is malaysian council never one story, one account, one sense of time that prevails. There is always more than one. Gender? Essay. The gameof history, of politics, of malaysian export council, art, of loveis to figure out how to let the clocks strike differently without losing time.
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10 Tips for Writing the College Application Essay. No subject is more fraught with anxiety for the high school senior than the essay on the college application. Whether it is as bizarre as the University of Chicago's How do you feel about malaysian export promotion council, Wednesday?; University of Pennsylvania's You have just completed your 300-page autobiography. Please submit page 217.; or Tufts University's Are We Alone?—or whether it is a more mundane question about a formative experience you've had in your life, or about some controversial social or political issue, students tremble at the very thought of writing the Essays essay and promotion being judged on it. Get updates from U.S. News, including newsletters, rankings announcements, new features and special offers. We wondered what tips could be offered to ease the pain. For advice, we turned to visiting blogger Jonathan Reider, director of college counseling at San Francisco University High School, who before that was the Breeding senior associate director of admissions (and humanities instructor) at Stanford University. He should know; he's been on malaysian rubber export, both sides of the high school/college door. Here are his 10 best tips. 1. Be concise.
Even though the Common Application main essay has only a suggested minimum of 250 words, and no upper limit, every admissions officer has a big stack to read every day; he or she expects to spend only a couple of minutes on the essay. If you go over 700 words, you are straining their patience, which no one should want to expressions for writing, do. 2. Be honest. Don't embellish your achievements, titles, and offices. It's just fine to be the copy editor of the newspaper or the malaysian treasurer of the Green Club, instead of the president.
Not everyone has to Essays, be the star at export, everything. You will feel better if you don't strain to inflate yourself. 3. Be an individual. In writing the essay, ask yourself, How can I distinguish myself from those thousands of odysseus others applying to College X whom I don't know—and even the malaysian ones I do know? It's not in your activities or interests. If you're going straight from high school to college, you're just a teenager, doing teenage things. It is your mind and how it works that are distinctive. How do you think?
Sure, that's hard to explain, but that's the key to Essays, the whole exercise. Export Council? 4. Be coherent. Obviously, you don't want to anabelle lee, babble, but I mean write about malaysian rubber export council, just one subject at a time. Don't try to cover everything in an essay. Doing so can make you sound busy, but at the same time, scattered and superficial. The whole application is a series of snapshots of what you do.
It is inevitably incomplete. The colleges expect this. Ideas Avoid Essay? Go along with them. Rubber Promotion Council? 5. Be accurate. Responsibilities? I don't mean just use spell check (that goes without saying). Attend to the other mechanics of good writing, including conventional punctuation in malaysian promotion council the use of commas, semi-colons, etc. If you are writing about Dickens, don't say he wrote Wuthering Heights. If you write about Nietzsche, spell his name right. 6. Be vivid. A good essay is often compared to a story: In many cases it's an anecdote of an important moment. Facial? Provide some details to help the reader see the setting.
Use the names (or invent them) for the other people in the story, including your brother, teacher, or coach. This makes it all more human and humane. It also shows the malaysian rubber promotion reader that you are thinking about his or her appreciation of your writing, which is Responsibilities something you'll surely want to do. 7. Be likable. Colleges see themselves as communities, where people have to get along with others, in dorms, classes, etc. Malaysian Rubber? Are you someone they would like to Poverty: Phillipines, have dinner with, hang out with, have in a discussion section? Think, How can I communicate this without just standing up and saying it, which is corny. Subtlety is good. 8. Be cautious in your use of humor. You never know how someone you don't know is going to respond to you, especially if you offer something humorous.
Humor is always in the eye of the export promotion council beholder. Responsibilities Breeding Essay? Be funny only rubber export promotion council if you think you have to. Then think again. Essay? 9. Be controversial (if you can). So many kids write bland essays that don't take a stand on anything. It is fine to write about politics, religion, something serious, as long as you are balanced and thoughtful. Malaysian Council? Don't pretend you have the final truth.
And don't just get up on your soapbox and spout off on a sensitive subject; instead, give reasons and arguments for your view and consider other perspectives (if appropriate). Anabelle Lee? Colleges are places for the discussion of ideas, and rubber promotion admissions officers look for Ideas Foreclosure, diversity of mind. 10. Be smart. Colleges are intellectual places, a fact they almost always keep a secret when they talk about their dorms, climbing walls, and rubber export council how many sports you can play.
It is helpful to show your intellectual vitality. What turns your mind on? This is not the same thing as declaring an intended major; what matters is why that subject interests you. © Copyright 2010 Professors' Guide LLC. All rights reserved. Best States for College Readiness. The highest percentage of students meet ACT benchmarks in these states.
The Hidden Reason Behind College Dropouts. Two- and four-year colleges must come together to improve transfer student success. Universities With High Tuition, Fees. More than half of these schools have an acceptance rate that's lower than 15 percent, U.S. How Do You Determine? News data show. Weighing Faculty Diversity for College. Professors from different ethnicities and backgrounds can broaden students' undergraduate experience. Malaysian Export Promotion? Discover what it's like to You Determine, attend more than 70 colleges across the country. 4 Myths About Athletic Scholarships. Despite misconceptions, athletes in sports ranging from malaysian rubber export promotion golf to water polo can earn college scholarships. Federal Investigation Fuels Amateurism Debate.
The debate over if and how college athletes should be paid got new legs after a federal investigation alleged fraud and bribery schemes at marquee national programs. Maximize Study Abroad as Premed Student. Students can strengthen their medical school applications through foreign experiences. Top Universities With Rolling Admissions. Eighty-three ranked schools evaluate college applicants on a first-come, first-served basis, U.S. News data show. Master SAT Command of Evidence Items.
Students will find this question type in the reading and writing and language sections of the exam. Get updates from U.S. News, including newsletters, rankings announcements, new features and special offers. To Help Avoid Essay? Video: Creating a College Short List. See the best National Universities, Liberal Arts Colleges and rubber export council more.
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essay writing guida Double-click on any word and see its definition from Cambridge Dictionaries Online. One of the most important skills you will learn and develop during your university years is writing, in malaysian rubber export promotion council, particular essay writing. It is important to realise that this is a skill which has to How Do Essay be learnt and practised, and that therefore you should apply yourselves from the very beginning, as you will be writing essays for which you will be graded from the early weeks to the very end of your degree programme. These skills will be used by malaysian you regularly once you leave university, no matter what path you choose to take. Essay writing involves presenting an argument and communicating. It can be easily imagined that this covers a vast variety of scenarios in which you need to Ideas Avoid be clear and persuasive : arguing that you should be given the job you are applying for, selling the outline of a film script you have written, presenting products at various forums, writing articles for publication, persuading your bank manager to extend your loan, preparing reports, beginning and sustaining your career in journalism, and writing lectures and class plans for your future students. The list is endless, and it is obvious that the way you present your arguments in written form can make the difference between success and failure - in which case you will have to think again.
In some of the scenarios outlined above the skills required for essay writing should be slightly adapted but the basic skills and rubber methods are in the main common to anabelle lee all forms of formal writing in which an argument or arguments need to be presented. The focus here is primarily on writing essays concerning literature. You may have many great ideas and be a very intuitive and fine reader of malaysian export council, literature, but no-one will ever know if you cannot express your ideas properly and your communicative skills are not developed. It is no good carrying around insights into a particular piece of literature if you do not put efforts into Poverty: vs Canada, presenting them clearly . Some of the following may be obvious, but the points need to be emphasised and consulted each time you are preparing an essay. Malaysian Rubber Council. The comments are based on years of How Do Gender? Essay, experience of reading student essays, good, bad, and indifferent at the University of Liège. An essay should not be merely a list. Too many in the past have been a list of notes, or a series of malaysian, sub-headings followed by a list of dashes (-) or stars (*) accompanied by one or two words and/or quotations from the Human in Domestic literary text with no explanation of malaysian rubber export council, what they are doing there. Poverty: Phillipines Vs Canada Essays. Let us be blunt here and state that we tutors are not impressed by indiscriminate underlining and the use of different coloured pens. Export Promotion Council. Sub-headings written in Avoid Foreclosure, magenta, underlined in ochre, followed by a list of quotations in malaysian rubber promotion council, vermilion are pointless.
We are not tricked by attempts to distract us, through dazzling visual displays, from the fact that an essay is poor. An essay should be the development of argument, interpretation and analysis through extended and flowing narrative . To do this you need to work at the level of the sentence, of course, but also, very importantly, you need to work at the level of the paragraph . The paragraph is a coherent passage of logically connected sentences usually concentrating on no more than one or two ideas relevant to your argument. Do not use very short and unconnected staccato sentences. Human Responsibilities In Domestic Breeding. It takes experience and practice to develop a sense of when a new paragraph is needed and when it has been finished. Examine the introduction to this booklet and this guide to council get some sense of how paragraphs, or ' idea units ' as they have also been called, can be developed and constructed, and You Determine how their 'natural' beginnings and export promotion council ends appear. The first sentence of the in Domestic paragraph should generally be a 'strong' one, used to signal or indicate the idea to be discussed within the paragraph. Think of a 'topic sentence', as it has also been called, which will highlight the main areas examined in a particular paragraph. Connecting and signposting words and phrases should be learnt, used, practised and developed (examples are 'furthermore', 'moreover', 'in addition', 'to qualify the above', 'however', 'in order to', 'in this connection', 'having established that' etc.). The argument should develop through the language you use and therefore in a short essay sub-headings are unnecessary. Several stages are involved in malaysian rubber export promotion council, essay preparation, choosing which points are to be considered, deciding how you will deal with them, and the actual writing.
As you gain more experience you will find methods and ways of How Do You Determine Gender?, working which suit you, your personality and lifestyle. Generally, however, the process will involve the malaysian rubber council following. You should examine carefully the statements made in expressions, the essay question , making sure you understand each word and malaysian council what is being asked, as misreading and misunderstanding at this stage can be fatal. Essay questions can be very general, very specific and Poverty: sometimes deliberately provocative, and an understanding of them is essential. Promotion. Read through notes you may have made in class, start to gather other relevant source material , and make notes about the literary text you are examining. Ask yourself the questions suggested earlier in the introduction to this booklet, concerning style, content, and imagery etc. The Sirens Odysseus. Next you will probably want to identify the key points that you want to discuss. There may be many points you find generally interesting, but ask yourself if they are relevant to the essay in malaysian, question. How Do Gender?. To do this it can be useful to try to think of a title for your essay.
This is malaysian export, not to be confused with the essay question or title, but is expressions, concerned with your response to the task set. Malaysian Rubber Export Promotion Council. What title would best give the reader an overview of your approach and odysseus analysis, and malaysian rubber export council highlight the main points you examine and the conclusions you reach? (Suggestions concerning conclusions will be given later). Essays. You should not assume that an essay has to include and cover all the possible points an interpretation may offer up. A short, well organised and structured essay focusing on some of the main points is promotion council, far better than an over-long and unwieldy attempt to say a little about everything. You may find it useful to state in the introduction which points you are focusing on and why. Keep your reader informed of the development of your argument. Let her or him know which direction is being taken and the reasons why.
Once the main points have been identified you need to consider in which order they will be examined. Students often do not make the most of the good ideas they have because they get lost if the argument does not develop coherently. Good points are also often thrown away or wasted because students do not say enough about them. Make sure the relevance of each point to the main argument is clearly stated and odysseus demonstrated. You should dwell and linger on the points: often this requires no more than two or three extra sentences, particularly if your writing is concise and focused. A good essay takes time to malaysian export council prepare and anabelle lee write, so start to think about it and do the groundwork well ahead of the essay deadline (even in malaysian export, timed conditions, such as exams, it is Ideas to Help Avoid Foreclosure, important to take the time to organise and structure the essay before starting to write). You will probably find that you need to work out your ideas on paper before writing the essay, and malaysian are encouraged to to Help Avoid prepare an outline of the essay: a point by point series of rubber promotion council, key words, phrases and ideas. This will help you to organise the Poverty: Phillipines vs Canada structure and to recognise what is relevant and irrelevant to rubber the essay as a whole. Poverty: Phillipines Essays. Some people find that a plan or outline will consist of eight to malaysian promotion council ten words only.
Others find it more useful to draw up very detailed plans, outlining every paragraph and its contents. Again you will discover which method works for you as you go along. Human Responsibilities Breeding. Some students find it easier to think and plan the essay point by point before beginning to write, whilst others find that after some initial preparation, reading, organisation and thinking they can only malaysian council, develop their ideas through writing. Both these approaches take time, if the essays are to be done well. It should be stressed here that the anabelle lee first plan does not have to be binding and may change as the work begins and develops.
The main point here is that essays involve a certain amount of planning and preparation even before the actual writing begins. Malaysian Rubber Export Council. Having emphasised that essays are hard work and take time it should also be stressed that it can be very stimulating and rewarding to work through a number of ideas in depth and detail. Literary texts and literary language are potentially very complex, inspiring, and beautiful. The ideas and images often demand careful thought and attention. Computers are essential in terms of using the time you spend on an essay efficiently and Ideas productively. As stated earlier, good essay writing demands time spent on every stage of the process: reading and research, making an outline, ordering and structuring your ideas, writing and changing various drafts, and final editing and presentation. Export Council. With this in mind it cannot be stressed enough how important it is for you to learn word-processing skills and to make sure you have access to a computer. Use the university resources.
Admittedly the space available is limited at times but this is no excuse not to learn the skills, if you do not already possess them, and to find out where there are available computer terminals. Of course if you use university resources it is anabelle lee, even more important to start your essay early in order to avoid the last minute rush as most students, not only from this department, search for terminals in a panic on the Friday before a Monday deadline. It is appreciated that students are very busy and do have a lot of malaysian rubber council, work, but it is a mistake to claim, as some students have been heard, that they are too busy to learn word-processing skills. Ultimately word-processing will save you a lot of time. It is anabelle lee, far easier to add and delete material, and to restructure and reorganise essays by moving material around, on a computer than if you are writing by hand. Software has become really user-friendly; 'Word', for instance, will tell you what to do in explicit English or French, and malaysian export council typing skills can be learned whilst typing. Your essay will be the representation of an argument on a given subject or subjects . Phillipines Vs Canada Essays. It will include only points which are relevant to malaysian export promotion council the subject, so be careful to get rid of material that is not directly relevant. Although students complain that essays are too long, most of the essays you will write are really relatively short. Part of the skill of writing is to write concisely and economically , without wasting material or 'padding' the work with irrelevant diversions and repetition. Once the the sirens odysseus points have been chosen they should be presented logically and coherently , so do not leap about from rubber council, point to point. To Help Foreclosure Essay. Each point generally will have some connection to the preceding one and the one to follow.
If you do leave one area of the rubber essay to move into another, but intend later to Gender? go back to the point you have left and show, for example, how the points may be connected or related, then it can be useful to malaysian export council say so by 'signposting', e.g. 'this point will be picked up later', 'this point will be returned to later, after taking into You Determine Essay, consideration . '. After each draft of the malaysian promotion essay check that each point is presented in a logical and coherent order. Read each draft carefully and the sirens odysseus critically. Is there a significant idea you have not included in the essay? Do you need to expand some of the points you have chosen to write about? Are some of the points, after due consideration, not really relevant? Have you been too long-winded or repetitive? If so, cut out and/or reduce some of the text.
Does your argument need to be clearer, and do the links between some of the main points need more emphasis? You should be asking yourself these questions throughout the whole process. A particularly distressing weakness in malaysian rubber promotion, the past, but hopefully not the future, has been the absence of serious discussion of imagery and literary language . Some students have merely stated that the author uses imagery, illustrated this with an example, and Gender? Essay then moved on to the next point on the list. If you discuss images, metaphors and other literary devices, then say how and rubber export why they are being used in the piece of fiction, and maybe if you think the imagery works or not. How Do Essay. If you do not say how and export promotion council why an image is being used then don't mention it. You will not write good work on literature if you approach an essay as some useless game of 'spot the image'.
Throughout your years at the University of Liège you will be writing essays on literature which will inevitably include numerous quotations , either from the for writing literature you are working on or from secondary sources, be they books or articles on historical context, literary criticism or other relevant areas. Export. These quotations can obviously add much to anabelle lee the texture and quality of your work, but they are often handled very badly by students. Do not assume that a good quotation will do all the work you want by itself. Poor essays are often merely a patchwork of quotations stitched together by the briefest of comments, and it is a mistake to leave quotations hanging in mid-air, as it were, without comment or explanation. Quotations need to promotion council be framed. They should be introduced, not mechanically, but within a context provided by the logical development of your argument . ( See Example 1 at the end of this guide). You should also provide some commentary on the quotations, particularly if they include difficult and/or controversial ideas or material. This is often likely to be the case as there is really little point in including 'bland' quotations in your essay. You may want to gloss, explain, qualify or modify the quoted words, or you may have included quotations whose assumptions or arguments you strongly disagree with. The latter case can be useful, if handled well.
Often an argument can be developed through contrast with opposing or differing arguments. This tactic in essay construction also displays independent thinking in that it demonstrates that you have not unthinkingly accepted and believed everything you have read. One final point on quotations: do not plagiarise . Using other people's work without saying so is a serious crime. Tutors have read widely on the subjects you will be writing on and are very likely to for writing recognise when you are plagiarising. If you use other people's ideas and words they have to be acknowledged through proper footnoting and promotion referencing . ( See Example 2 at the end of this guide).
Essays need a conclusion , which for the sake of clarity should be relatively short. It is generally best not to include new ideas or new material in your concluding comments, particularly since many people think that a conclusion should be a summary of the prior arguments. You may, however, point to alternative conclusions or arguments, or briefly suggest areas of interest that have not been dealt with directly by the essay. People often get the wrong idea about conclusions and believe that this is the Responsibilities in Domestic Breeding Essay place to state firm convictions, and that a conclusion has to rubber export promotion council make a stand and come down on the side of one argument or another. This can be the case but it is not necessarily so. If an essay title comes in the form of a question, for example 'Is James Joyce seeking to distance himself from traditional forms of Irish culture?', and you cannot decide, do not think that this is a problem.
It is as much a sign of intelligence to state that you cannot decide as it is to sift through the evidence and decide one way or the other. Think about Essay why you cannot decide. Perhaps the evidence is conflicting. Export Council. Perhaps the literary text and its use of imagery is ambiguous, or even contradictory; as is often the case. If you cannot decide, then say so, outlining why you cannot decide. Alternatively, you may partly agree or partly disagree with the statements or questions raised by the title , or by questions raised directly in Responsibilities in Domestic Breeding, responding to rubber promotion council the title. If so, say so. A forced conclusion to How Do Essay an essay can be as bad as the essay having no concluding remarks at all. In connection to the last point it should be emphasised that any essay should be about your ideas and your interpretation of the literature being studied . Of course your ideas may, and indeed should, develop through discussions with friends, fellow students, tutors and through the consultation of books and articles, but it is your ideas which should form the malaysian rubber promotion basis of the essay. Whilst you will use material that is not your own, it is the way that you use, add to, adapt and modify this material that makes the You Determine argument your own and original. Malaysian Export. Your own voice should be heard.
This needs to How Do You Determine Gender? Essay be qualified by the understanding that there is a particular form and style in academic writing . This is rubber export promotion council, generally formal, analytical , and 'serious' rather than colloquial, emotional and conversational . Anabelle Lee. Your voice and your ideas need to be heard, but be careful of cultivating an overly idiosyncratic, 'individual' style. Remember that in writing you are communicating and that therefore your argument should be clearly expressed. This does not mean you should be simplistic: it is a very important skill to export promotion council express complex ideas with clarity. One final point needs to be made on the subject of the essays you write being about your ideas. Some of Avoid, you may find this an malaysian rubber council, extraordinary statement but it is a bad idea to facial expressions tailor and construct your essay around what you believe your tutor or the head of the course thinks about the malaysian rubber export council text, and what you think she or he wants to hear.
If you have different methods or your interpretations differ from those of the tutor, then develop them happily. Expressions For Writing. Remember that essay writing is all about presenting an argument and using evidence from the text and elsewhere to back up your statements, and if you do this well you will be given credit for it whether or not the malaysian rubber council tutor agrees with the overall argument. It is not particularly interesting for tutors to read in essays only what they have said in class, particularly if this is reproduced in a flat, unconvincing, and unconvinced manner. Of course you may agree and be persuaded by arguments and interpretations outlined in Poverty:, class but if you do not believe the arguments you reproduce in the essay it will be obvious and malaysian promotion council the tutor will wonder why you bothered to include them. You will write a better essay if you are focusing on your own ideas, developed through discussion and Human Responsibilities in Domestic reading, not least because you will be enthused by them. Eventually your ideas will be thought through, outlines planned and re-planned, main points developed, written down on paper, then rewritten, and rubber promotion finally given to your tutor. Nevertheless your work on the essay has not yet finished.
Once the essay has been graded and returned it is very important that you do not merely look at the grade you have received before putting it at the bottom of your files. Read through your tutor's comments carefully, and Responsibilities make sure you understand exactly why you have received the grade you have, even if you are happy with it. If you do not understand why, or you are not sure about malaysian rubber promotion your tutor's comments, then ask. If it is not possible to ask during class or you would prefer to talk privately go to your tutor during office hours, or make an You Determine Gender? Essay, appointment if these clash with other classes. Writing is a skill which has to be learnt and practised, it is an ongoing process and you will learn more each time. Follow up work once the essay has been returned is an important part of export council, this process. Example 1: Using Quotations. The extract below, from Breeding, a paper on Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie , shows how quotations can be used. Because the rubber promotion council paper quotes from the novel extensively, page numbers are found within the main body of the text, in parentheses, after complete bibliographical details have been provided in the sirens odysseus, a footnote to the first quotation. Rubber Promotion Council. Quotations from secondary sources are referenced by footnotes.
Short quotations are included, in quotation marks, within the You Determine Essay main body of the paper, whilst the longer quotation, without quotation marks, makes up an indented paragraph. Rubber Export Promotion. Note that even when the writing by the author of the paper is combined with quotations from the to Help Essay novel and secondary sources the sentences are still grammatically correct and malaysian rubber coherent. Jean Brodie is facial expressions, convinced of the rightness of her own power, and uses it in a frightening manner: 'Give me a girl at council, an impressionable age, and she is mine for anabelle lee life'. 1 This is Miss Brodie's adoption of the Jesuit formula, but, whereas they claim the child for export council God, she moulds the child for her own ends. 'You are mine,' she says, '. of my stamp and cut . ' (129). When Sandy, her most perceptive pupil, sees the 'Brodie set' 'as a body with Miss Brodie for the head' (36), there is, as David Lodge points out, a biblical parallel with the Church as the body of Christ. 2 God is Human Breeding, Miss Jean Brodie's rival, and this is malaysian export council, demonstrated in a literal way when one of her girls, Eunice, grows religious and anabelle lee is preparing herself for confirmation. She becomes increasingly independent of promotion, Miss Brodie's influence and decides to go on facial the Modern side in the Senior school although Jean Brodie makes clear her own preference for the Classical.
Eunice refuses to continue her role as the malaysian promotion group's jester, or to go with them to the ballet. Cunningly, her tutor tries to regain control by playing on her religious convictions: All that term she tried to inspire Eunice to become at least a pioneer missionary in some deadly and dangerous zone of the earth, for it was intolerable to Miss Brodie that any of her girls should grow up not largely dedicated to You Determine some vocation. 'You will end up as a Girl Guide leader in malaysian promotion council, a suburb like Corstorphine', she said warningly to Responsibilities in Domestic Breeding Essay Eunice, who was in fact secretly attracted to this idea and who lived in Corstorphine. Promotion Council. (81) Miss Brodie has different plans for Rose; she is to be a 'great lover' (146), and her tutor audaciously absolves her from the sins this will entail: 'she is above the moral code, it does not apply to Ideas to Help Essay her' (146). Malaysian Promotion. This dismissal of possible retribution distorts the girls' judgement of Miss Brodie's actions. The above passage is taken from Ruth Whittaker, The Faith and Fiction of Muriel Spark (London and facial for writing Basingstoke: MacMillan, 1982), pp.106-7. Example 2: Laying out a bibliography. The bibliography will usually include the relevant sources consulted in producing your essay , even if you have not referred to or quoted from them directly. The order is rubber export, alphabetical and determined by anabelle lee the authors' names. Book titles appear in italics or are underlined , whilst article titles appear in inverted commas. When referring to books you should include the author's name, place of malaysian rubber export promotion council, publication, the publisher, and the date when the book was published.
To reference the source of an article from a journal include the name of the journal, the Phillipines Essays number and/or volume number, the date of publication and the page numbers. There are several styles for laying out a bibliography, but the same elements appear in each, and you must be consistent. Consult the rubber council handbooks to be found in the libraries for further details. This is to Help Avoid Essay, a model used by malaysian council many British universities and publishers. Dahlgren, Pete, Television and the Public Sphere (London: Sage Publishers, 1995) Dubois, Ellen, 'Antipodean Feminism', New Left Review , no.206, July/August 1994, 127-33. Fussel, Paul, The Great War and anabelle lee Modern Memory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975) Gledhill, Christine, 'Melodrama', in The Cinema Book , ed. Pam Cook (London: BFI, 1985), pp.73-84.
Lodge, David, 'The Uses and Abuses of Omniscience: Method and Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie ' in David Lodge, The Novelist at the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and Criticism (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971), pp.119-44. Pettifer, James, The Greeks (London: Penguin, 1993) This is the model recommended by the Modern Languages Association (MLA) and is used by most American universities and publishers. Dahlgren, Pete. Television and the Public Sphere . London: Sage Publishers, 1995. Dubois, Ellen. Antipodean Feminism. New Left Review 206 (July/August 1994): 127-33. Fussel, Paul. The Great War and Modern Memory . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975.
Gledhill, Christine. Melodrama in The Cinema Book . Ed. Malaysian Export Promotion. Pam Cook. London: BFI, 1985. 73-84. Lodge, David. The Uses and Abuses of to Help Foreclosure, Omniscience: Method and Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie in David Lodge The Novelist at the Crossroads and rubber promotion Other Essays on Fiction and Criticism . Responsibilities In Domestic. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971. 119-44. Pettifer, James. Malaysian Rubber. The Greeks. Ideas To Help Foreclosure Essay. London: Penguin, 1993.
The essential information provided by each model is given in the same order, but they differ in the way that the details are presented. Whichever model you choose or are instructed to malaysian rubber promotion use ensure that you stay consistent to it. Consult reference works for further advice. These books are on the open shelves: · John Clanchy and Brigid Ballard, How to Write Essays (Melbourne: Longman Cheshire, 1992) · Joseph Gibaldi, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (New York: MLA, 1995) 1 Muriel Spark, The Prime of the sirens, Miss Jean Brodie (London: Macmillan, 1961), p.7.
All further references are to this edition and given in the text. 2 David Lodge, 'The Uses and Abuses of Omniscience: Method and Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of malaysian rubber promotion council, Miss Jean Brodie ', in David Lodge, The Novelist at the Crossroads and How Do You Determine Other Essays on Fiction and Criticism (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971), pp.119-44.
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Just to clarify – we're certainly not encouraging anyone to malaysian leave it all to the last minute, but if you do happen to find yourself in a pickle, you're going to need some help – and we're the anabelle lee guys for the job. Credit: Dimitris Kalogeropoylos – Flickr. Fail to plan and you plan to fail – or so our lecturers keep telling us. Reading this, we suspect you probably haven't embraced this motto up till now, but there are a few things you can do the promotion council morning before deadline that will make your day of Gender?, frantic essay-writing run smoothly. First thing's first: Fuel your body and mind with a healthy breakfast, like porridge. The slow-release energy will stop a mid-morning slump over your desk, which is something you really can't afford right now! Not in the mood for rubber promotion, porridge? Check out our list of the best foods for brain fuel to see what else will get you off to a good start. Choose a quiet area where you know you won't be disturbed. Anabelle Lee. You'll know whether you work better in the library or at home, but whatever you do – don't choose somewhere you've never been before . You need to be confident that you'll be comfortable and able to focus for as long as possible.
Be organised and export council, come equipped with two pens (no nipping to Human Responsibilities in Domestic Essay the shop because you ran out of malaysian rubber promotion, ink), bottled water, any notes you have, and some snacks to use as mini-rewards. This will keep you going without having to take your eyes off the screen (apparently dark chocolate is the facial for writing best option for concentration). Try to malaysian rubber council avoid too much caffeine early on, as you'll find yourself crashing within a few hours. This includes energy drinks, by the way! Procrastination is vs Canada, every student's forte, so turn off your phone (or at least switch notifications off) and refrain from checking Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, or any other social media channels you're addicted to. We mean it! A good tip is to malaysian rubber export promotion get a friend to change your Facebook password for expressions, you for rubber, 24 hours and make them promise not to tell you it, even if you beg (choose a friend that enjoys watching you squirm).
Otherwise, you can also temporarily deactivate your account. Time management is of utmost importance when you have 24 hours before deadline. We know, water is wet, but you clearly haven't excelled in this area so far, have you! By setting yourself a time frame in which to reach certain milestones before you start typing, you'll have achievable goals to work towards . This is a great method of working, as it makes the prospect of conjuring up 3,000 words from thin air much less daunting if you consider the time in small blocks. Let's say it's 9am and your essay is due in first thing tomorrow morning. Here's a feasible timeline that you can follow: 9:00 – 9:30 – Have your essay question chosen and argument ready 9:30 – 9:45 – Break/ snack 10:00 – 12:00 – Write a full outline/plan of your essay 12:00 – 13:00 – Write your introduction 13:00 – 14:00 – Take a break and grab some lunch (you deserve it) 14:00 – 16:00 – Get back to your desk and do all your research on quotes etc. that will back up your argument 16:00 – 20:30 – Write all of your content (with a dinner break somewhere in the middle) 20:30 – 22:30 – Edit and improve – extremely important step, so take time with this 22:30 – 23:00 – Print and prepare ready for Poverty: Phillipines Essays, the morning 23:00 – (morning) – If you've not finished by promotion council this point, don't worry – completing in time is still possible. Just make sure you've eaten well and have enough energy to the sirens last you until the early hours of the rubber council morning. Also remember to Phillipines vs Canada Essays schedule in malaysian rubber export council, a few breaks – you need to Ideas to Help spend the whole 24 hours productively, and you can't be on form for a full day without short breaks to rest your eyes (and your brain!). These breaks should be active – give your eyes a rest from the rubber promotion screen and get outside to stretch. We recommend a ten minute break at least every 1.5 hours . If you've been given a choice of essay questions, you should choose the one you feel most strongly about, or have the vs Canada most knowledge about (i.e the export topics you actually went to the lectures for!).
24 hours before deadline is not the Ideas to Help time to learn a new topic from scratch – no matter how much easier the question seems! Also, beware of questions that seem easy at first glance, as often you'll find that the shorter questions or the ones using the malaysian rubber most straight-forward language can be the hardest ones to expressions tackle. Next, decide your approach. Rubber Export Council. How are you going to tackle the question? When time is limited, it is important to choose to write about things you are confident in. Remember that it's your essay and as long as you relate your argument to the question and construct a clear, well supported argument, you can take it in Human, any direction you choose. Use this to your advantage! You may need to Google around the topic to get a clear idea of export promotion, what's already been said on your chosen argument, but limit this research time to 20 minutes or you could be there all day…and no checking facebook! Now, type out anabelle lee 3-5 key points that you'll aim to rubber export promotion tackle in your argument, and underneath these use bullet points to list all the the sirens information and opinions, supporting arguments or quotes you have for each point.
Start with the malaysian rubber export promotion most obvious argument , as this will provide something to link your other points back to How Do You Determine – the key to malaysian export promotion a good essay. Once you've done this, you'll now find you have a detailed outline of the facial for writing body of your essay, and it'll be a matter of filling in malaysian rubber, between the Responsibilities in Domestic Breeding Essay lines of each bullet point. This method is perfect for export promotion, writing against the clock, as it ensures you stay focused on your question and How Do You Determine Gender? Essay, argument without going off in any tangents. Credit: Steve Czajka – Flickr. Sometimes the introduction can be the most difficult part to write, but that's because it's also the most important part! Don't worry too much about making it sound amazing at this point – just get stuck into introducing your argument in response to your chosen question and malaysian rubber promotion council, telling the reader how you will support it.
You can go back and make yourself sound smarter later on when you're at the editing stage. Create something of Avoid, a mini-outline in your introduction so you signpost exactly what it is you're planning to argue. Don't use the introduction as a space to malaysian rubber council throw in random references to things that are vaguely relevant. When in doubt, leave it out! Credit: Photo Monkey. Now it's time to gather outside information and anabelle lee, quotes to support your arguments.
It's important to malaysian export council limit the time you spend on this, as it is easy to get distracted when Google presents you with copious amounts of Poverty: Phillipines vs Canada, irrelevant information. However, you will find your essay easy to write if you're armed with lots of relevant info, so use your judgement on this one. Choose search keywords wisely and copy and paste key ideas and malaysian export, quotes into a separate 'Research' document. If using reference books rather than online, give yourself ten minutes to get anything that looks useful from the library, skip to Gender? chapters that look relevant and export promotion, remember to use the odysseus index! Paraphrase your main arguments to rubber give the essay your own voice and make clear to yourself which words are yours and which are someone else's. Plagiarism is serious and could get you a big fat F for your essay if you don't cite properly – after all this hard work! Alternatively, use Google Books to How Do You Determine find direct quotes without spending time going through useless paragraphs.
There's no time to read the full book, but this technique gives the impression that you did! While you gather quotes, keep note of your sources – again, don't plagiarise! Compiling your list of malaysian council, citations (if necessary) as you work saves panicking at the end. Take quotes by other authors included in the book you're reading. If you look up the references you will find the original book (already credited) which you can then use for your own references. This way it looks like you have read more books than you have, too.
Sneaky! Also, if you're using Microsoft Word (2008 or later) to facial for writing write your essay, make use of the automatic referencing system. Simply enter the details of rubber export promotion council, sources as you go along, and How Do Gender? Essay, it will automatically create a perfect bibliography or works cited page at the end. Export. This tool is AMAZING and could save you a lot of extra work typing out your references and bibliography. Credit: Rainer Stropek – Flickr. Get typing! Now it's just a matter of beefing out your outline until you reach the word limit! Get all your content down and don't worry too much about writing style. You can make all your changes later, and it's much easier to think about style once you have everything you want to say typed up first. More ideas could occur to you as you go along, so jot these ideas down on odysseus, a notepad – they could come in malaysian rubber council, handy if you need to make up the word count later! Use the research you gathered earlier to support the key ideas you set out in Responsibilities Breeding, your outline in a concise way until you have reached around 2,500(ish) words.
If you're struggling to reach the word limit, don't panic. Pick out a single point in rubber promotion council, your argument that you feel hasn't been fully built upon and head back to your research. There must be an additional quote or two that you could through in to make your point even clearer. Imagine your essay is a bit like a kebab stick: The meat is anabelle lee, your essential points and you build on them and build around each piece of meat with vegetables (quotes or remarks) to make the full kebab… time for a dinner break? Ensure that all the points you wanted to explore are on malaysian rubber promotion, paper (or screen) and explained fully.
Are all your facts correct? Make things more wordy (or less, depending on your circumstance) in order to hit your word limit. You should also check that your essay flows nicely. Human Responsibilities Breeding Essay. Are your paragraphs linked? Does it all make sense? Do a quick spell check and make sure you have time for potential printer issues. We've all been there!
A lot of students overlook the importance of spelling and malaysian promotion council, grammar. It differs from uni to uni, subject to subject and tutor to tutor, but generally your writing style, spelling and grammar can account for How Do You Determine, up to 10-20% of your grade. Make sure you edit properly! If you take your time to nail this then you could already be 1/4 of the way to malaysian rubber promotion council passing! While completing essays 24 hours before the deadline is Essay, far from recommended and unlikely to get you the best grades you've ever gotten (try our top tips for getting a first if that's your goal), this guide should at rubber export promotion council least prevent tears in the library (been there) and the need for any extensions. Remember, this is a worst case scenario solution and not something you should be making a habit of! Now, why are you still reading? We all know you've got work to do! Good luck! Exams coming up? Check out How Do Gender? our guide on how to revise in one day too.
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